Article

Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: The Role of Social Support in Coping with Caregiving Challenges

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Abstract

In this investigation of 133 grandparents with primary responsibility for their grandchildren, we examined the potential moderating role of social support in the association between caregiver stressors and grandparents' general well-being. Enacted formal support buffered the association between grandchild health problems and both grandparent caregiving stress and life satisfaction. Enacted formal support also buffered the association between parenting daily hassles and life satisfaction. Compensatory or main effects of perceived informal and formal social support were found for both grandparent caregiving stress and life satisfaction. Findings highlight the importance of professional assistance and community services in minimizing the negative impact of child-related challenges on grandparents' well-being.

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... These ties are fostered by specific "family churches" or religious congregations. Such church affiliations solidify social ties and provide a sense of order and space (Gerard et al., 2006;Hatcher, 2018;Zimmerman et al., 1990). Within rural Appalachian communities, "mountain churches" often develop special practices and structures that closely corresponds to the particular situations and circumstances of their members (Zimmerman et al., 1990). ...
... "Mountain churches" in rural Appalachia tend to reinforce real and fictive kin relationships and provide strong emotional and instrumental support to members of their congregations. For example, research in other Appalachian communities demonstrates that some churches provide childcare for grandchildren (Hatcher, 2018) and assistance to grandparents in accessing governmental aid (Gerard et al., 2006). In summary, a social ecological perspective supports an expectation that the perceived benefits and activities associated with religious or spiritual coping are contextual, specific to the unique social circumstances, and responsive of the social environment surrounding grandparent caregivers' coping efforts. ...
... Some religious organizations also provide informational and tangible support by helping grandparents access governmental aid. When churches support grandparent caregivers, grandparents' well-being improves (Gerard et al., 2006). Acknowledging the great solace grandparents find in religious practice by attending church, faith organizations may consider expanding ritual and social programming for grandparents. ...
Article
In the rural United States (US), high rates of substance abuse have precipitated the need for many older adults to assume the role of primary caregiver for their grandchildren. This situation is particularly common in rural Appalachia, a region known for both sparse resources and strong kinship ties. Drawing on in-depth interviews with twenty-one grandparent caregivers in rural Kentucky, we explore the fraught relationships these caregiving grandparents often have with their adult children, grandparents’ transition to the parental role and forfeiture of the grandparent role, and long-term concerns related to their capacity to physically and financially provide for grandchildren. Abbreviations GP: grandparent; GC: grandchild.
... These ties are fostered by specific "family churches" or religious congregations. Such church affiliations solidify social ties and provide a sense of order and space (Gerard et al., 2006;Hatcher, 2018;Zimmerman et al., 1990). Within rural Appalachian communities, "mountain churches" often develop special practices and structures that closely corresponds to the particular situations and circumstances of their members (Zimmerman et al., 1990). ...
... "Mountain churches" in rural Appalachia tend to reinforce real and fictive kin relationships and provide strong emotional and instrumental support to members of their congregations. For example, research in other Appalachian communities demonstrates that some churches provide childcare for grandchildren (Hatcher, 2018) and assistance to grandparents in accessing governmental aid (Gerard et al., 2006). In summary, a social ecological perspective supports an expectation that the perceived benefits and activities associated with religious or spiritual coping are contextual, specific to the unique social circumstances, and responsive of the social environment surrounding grandparent caregivers' coping efforts. ...
... Some religious organizations also provide informational and tangible support by helping grandparents access governmental aid. When churches support grandparent caregivers, grandparents' well-being improves (Gerard et al., 2006). Acknowledging the great solace grandparents find in religious practice by attending church, faith organizations may consider expanding ritual and social programming for grandparents. ...
Article
Full-text available
Poverty and poor health disproportionately affect older adults serving as primary caregivers to their grandchildren. In underserved, rural regions, where grandparent caregivers may be especially vulnerable, grandparent caregivers may find support in cultural traditions. As part of a mixed methods study investigating stress among grandparent caregivers, the role religion and spirituality play in coping was explored using a survey complemented by semi-structured interviews with 26 rural grandparent caregivers. Findings suggest religion and spirituality facilitate coping by (a) providing a sense of purpose and perspective; (b) fostering peace and perseverance; and (c) promoting stability and social cohesion. This study describes how cultural assets aid grandparent caregivers’ coping and may inform supportive policies and practices for grandfamilies.
... Moreover, Ross and Aday (2006) found that 92 % of custodial grandparents identified clinically significant levels of parenting stress among African American grandparents. Previous studies identified some risk factors associated with parenting stress among grandparent kinship providers, which included lack of economic resources (Butler & Zakari, 2005;Minkler & Fuller-Thomson, 2005), unmet family needs (Lee et al., 2016), poor health and emotional well-being of caregivers (Gerard, Landry-Meyer, & Guzell Roe, 2006;Leder, Grinstead, & Torres, 2007;Lee et al., 2016), grandchildren's behavioral problems (Gerard et al., 2006;Leake, Wood, Bussey, & Strolin-Goltzman, 2019;Smith & Palmieri, 2007), lack of social support (Butler & Zakari, 2005;Leder et al., 2007;Sands & Goldberg-Glen, 2000;Sharda, Sutherby, Cavanaugh, Hughes, & Woodward, 2019), lack of family competence (e.g., family's inability to solve problems, express emotions, and facilitate individual autonomy; Gleeson, Hsieh, & Cryer-Coupet, 2016), and the transition to become primary caregivers for grandchildren (Landry-Meyer & Newman, 2004;Orb & Davey, 2005). Prior research has indicated that a high level of caregivers' parenting stress is associated with an increased likelihood of child abuse and neglect (Holden & Banez, 1996). ...
