Parity, Mode of Delivery, and Pelvic Floor Disorders

Women's Pelvic Medicine Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.
Obstetrics and Gynecology (Impact Factor: 5.18). 07/2006; 107(6):1253-60. DOI: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000218096.54169.34
Source: PubMed


This study aimed to assess the associations between parity, mode of delivery, and pelvic floor disorders.
The prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse, stress urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, and anal incontinence was assessed in a random sample of women aged 25-84 years by using the validated Epidemiology of Prolapse and Incontinence Questionnaire. Women were categorized as nulliparous, vaginally parous, or only delivered by cesarean. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each disorder were calculated with logistic regression, controlling for age, body mass index, and parity.
In the 4,458 respondents the prevalence of each disorder was as follows: 7% prolapse, 15% stress urinary incontinence, 13% overactive bladder, 25% anal incontinence, and 37% for any one or more pelvic floor disorders. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of disorders between the cesarean delivery and nulliparous groups. The adjusted odds of each disorder increased with vaginal parity compared with cesarean delivery: prolapse = 1.82 (95% CI 1.04-3.19), stress urinary incontinence = 1.81 (95% CI 1.25-2.61), overactive bladder = 1.53 (95% CI 1.02-2.29), anal incontinence = 1.72 (95% CI 1.27-2.35), and any one or more pelvic floor disorders = 1.85 (95% CI 1.42-2.41). Number-needed-to-treat analysis revealed that 7 women would have to deliver only by cesarean delivery to prevent one woman from having a pelvic floor disorder.
The risk of pelvic floor disorders is independently associated with vaginal delivery but not with parity alone. Cesarean delivery has a protective effect, similar to nulliparity, on the development of pelvic floor disorders when compared with vaginal delivery.

Download full-text


Available from: Charles W Nager
  • Source
    • "Vaginal delivery increases risk of pelvic floor disorders (PFDs); including prolapse, incontinence, and pain [1]- [3]. Purportedly, one reason is birth-related tear of the levator ani muscle (LA). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine which maternal characteristics or birth events independently predict severity of levator ani muscle (LA) tears at first vaginal birth in a longitudinal/observational investigation in a tertiary care hospital. Sample: Ninety primiparas with at least one at risk for LA tear inclusion factor at vaginal birth: maternal age ≥ 33 years, second stage ≥ 150 minutes, macrosomia, instrumented delivery, and/or anal sphincter laceration were studied. Methods: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was obtained early postpartum (mean ± sd 48.9 ± 21.6 days) to identify LA tear. Severity of LA muscle fiber loss was graded on an ordinal scale of: "0" as no loss, "1" as <50% unilateral loss, "2" as ≥50% unilateral or <50% bilateral loss, and "3" as ≥50% bilateral loss. Data were analyzed using proportional odds modeling. Inclusion factors were explored as predictors of LA tear severity and at analysis episiotomy, time spent actively pushing, epidural, and oxytocin were also considered. The main outcome measures of interest included grading of severity of LA muscle fiber loss on an ordinal scale. Results: Respective counts/percentages of women within each 0 thru 3 ordered category of LA tear severity were: "0" = 58(64%), "1" = 9(10%), "2" = 15(17%), and "3" = 8(9%). Estimates and 95% CI for significant demographic or obstetric univariate predictors of LA tear severity level were age, OR 1.093 (CI 1.012 - 1.180), p = 0.023; and time spent in active pushing, OR 1.089 (CI 1.005 - 1.180), p = 0.038. The other factors considered were not significant. There were too few women with forceps deliveries to analyze. CONCLUSION: In our enriched sample of primiparous women, 26% showed a significant LA tear. Maternal age and time spent actively pushing independently predict LA tear severity.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Source
    • "Similarly, numerous births and particularly complicated births can permanently damage the bones, ligaments, and nerves around the pelvis and hips, giving rise to gait abnormalities and drop foot (inability to dorsiflex the foot) [24]. Pelvic floor disorders (prolapse, incontinence, overactive bladder) are prevalent in elderly women in low and high-income settings and often follow multiple vaginal deliveries [24,25]. Severe pelvic floor disorders have implications for mobility and in the case of lost urinary/fecal control, the stigmatization associated with these conditions can fundamentally alter life opportunities [24] with indirect consequences for physical functioning. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early maternal age at first birth and elevated parity may have long-term consequences for the health of women as they age. Both are known risk factors for obstetrical complications with lifelong associated morbidities. They may also be related to diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. We examine the relationship between early maternal age at first birth, defined as <=18 years of age, multiparity (>2 births), and poor physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery <=8) in community samples of women between 65 and 74 years of age from Canada, Albania, Colombia, and Brazil (N = 1040). Data were collected in 2012 to provide a baseline assessment for a longitudinal cohort called the International Mobility in Aging Study. We used logistic regression and general linear models to analyse the data. Early maternal age at first birth is significantly associated with diabetes, chronic lung disease, high blood pressure, and poor physical performance in women at older ages. Parity was not independently associated with chronic conditions and physical performance in older age. After adjustment for study site, age, education, childhood economic adversity and lifetime births, women who gave birth at a young age had 1.75 (95% CI: 1.17 - 2.64) the odds of poor SPPB compared to women who gave birth > 18 years of age. Adjustment for chronic diseases attenuated the association between early first birth and physical performance. Results were weaker in Colombia and Brazil, than Canada and Albania. This study provides evidence that adolescent childbirth may increase the risk of developing chronic diseases and physical limitations in older age. Results likely reflect both the biological and social consequences of early childbearing and if the observed relationship is causal, it reinforces the importance of providing contraception and sex education to young women, as the consequences of early pregnancy may be life-long.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · BMC Public Health
  • Source
    • "Women are at a high risk of UI mainly because of the damage to the pelvic floor caused by pregnancy and the child birth process [4-6]. Pregnancy alone leads to mechanical and hormonal changes which impair pelvic floor muscle strength. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Urinary incontinence (UI) continues to affect millions of women worldwide and those living in resource poor settings seem to be more affected. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of UI and factors associated with UI symptom severity (UISS) among women in a selected district in India. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from a sample of 598 community dwelling women in the age range of 20 to 60 years. Data was collected using a questionnaire survey of participants who were found in their homes. Results The prevalence of UI was 33.8% and the majority of women had negative attitudes about the condition. For instance most women were in agreement with statements such as: UI cannot be prevented or cured (98%); women with UI are cursed (97%); women are not supposed to tell anyone about the problem (90%) and others. Of the 202 women with self-reported UI, the majority reported having moderate UISS (78%) and others rated the symptoms as mild (22%). The woman’s age at first birth (p<.01) was negatively associated with UISS, while the number of pregnancies (p<.01) and weight of the largest baby ever delivered (p<.01), were positively associated with UISS. The weight of the largest baby delivered had the strongest impact on predicting UISS. Conclusions Many community dwelling women are suffering from UI at proportions which warrant significant public health consideration. Therefore public health programs to prevent UI or worsening of symptoms are required and should emphasize health education, because of the pervasive negative attitudes among affected and unaffected women. The predictors reported here can be used to priotize care for affected women and to encourage early uptake of health actions and behaviors that promote pelvic floor strengthening in at risk women who may be reluctant to disclose UI.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · BMC Women's Health
Show more