Computational Analysis of Subthalamic Nucleus and Lenticular Fasciculus Activation During Therapeutic Deep Brain Stimulation

Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
Journal of Neurophysiology (Impact Factor: 2.89). 10/2006; 96(3):1569-80. DOI: 10.1152/jn.00305.2006
Source: PubMed


The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the most common target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) with deep brain stimulation (DBS). DBS of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is also effective in the treatment of PD. The output fibers of the GPi that form the lenticular fasciculus pass in close proximity to STN DBS electrodes. In turn, both STN projection neurons and GPi fibers of passage represent possible therapeutic targets of DBS in the STN region. We built a comprehensive computational model of STN DBS in parkinsonian macaques to study the effects of stimulation in a controlled environment. The model consisted of three fundamental components: 1) a three-dimensional (3D) anatomical model of the macaque basal ganglia, 2) a finite element model of the DBS electrode and electric field transmitted to the tissue medium, and 3) multicompartment biophysical models of STN projection neurons, GPi fibers of passage, and internal capsule fibers of passage. Populations of neurons were positioned within the 3D anatomical model. Neurons were stimulated with electrode positions and stimulation parameters defined as clinically effective in two parkinsonian monkeys. The model predicted axonal activation of STN neurons and GPi fibers during STN DBS. Model predictions regarding the degree of GPi fiber activation matched well with experimental recordings in both monkeys. Only axonal activation of the STN neurons showed a statistically significant increase in both monkeys when comparing clinically effective and ineffective stimulation. Nonetheless, both neural targets may play important roles in the therapeutic mechanisms of STN DBS.

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Available from: Martin Parent, Jan 27, 2014
    • "In subthalamic nucleus DBS, activation of AOPs in the anterior internal capsule, which course approximately parallel to the electrode array in humans (Miocinovic et al 2006), improved PD symptoms in rats (Gradinaru et al 2009). And, evidence from non-human primates suggest that axons from the lenticular fasciculus, which course approximately perpendicular to the electrode array, may also be therapeutic targets (Miocinovic et al 2006). As a further example, in DBS of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus, TAs from the cerebellothalamic tract that course approximately parallel to the implanted array are predicted to be the therapeutic targets (Birdno et al 2012 "
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    ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders and a promising therapy for treating epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. Despite its clinical success, the efficiency and selectivity of DBS can be improved. Our objective was to design electrode geometries that increased the efficiency and selectivity of DBS. We coupled computational models of electrodes in brain tissue with cable models of axons of passage (AOPs), terminating axons (TAs), and local neurons (LNs); we used engineering optimization to design electrodes for stimulating these neural elements; and the model predictions were tested in vivo. Compared with the standard electrode used in the Medtronic Model 3387 and 3389 arrays, model-optimized electrodes consumed 45-84% less power. Similar gains in selectivity were evident with the optimized electrodes: 50% of parallel AOPs could be activated while reducing activation of perpendicular AOPs from 44 to 48% with the standard electrode to 0-14% with bipolar designs; 50% of perpendicular AOPs could be activated while reducing activation of parallel AOPs from 53 to 55% with the standard electrode to 1-5% with an array of cathodes; and, 50% of TAs could be activated while reducing activation of AOPs from 43 to 100% with the standard electrode to 2-15% with a distal anode. In vivo, both the geometry and polarity of the electrode had a profound impact on the efficiency and selectivity of stimulation. Model-based design is a powerful tool that can be used to improve the efficiency and selectivity of DBS electrodes.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Neural Engineering
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    • "Electrophysiological analysis has been widely used to study stimulation - evoked changes in brain activity , such as increased pallidal ( Hashimoto et al . , 2003 ; Kita et al . , 2005 ; Miocinovic et al . , 2006"
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    ABSTRACT: Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease progression, interactions between the host environment and the electrode, and lead migration. As such, development of closed-loop control systems that can respond to changing neurochemical environments, tailoring DBS therapy to individual patients, is paramount for improving the therapeutic efficacy of DBS. Evidence obtained using electrophysiology and imaging techniques in both animals and humans suggests that DBS works by modulating neural network activity. Recently, animal studies have shown that stimulation-evoked changes in neurotransmitter release that mirror normal physiology are associated with the therapeutic benefits of DBS. Therefore, to fully understand the neurophysiology of DBS and optimize its efficacy, it may be necessary to look beyond conventional electrophysiological analyses and characterize the neurochemical effects of therapeutic and non-therapeutic stimulation. By combining electrochemical monitoring and mathematical modeling techniques, we can potentially replace the trial-and-error process used in clinical programming with deterministic approaches that help attain optimal and stable neurochemical profiles. In this manuscript, we summarize the current understanding of electrophysiological and electrochemical processing for control of neuromodulation therapies. Additionally, we describe a proof-of-principle closed-loop controller that characterizes DBS-evoked dopamine changes to adjust stimulation parameters in a rodent model of DBS. The work described herein represents the initial steps toward achieving a "smart" neuroprosthetic system for treatment of neurologic and psychiatric disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    • "There are several potential target sites at which STN-DBS may modulate neuronal behavior. These include local axons of passage, the STN soma and afferent fibers descending from the cortex to the STN through what is known as the " hyperdirect " pathway (McIntyre et al., 2004; Miocinovic et al., 2006; McIntyre "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that subthalamic nucleus (STN)-Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) may exert at least part of its therapeutic effect through the antidromic suppression of pathological oscillations in the cortex in 6-OHDA treated rats and in parkinsonian patients. STN-DBS may also activate STN neurons by initiating action potential propagation in the orthodromic direction, similarly resulting in suppression of pathological oscillations in the STN. While experimental studies have provided strong evidence in support of antidromic stimulation of cortical neurons, it is difficult to separate relative contributions of antidromic and orthodromic effects of STN-DBS. The aim of this computational study was to examine the effects of antidromic and orthodromic activation on neural firing patterns and beta-band (13-30 Hz) oscillations in the STN and cortex during DBS of STN afferent axons projecting from the cortex. High frequency antidromic stimulation alone effectively suppressed simulated beta activity in both the cortex and STN-globus pallidus externa (GPe) network. High frequency orthodromic stimulation similarly suppressed beta activity within the STN and GPe through the direct stimulation of STN neurons driven by DBS at the same frequency as the stimulus. The combined effect of both antidromic and orthodromic stimulation modulated cortical activity antidromically while simultaneously orthodromically driving STN neurons. While high frequency DBS reduced STN beta-band power, low frequency stimulation resulted in resonant effects, increasing beta-band activity, consistent with previous experimental observations. The simulation results indicate effective suppression of simulated oscillatory activity through both antidromic stimulation of cortical neurons and direct orthodromic stimulation of STN neurons. The results of the study agree with experimental recordings of STN and cortical neurons in rats and support the therapeutic potential of stimulation of cortical neurons.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
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