... Moreover, Ross and Aday (2006) found that 92 % of custodial grandparents identified clinically significant levels of parenting stress among African American grandparents. Previous studies identified some risk factors associated with parenting stress among grandparent kinship providers, which included lack of economic resources (Butler & Zakari, 2005;Minkler & Fuller-Thomson, 2005), unmet family needs (Lee et al., 2016), poor health and emotional well-being of caregivers (Gerard, Landry-Meyer, & Guzell Roe, 2006;Leder, Grinstead, & Torres, 2007;Lee et al., 2016), grandchildren's behavioral problems (Gerard et al., 2006;Leake, Wood, Bussey, & Strolin-Goltzman, 2019;Smith & Palmieri, 2007), lack of social support (Butler & Zakari, 2005;Leder et al., 2007;Sands & Goldberg-Glen, 2000;Sharda, Sutherby, Cavanaugh, Hughes, & Woodward, 2019), lack of family competence (e.g., family's inability to solve problems, express emotions, and facilitate individual autonomy; Gleeson, Hsieh, & Cryer-Coupet, 2016), and the transition to become primary caregivers for grandchildren (Landry-Meyer & Newman, 2004;Orb & Davey, 2005). Prior research has indicated that a high level of caregivers' parenting stress is associated with an increased likelihood of child abuse and neglect (Holden & Banez, 1996). ...
... Another significant predictor of grandparent parenting stress is child mental health. This finding suggests that if a grandchild has better mental health, grandparents would be less stressed than those that have a child with worse mental health, which is consistent with previous studies (Gerard et al., 2006;Lee et al., 2016). When children have mental health problems, grandparents need to spend more time and energy taking children to obtain services that address the children's mental health needs. ...
Article
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerability of many families, including grandparent kinship families, to deal with a health/economic crisis. The fear of COVID-19 plus stay-at-home orders have increased individuals’ psychological distress. Moreover, school closures and homeschooling further increased parenting stress among caregivers. Objectives This study examined the relationship between material hardship and parenting stress among grandparent kinship providers, and assessed grandparents’ mental health as a potential mediator to this relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Participants and setting Grandparent kinship providers (N = 362) that took primary care of their grandchildren participated in a cross-sectional survey via Qualtrics Panels in June 2020 in the United States. Methods Descriptive and bivariate analyses, binary logistic regression, and mediation analyses were conducted using STATA 15.0. Results Suffering material hardship was significantly associated with higher odds of experiencing parenting stress among grandparent kinship providers, and grandparents’ mental health partially mediated this association. Conclusions Addressing material and mental health needs among grandparent kinship providers is critical to decreasing their parenting stress.
... In one study of grandparents in the kinship caregiver role, 74% reported that one or more of their grandchildren had a health problem (Neely- Barnes, Graff, & Washington, 2010). Another study of grandparents revealed that children in their care had an average of 4.5 problems from a list of 12 physical, social, emotional, and academic problems, with the most common being discipline problems (67%; Gerard, Landry-Meyer, & Guzell Roe, 2006). Kinship caregivers may not be adequately equipped to deal with these high needs. ...
... Kinship caregiver well-being has been widely studied (Choi et al., 2016;Gerard et al., 2006;Kelley, Whitley, & Sipe, 2000;Landry-Meyer, Gerard, & Guzell, 2005;Neely-Barnes et al., 2010), though it has not been conceptualized in a consistent way. Wellbeing-related variables include life satisfaction, health-related quality of life, health status, depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional strain. ...
... Studies have also included parent/caregiver stress as a component of well-being, conflating the two constructs (e.g. Gerard et al., 2006); however, within the present study, parenting stress is viewed as a distinct variable with a potential relationship to well-being. Lazarus (1993) has argued that the effects of stress on adaptation and wellbeing can be buffered through the application of coping skills, including social-support. ...
Article
Kinship caregivers are a large and growing population in the United States. It is therefore critical to understand this population and their unique challenges and needs. This study aims to add to existing knowledge by exploring the impact of caregiving on kinship caregivers, particularly the stress and social support they experience and the subsequent effect on their well-being. A sample of 152 kinship caregivers completed the Parental Stress Scale, as well as the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Assessment of Quality of Life via an online survey. Results indicate that parental stress is negatively associated with caregiver well-being. Social support is positively associated with well-being. Social support does not moderate the relationship between parental stress and well-being. This study adds to previous research on kinship caregiving by exploring these variables among a variety of kinship caregivers including, but not limited to, grandparents. Implications for future research, practice, and policy are proposed.
... To date, few studies have examined social support and coping as moderators of the relation between grandparent caregivers' stressors and resilience. Among the exceptions are Gerard, Landry-Meyer, and Roe (2006) and Crowther and Rodriguez (2003), with the former finding social support to be a promotive factor in relation to stress and the latter finding coping to be a protective factor in relation to subjective well-being. The current strengths-based study can be helpful in advancing services for grandparent caregivers that focus on adaptation . ...
... Correlations among the variables in our model suggested that social support and coping may be protective factors given that they were correlated with grandparent caregivers' stress as well as life satisfaction. Previous research is decidedly mixed, however, as to whether social support and coping are protective factors (Crowther & Rodriguez, 2013) or promotive factors (Gerard et al., 2006) for grandparent caregivers, although in parents of younger children, social support moderates the influence of hassles (Crnic & Booth, 1991). Our model testing supports the conclusion that these two processes promote grandparent caregivers' resilience, regardless of initial risk, given that the direct pathways from coping and social support to life satisfaction were significant-rendering the contribution of daily hassles nonsignificant-and tests of moderation nonsignificant. ...
Article
Objectives: Do support and coping strategies moderate the link between stress and life satisfaction among grandparent caregivers? Background: Grandparents raising grandchildren often experience stress, which may compromise their subjective well-being. Thus, it is important to understand the role of support and coping as protective or promotive factors in relation to grandparent caregivers' resilience (i.e., life satisfaction). Methods: Grandparent caregivers (N = 74) reported their daily hassles, life satisfaction, social support, and coping. Results: These grandparent caregivers are a vulnerable population in terms of stress and limited social support and coping. Structural equation modeling supported direct, promotive effects of social support and coping on life satisfaction, but not moderation. Conclusion: Despite high levels of stress, half of the grandparent caregivers were satisfied with their lives, which was explained by their social support and coping skills. Some grandparents who assume this role likely would benefit from interventions that promote social support and coping skills.
... Formal and informal social supports contribute to positive well-being (Sands et al., 2005), lower stress (Gerard et al., 2006), and less depression (Hayslip et al., 2015) among custodial grandparents. However, at a time when these custodial grandparents need more support, grandparents report that support networks diminish over time (Guastaferro et al., 2015). ...
... The lack of immediate and long-term support is especially troubling, considering the evidence that support from community agencies and child welfare agencies is a positive buffer against mental health conditions in the grandparent (Gerard et al., 2006;Hayslip et al., 2015;Sands et al., 2005), especially in the high-risk category of caring for children with physical and mental health problems (Doley et al., 2015). Equally alarming is that grandparents report functional limitations and health conditions as factors in their stress levels. ...
Article
There is little research about trauma, financial stress, and social service needs emanating from the experience of parenting grandchildren caused by the opioid crisis in the United States. We conducted a qualitative study with 15 grandparents who currently or in the past had custodial care of their grandchildren. We also interviewed nine issue-related stakeholders in Eastern Massachusetts. Specific inquiries centered on events leading up to a change in guardianship, stressors related to legal, financial, and family issues, and system-wide response to the grandparents’ needs. Results indicate that the opioid crisis presents distinct challenges for the grandparent-led families and for the systems that serve the new family arrangement. Crisis triggers a change in guardianship and continues throughout the years. The continued crises stem from events related to the parent’s opioid use disorder (OUD) and from expenses related to raising a young family, especially when the grandchild has adverse childhood experiences. Our analysis shows that systems break down on a number of levels, and the fluidity of custodial arrangements due to parents’ OUD status does not map onto existing support or benefit systems. Policy responses must focus on the immediate and long-term needs of grandparent caretakers, especially since the opioid crisis is likely to continue.
... 22 23 Furthermore, the need for further understanding of the role of social support in shaping the well-being of grandparents has been identified. 24 In their 2006 study, Gerard, Landry-Meyer and Roe found that enacted social support-namely, the number of supportive transactions an individual has engaged in as a recipient-buffered the impact of grandchild and parenting hassles on caregiving stress and life satisfaction. However, they identified that further research in this field was required to better understand the positive effects that more social resources have on grandparents who providing caregiving. ...
... However, they identified that further research in this field was required to better understand the positive effects that more social resources have on grandparents who providing caregiving. 24 The findings of this study will therefore contribute to knowledge on protective and positive lifestyle factors for individuals in the later stages of life. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between grandparental care and loneliness, social isolation and/or the size of an individual’s social network among community-based adults aged ≥40 years. Methods Cross-sectional data were drawn from a population-based sample of individuals aged ≥40 years living in the community in Germany. Loneliness was measured using a short version of the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Social isolation was measured using a scale developed by Bude and Lantermann. The number of important people with whom respondents have regular contact (ie, social network size) was also used as an outcome variable. All respondents were asked whether they privately provide grandparent care (no/yes). Results Linear regressions showed reduced loneliness (β=−0.06, p<0.01) and social isolation scores (β=−0.04, p<0.05) among those undertaking care of a grandchild. Regression analysis also showed an increased number of important people with whom individuals had regular contact among those who undertook care of a grandchild (β=1.02, p<0.001). Conclusion Findings indicate a positive association between undertaking the care of a grandchild and the size of an individual’s social network, and a negative association between grandchild care and self-rated scores of loneliness and social isolation. These findings build on existing research into the social and health implications of grandchild care among grandparents. Longitudinal studies are required to strengthen the understanding of this association.
... Previous studies have suggested that married grandmother caregivers fare better psychologically than unmarried grandmothers, with little research on grandfather caregivers (Blustein et al., 2004;Musil et al., 2009Musil et al., , 2011Waldrop & Weber, 2001). Research has also established that social support and physical health are linked to the psychological health of grandparent caregivers (Gerard et al., 2006;Kelley et al., 2000;Landry-Meyer et al., 2005;Park, 2009). However, there is a lack of research comparing the effects of marital status on caregiving versus non-caregiving grandparents' psychological health. ...
... Generally, grandparent caregivers experience higher depression than non-caregiving grandparents (Blustein et al., 2004;Fuller-Thomson & Minkler, 2000;Musil et al., 2009), and unmarried older adults experience higher depression levels than married older adults (Feder et al., 2018). Confounding variables influencing depression include caregiver burden (Whitlatch et al., 1997), measures of formal and informal support (Gerard et al., 2006;Hayslip et al., 2015;Kresak et al., 2014;Musil et al., 2009), and physical health (Dowdell, 1995;Park, 2009), which have also been discovered to affect grandparent caregiver's depression levels. ...
Article
Full-text available
Grandparent caregivers report poorer psychological and physical health, but relationship status has been shown to influence burden. The current study investigated depressive symptoms of 3288 grandparents who completed the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households. The study found that those who are unmarried were more likely to be grandparent caregivers, and female participants reported higher depressive symptoms. Marital status and caregiving status were comparable predictors of depression, but marital status did not buffer the effects of caregiving status on depression. Caregiving status accounted for a significant amount of depressive symptom variance for depression, comparable to marital status and gender. There was a significant difference in depressive symptoms of married and unmarried grandparent non-caregivers but with a significantly lower baseline depression rate than grandparent caregivers. Future research should examine whether making social support options available to unmarried grandparent caregivers who lack informal support from a spouse may improve outcomes.
... Unfortunately, some foster carers found that fostering had negatively affected other children in the home, especially when the fostered children's behaviours were extreme. Challenging child behaviour was noted as a significant stress factor in the literature (Cooley, Farineau and Mullis, 2015;Gerard, Landry-Meyer and Roe, 2006). This study reveals that the foster carers were particularly impacted by negative reaction to children's challenging behaviour. ...
... Some found that friends and family expected them to retire from it. Fostering brought responsibilities that may be considered atypical of those expected at certain life stages, which have been previously found as adding strain (Denby, et al., 2015;Gerard, Landry-Meyer and Roe, 2006;Landry-Meyer, Gerard and Guzell, 2005). However, within the current study, foster carers also identified positive aspects of ageing, including increased knowledge, confidence and greater tolerance for challenging behaviour. ...
Article
Fostering agencies face increasing challenges recruiting and retaining foster carers while the number of children requiring foster placements continues to rise annually. This Northern Ireland study used qualitative methods with 11 foster carers to understand: if they had any expectation of support from family and friends in the role; and where this was available, whether it promoted their resilience in continuing as foster carers. Most foster carers in the study reported experiencing positive input from family, with a few exceptions. Carers’ adult children were considered particularly helpful, with some becoming advocates for fostering. While a number of the carers experienced good support from friends, a clear understanding of the fostering role at critical times, including during the carers’ life stages, was key to the experience of support from both family or friends. All participating foster carers were female. Implications for practice include examining opportunities for developing and facilitating the support potential of adult children, extended family and friends. These could include focused information and tailored training, together with creative user-led approaches for organisations to harness this under-utilised yet fundamental support.
... With respect to parenting skills, one study demonstrated that grandparent caregivers were less likely to be aware of and respond to children's social-emotional needs-a factor that could reduce households' propensity to move in response to or in anticipation of pathology created by prolonged housing deficits (Hayslip & Kaminski 2005;Morris & Winter 1996). Research shows that grandparents can benefit from formal support mechanisms that support their role as caregivers such as support groups, legal services, and afterschool programming (Gerard, Landry-Meyer, & Roe, 2006) and also nutrition and physical activity interventions (Kicklighter, Whitley, Kelley, Shipskie, Taub, & Berry, 2007). ...
... These findings were consistent with the post-occupancy evaluation of GrandFamilies Housing in Boston, Massachusetts, which also identified the need to give adequate consideration to the aging of grandparents and grandchildren in the planning of supportive services (Gottlieb & Silverstein, 2003) and the post-occupancy evaluation of Villard Square in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which also identified problems with resident engagement (Impact Planning Council, 2014). Previous research studies highlight the various predispositions and service needs of grandfamilies (Baird, 2003;Bundy-Fazioli, et al., 2013;Cox, et al., 2000;Generations United, 2015;Gerard et al., 2006;Gottlieb & Silverstein, 2003;Hayslip et al., 1998;Wohl et al., 2003) that may be addressed effectively through housing with supportive services. Findings from this study expand upon current understanding of grandfamilies' supportive service needs and the factors that are important for successful supportive service delivery. ...
... To date, few studies have examined social support and coping as moderators of the relation between grandparent caregivers' stressors and resilience. Among the exceptions are Gerard, Landry-Meyer, and Roe (2006) and Crowther and Rodriguez (2003), with the former finding social support to be a promotive factor in relation to stress and the latter finding coping to be a protective factor in relation to subjective well-being. The current strengths-based study can be helpful in advancing services for grandparent caregivers that focus on adaptation . ...
... Correlations among the variables in our model suggested that social support and coping may be protective factors given that they were correlated with grandparent caregivers' stress as well as life satisfaction. Previous research is decidedly mixed, however, as to whether social support and coping are protective factors (Crowther & Rodriguez, 2013) or promotive factors (Gerard et al., 2006) for grandparent caregivers, although in parents of younger children, social support moderates the influence of hassles (Crnic & Booth, 1991). Our model testing supports the conclusion that these two processes promote grandparent caregivers' resilience, regardless of initial risk, given that the direct pathways from coping and social support to life satisfaction were significant-rendering the contribution of daily hassles nonsignificant-and tests of moderation nonsignificant. ...
Article
It is well documented that grandparents raising grandchildren experience high levels of stress, which combined with social isolation and inadequate social support may contribute to grandparent caregivers’ low life satisfaction. Social support and coping skills may moderate stress outcomes and thus promote resilience in grandparent caregivers. Thus, this study’s purpose was to test a model of resilience in which stress, coping, and social support are predictors of life satisfaction. Grandparents (N = 74) who were raising grandchildren for a minimum of one year completed measures of daily hassles, social support, coping skills, and life satisfaction. Age, marital status, and income were covariates. Descriptive analyses showed that grandparent caregivers are a vulnerable population: high in stress (e.g., feeling overloaded), low in social support, and relatively low in coping and life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to test direct versus moderated effects on life satisfaction. Findings supported direct effects of social support and coping on life satisfaction, but not moderation, and stress no longer predicted life satisfaction with the protective factors in the model, R2 = .55. Additionally, age was a significant covariate, but not the other covariates. These findings provide evidence that social support and coping skills may mitigate the effects of stress on grandparent caregivers, which has implications for interventions to assist grandparents who assume this challenging role.
... De nombreuses études ont démontré que le manque de soutien social des parents pouvait être associé à de faibles niveaux de ressources familiales (Gleeson et al., 2016 ;Kelley et al., 2000), à une diminution de la satisfaction à l'égard de la vie (Gerard et al., 2006 ;Landry-Meyer et al., 2005), une mauvaise santé et une dépression (Hayslip et al., 2015), et un plus grand stress parental (Gerard et al., 2006 ;Gleeson et al., 2016 ;Hayslip et al., 2015 ;Landry-Meyer et al., 2005). ...
... De nombreuses études ont démontré que le manque de soutien social des parents pouvait être associé à de faibles niveaux de ressources familiales (Gleeson et al., 2016 ;Kelley et al., 2000), à une diminution de la satisfaction à l'égard de la vie (Gerard et al., 2006 ;Landry-Meyer et al., 2005), une mauvaise santé et une dépression (Hayslip et al., 2015), et un plus grand stress parental (Gerard et al., 2006 ;Gleeson et al., 2016 ;Hayslip et al., 2015 ;Landry-Meyer et al., 2005). ...
Thesis
Devenir parent est un évènement de vie majeur qui est souvent associé à des sentiments de bonheur mais qui peut aussi engendrer une détresse psychologique. Le contexte dans lequel s’effectue l’ajustement parental est défini par les caractéristiques du parent, de l’enfant et de l’environnement socio-culturel dans lequel le parent vit et qui influe sur son état de santé et son bien-être. Le contexte de la première année est particulièrement marqué par les nombreux défis et ajustements liés au développement et aux besoins spécifiques du jeune enfant. De plus, la naissance d’un enfant atteint d’une maladie chronique complexifie l’ajustement parental et peut générer du stress. Pour mener à bien cet ajustement, il est nécessaire que le parent dispose de ressources sur lesquelles il peut s’appuyer, telles que le soutien social et le sentiment d’efficacité parentale (SEP). Ce travail de thèse comporte quatre études. La première étude permet de valider une adaptation française de la Karitane parenting confidence scale (KPCS) qui mesure le SEP auprès de parents d’enfants âgés de moins d’un an. La deuxième étude présente une recension de la littérature portant sur le lien entre le SEP et le bien-être psychologique des parents. La troisième étude met en évidence l’effet de médiation du SEP sur la relation entre le soutien social et le bien-être psychologique des parents. Enfin, la quatrième étude propose une théorisation enracinée rendant compte de l’ajustement parental précoce dans le cas d’une maladie abdomino-thoracique rare chez l’enfant. Les résultats mettent évidence la nécessité de prendre en compte les caractéristiques du contexte dans lequel les parents doivent s’ajuster afin de les accompagner et promouvoir leur état de santé et leur bien-être.
... spadek poczucia jakości ich życia (zob. Bowers i Myers, 1999; Dunifon, Near i Ziol-Guest, 2018; Gerard, Landry-Meyer i Roe, 2006;Goodman i Silverstein, 2002). ...
Article
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Contemporary grandparents are active people, not only in the social but also professional field. Regardless of other duties, one of the socially assigned tasks in the role of grandparent is to take care for grandchildren. As various studies have reported, this task may bring caregivers more losses than benefits (eg Goodman & Silverstein, 2002). In the present study, data from 148 people over 57 years who have looked after grandchildren have been analyzed, to determine whether the amount of time devoted by grandparents to care for grandchildren will affect their sense of quality of life. Grandparents gender, age, and locus of control was controlled. The obtained results confirmed that with the increase of the number of hours devoted to grandchildren care, the sense of quality of life of the grandparents drops. This effect is stronger among grandfathers. The sense of the location of control plays the role of a mediator and suppressor in the relationship of care time over grandchildren with a sense of quality of life. The results are discussed in the context of potential family burden and work load among grandparents.
... This creates isolation and loneliness, which increases emotional distress in adult caregivers (Ogunmefun, Gilbert and Schatz, 2011) by reducing the amount of emotional and instrumental support available from family and the community. Emotional support is an important contributor to coping in elderly caregivers, which is diminished because of this stigma (Gerard, Landrey-Meyer and Roe, 2006). In one study, 60% of men had not told others their status was positive; 40% of men reported discrimination and 20% lost a place to stay because of others learning about their HIV/AIDS status (Simbayi , 2007) . ...
Article
This study explored the proliferation of stressors that contribute to depression in grandparents who are caregivers of an adult child with a long-term illness and their grandchildren. The data were drawn from Wave 4 of the Cape Area Panel Study in South Africa and subjected to linear regression analysis to predict depression in these older adults. We found evidence that the combination of primary and secondary care leads to a proliferation of stressors as these older adults experienced higher levels of depression, lower income, and greater food insecurity. Providing financial help to others and declining health also contributed to an increase in depression.
... Some studies have included parent/caregiver stress as a component of well-being, conflating the two constructs (e.g., Gerard et al., 2006). However, some researchers (e.g., Driscoll et al., 2018;Estes et al., 2013;Singer et al., 1999) have suggested that parenting stress and psychological distress represent two distinct constructs. ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has had substantial health, social, and economic effects on families. Consequent lockdowns and school closures heightened the burden on parents of school-age children. Many parents, while working from home, had to care for their children with restricted access to caregiver resources and to support their children’s education through homeschooling or remote learning provided by their schools. These duties created challenges and pressures on parents. Using online survey data collected from 197 parents of school-age (Prek-12) children during the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S., this preliminary study examined the relations among COVID-19-related stressors, including fear of COVID-19 and problems associated with school closures, parenting stress, and parental psychological well-being. Fear of COVID-19 and various issues associated with school closures were related to parenting stress and parental well-being. Parents with less instrumental and emotional support reported higher levels of parenting stress and lower levels of psychological well-being. The results of hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that parenting stress was the strongest predictor of parental psychological distress. Social support was associated with parental well-being but did not mediate the relation between parenting stress and parental well-being. The findings suggest that parenting stress during the COVID-19 lockdowns might take a toll on the mental health of parents of school-age children. Parents of school-age children need multiple layers of support, including targeted support addressing stressors related to school closures and parenting under quarantine.
... Australian studies of kinship carers reveal that some carers are reluctant to seek or accept assistance from government/non-government agencies (Brennan et al., 2013;Gerard, Landry-Meyer & Roe, 2006;McHugh, 2013). The researchers from these studies suggest that policies may need to be 'more sensitive and responsive' (Brennan et al., 2013: 65), and services should be 'more visible, accessible, affordable and tailored specifically to the unique needs of grandparent caregivers' (Gerard, Landry-Meyer & Roe, 2006: 376). ...
... One reason for the differences may be that mental health service in the relatively backward southwest region is poorer than those in the central region of the country [46]. This may prevent SMI patients from getting efficient treatment timely [47], which adds care burden to caregivers [48] and increases depression of caregivers. Another possible explanation may be that SMI patients and their families generally encountered a substantial amount of stigma and discrimination from the public in China. ...
Article
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Depression is one of the most common psychological consequences of caregiving. Caring for patients with severe mental illness (SMI) adds significant challenges to family caregivers’ mental health. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of depression among caregivers of SMI patients in rural areas of Sichuan province of China, to examine the influence of social support and care burden on depression, and to explore the intermediary effect of care burden between social support and depression among caregivers of SMI patients. Data were collected from 256 primary caregivers of SMI patients in rural Sichuan Province in China. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the hypothesized relationship among the variables. We found that a total of 53.5% of caregivers had depression. Both care burden (β = 0.599, 95%CI: 0.392–0.776) and social support (β = −0.307, 95%CI: (−0.494)–(−0.115)) were directly related to depression, while social support had a direct association with care burden (β = −0.506, 95%CI: (−0.672)–(−0.341)). Care burden mediated the relationship between social support and depression. For the socio-demographic variables, gender, education level and per capita annual income of household had significant correlations with depression (p < 0.05). The results strongly demonstrated that social support and care burden were predictors of depression, especially social support. Policymakers should fully recognize the role of primary family caregivers in caring for SMI patients and promote interventions to decrease care burden and reduce caregivers’ depression by improving social support and network. More attention should be given to female caregivers and caregivers with lower education and lower household income levels.
... The mixed effect of grandchildren is more difficult to explain. Potentially, there are positive effects of having grandchildren in terms of social support that might coincide with negative aspects, such as having to care for these grandchildren [49,50]. As the SHARE data set only provides us with rudimentary information about grandchildren (there is for example no information about the residency of them), we cannot shed more light on the relation between grandchildren and well-being, as well as mental health. ...
Article
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Parenthood, marital status and social networks have been shown to relate to the well-being and mental health of older people. Using a large sample of respondents aged 50 and older from 16 European countries, we identify the associations of well-being and mental health with family status. Making use of detailed social network data of the respondents, we also identify how different social support networks correlate with the well-being and health indicators. We observe positive associations for all network types, over and beyond any direct associations of family status with well-being. Results suggest that non-residential children are important providers of social support for their parents at older age.
... Estudios realizados en comunidades rurales y/o de origen indígena muestran los efectos positivos de la activa participación de las abuelas (mamis, en nuestro caso) sobre el estado nutricional y la salud de los niños (Seara & Mace, 2008;Meehan & Hawks, 2014). Estas investigaciones reconocen en las abuelas recursos de apoyo para la lactancia, el cuidado de la mujer y el niño durante el puerperio -especialmente en situaciones como la descripta, donde existe el periodo de reclusión-y el acceso a servicios de cuidado pre y postnatal (Bender & Mc Cann, 2000;Gerard, Landry-Meyer, & Guzzel Row, 2006). En el caso específico de las comunidades andinas, las abuelas y otras mujeres «viejas» han sido descriptas no solo como proveedoras de apoyo social, sino también en su rol de curadoras, dados sus conocimientos en el manejo de recursos locales para la atención de numerosos padecimientos (Finerman, 1995). ...
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In this paper we analyze intergenerational relationships in the care of women and children during pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium in Molinos (Salta). Our study is ethnographic and qualitative, focusing on the stories of women from different generations who primarily assume responsibilities and tasks related to domestic care. We compare their domestic and extra-domestic relationships and experiences in order to assess whether they correspond to the cross-age integration model. We find that generational differences in the participation of elderly women in care arise from the changing composition and location of households, conjugal relationships, subsistence activities, and access to health institutions. Despite these differences, older women still provide care and social support during these life stages and become references for decision-making
... The role grandcarers undertake involves long-term and labour-intensive commitment, often exacerbated by agerelated health issues, social isolation and economic hardship (Fuller-Thomson et al., 1997;Taylor, Marquis, Batten, & Coall, 2016;Taylor, Marquis, Coall, & Werner, 2017). Limited access to respite services also heightens the risk of grandcarers neglecting their own health needs (Taylor, Marquis, Coall, & Werner, 2017), and despite many grandcarers being embedded in social networks, few receive reliable support from family and friends (Gerard, Landry-Meyer, & Roe, 2006). ...
Article
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This research aimed to investigate grandparents’ perspectives on the impact of Leadership and Respite Camps, designed for children being raised by their grandparents, on their grandchildren. In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 grandparents whose grandchildren had participated in 1 of 3 camps held between September 2018 and January 2019, in Perth and the south-west of Western Australia. Findings highlighted how grandcarers’ perceived the camps created unique opportunities for grandchildren to share their experiences in a safe and supportive environment. Grandparents reported significant psychosocial benefits to their grandchild, including feeling they fitted in with their peers and were not alone in experiencing a difficult childhood and adolescence; gaining perspective on their situation and developing a new appreciation for their grandparents; being able to emotionally ‘unblock’ traumatic memories through the sharing of experiences in a safe and supportive camp environment; developing resilience, confidence and self-esteem through participation in challenging activities; and making new friendships. This research provides strong evidence that Leadership and Respite Camps designed for grandchildren being raised by their grandparents deliver significant psychosocial benefits to grandchildren, and offers a solid foundation to advocate for regular camps to address the needs of grandparent-led families.
... Estudios realizados en comunidades rurales y/o de origen indígena muestran los efectos positivos de la activa participación de las abuelas (mamis, en nuestro caso) sobre el estado nutricional y la salud de los niños (Seara & Mace, 2008;Meehan & Hawks, 2014). Estas investigaciones reconocen en las abuelas recursos de apoyo para la lactancia, el cuidado de la mujer y el niño durante el puerperio -especialmente en situaciones como la descripta, donde existe el periodo de reclusión-y el acceso a servicios de cuidado pre y postnatal (Bender & Mc Cann, 2000;Gerard, Landry-Meyer, & Guzzel Row, 2006). En el caso específico de las comunidades andinas, las abuelas y otras mujeres «viejas» han sido descriptas no solo como proveedoras de apoyo social, sino también en su rol de curadoras, dados sus conocimientos en el manejo de recursos locales para la atención de numerosos padecimientos (Finerman, 1995). ...
... In addition, research showed that grandparents who are responsible for providing valuable care for grandchildren often experience social isolation, 57 among other considerable sacrifices. 58 Social support for grandparents who care for grandchildren may minimize any negative impacts on grandparents' well-being 59 and even protect against childhood obesity. 60 Thus, a program or initiative that focuses on social support and recognizes and supports the important Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior • Volume 50, Number 5, 2018 contribution that grandparents provide to caring for young children could benefit both generations. ...
Article
Childhood obesity remains a significant public health issue. Because lifestyle behaviors and weight are established early and track through life stages, prevention strategies must commence in the first years of life. Traditionally, such strategies target parents or formal child care providers. Yet grandparents are increasingly providing care to grandchildren and therefore have an important role in their eating and activity behaviors, which creates a major research gap. This commentary piece, focusing on the Australian context, argues that it is imperative and timely for obesity prevention research to include investigations regarding the role of grandparents in the prevention of obesity-related behaviors in young children.
... Living in disadvantaged neighborhoods, kinship caregivers may experience insufficient social support from neighbors and other sources. The protective effect of social support on caregivers' well-being is clearly established in the literature, as numerous studies have indicated that social support reduces child care stress and burden, facilitates caregivers' physical health, and improves caregivers' life satisfaction (Gerard, Landry-Meyer, & Roe, 2006;Goodman, Potts, & Pasztor, 2007;Kelley, Whitley, Sipe, & Yorker, 2000;Landry-Meyer, Gerard, & Guzell, 2005;Leder, Grinstead, & Torres, 2007). However, much is unknown about how social support, as perceived by caregivers, affects child well-being. ...
Article
Background: Children in kinship care may be placed in similar neighborhoods as their birth families, which are predominantly characterized as distressed neighborhoods with high poverty and crime rates, poor-quality housing conditions, and few social resources. Disordered neighborhoods are negatively correlated to social support, but this dynamic may vary by race or ethnicity. However, children’s previously established attachment and social bonding may offset the negative effects of distressed neighborhoods on child behavioral health. Objectives: This study examined the relation between neighborhood disorder and children’s internalizing and externalizing problems among children in kinship care and tested caregivers’ social support as a potential mediator. Moreover, this study examined if race/ethnicity moderated the pathway from neighborhood disorder to social support, and from social support to children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants and Setting: This study used NSCAW II wave 3 data for a sample of children in kinship care. Methods: Univariate, bivariate, and moderated mediation analyses were conducted using STATA 15. Results: Neighborhood disorder was indirectly associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing problems through a mediator of social support. No racial/ethnic differences were identified. Conclusions: Implications for improving social support for kinship caregivers to ameliorate the effects of neighborhood disorder on children’s behavioral health are discussed. Implementing effective neighborhood-level interventions could promote positive outcomes for children in kinship care.
... Approximately 2.5 million of these children are being raised by grandparents known as custodial grandparents (AARP, 2012). Grandchildren often come to live with grandparents due to adverse circumstances which impede their educational foundation and academic performance (Gerard, Landry-Meyer, & Roe, 2006;Whitley & Kelley, 2007). Intergenerational learning is the transmission of knowledge, abilities, and/or values between individuals from different generations engaging in shared activities (Istead & Shapiro, 2014;Simándi, 2018). ...
Article
An electronic survey was administered to school personnel in the state of Kentucky to examine their biggest concerns about students raised by grandparents. Targeted school personnel were teachers, administrators, youth family service staff, and guidance counselors. 188 school personnel answered the question “What is the biggest concern that you have about your students who reside in grandparent-headed households?” The most common concerns were students' social, emotional, and academic needs and grandparent caregivers' wellbeing, involvement, and parenting style. Less frequent identified concerns were role modeling and awareness within schools. School personnel had very little prior knowledge or training about grandparents raising grandchildren. These findings can inform intergenerational learning between school personnel and grandparents raising grandchildren.
... As a result, parents are more likely to use punitive discipline strategies and have an undermined relationship with their children (Fan & Chen, 2020). Moreover, these parenting styles are thought to have an impact on children's problematic behaviors (e.g., Gerard et al., 2006). For example, researchers found that antagonistic, competitive co-parenting between parents and grandparent is related to more psychological distress (e.g., anxiety and stress) in parents (McHale & Lindahl, 2011), which could directly affect parenting practice and further affect children's problem behaviors (Barnett et al., 2012;Buckingham-Howes et al., 2011). ...
... Three authors reported modifying the wording of the PSS for different sample characteristics. These articles are presented in chronological order in Table 2. Gerard, Landry-Meyer, and Roe (2006) modified the PSS wording so that the individual items reflected the degree of stress associated with grandparenting rather than with parenting. For example, the item "Having children leaves little time and flexibility in my life" was modified to "Raising grandchildren leaves little time and flexibility in my life." ...
Article
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Parenting stress is a cross-cultural concept and is impacted by specific family and life circumstances. Parenting stress is amplified by challenging life situations including poverty, single parenting, and parental separation, but parenting stress is counteracted by the inherent benefits of parenting including intrinsic feelings of warmth and love. The Parental Stress Scale (PSS) was created in 1995 to measure stress unique to parenting and captures both the joys and demands of parenting. The current study reviews two decades of research that incorporated the PSS. We present descriptive data from published studies that all used the same parenting stress measure and provide cross-study comparisons. The studies we review evidence diverse use of the PSS in eight countries and PSS translation into four languages. This review is intended to aid future researchers with interpretation of relative differences in descriptive statistics of parenting stress by providing descriptive data from different samples worldwide.
... Although there are many positive aspects to grandparenting (Sobol & Ben-Shlomo, 2019), grandparents in skipped-generation households face more challenges than their noncaregiving peers (Thomas et al., 2017). Such challenges include: feeling unfavorably judged by society because of the struggles of the grandchildren's parents, feeling isolated from their friends, and financial difficulties because of the unanticipated expenses of raising grandchildren (Ge & Adesman, 2017;Gerard et al., 2006;Hayslip Jr. et al., 2015). Grandparents are also at risk of adverse mental health outcomes associated with a variety of stressors, such as grandchildren's behaviors, disrupted family relationships, and responsibilities of child rearing (Hayslip Jr. et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Critical to maintaining and improving physical and mental health is self‐care, yet interventions for grandfamilies (i.e., skipped‐generation households) minimally address such practices. Grounded by family resilience theory and strengths‐based approaches, this article introduces our rationale for an intervention addressing grandparents' and grandchildren's self‐care practices. The GRANDcares intervention is a tripartite intervention for grandparents, grandchildren, and service providers who work with grandfamilies. Following the National Institutes of Health's stage model for behavioral interventions, we briefly outline the literature on promoting self‐care and resilience in grandfamilies and meeting service providers' needs when working with grandfamilies. Next, we apply these theories to the development of the GRANDcares intervention. We close with a discussion of the GRANDcares programming and a synopsis of our efforts thus far, including recommendations for future research on strengths‐based interventions for grandfamilies.
... The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed the concept of "active aging" in 2002 [3], which calls for improving the quality of life of the elderly by optimizing their health, participation, and safety. The activity theory of aging holds that social activities are the foundation of individual life [41]. The elderly who care for grandchildren have better life ability and cognitive ability, and have a strong initiative in attending social activities, which can balance the relationship between family and social activities, and improve the sense of fulfillment and happiness [42,43]. ...
Article
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Population aging has become a common problem all over the world, and the process of China’s population aging is developing rapidly. China has made active aging a national development strategy, giving full attention to the physical and mental health of the elderly. Bloodline and family continuity make the Chinese elderly attach great importance to the responsibility of caring for grandchildren. This study takes the elderly as the research center, and aims to investigate the relationship between caring for grandchildren and the mental health of the elderly in China, and whether participation in social activities mediates such an association. Adopting the data from the 2018 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a Chi-squared test and multiple regression results showed that caring for grandchildren significantly improved the mental health level of the elderly in China, and the results were still valid after the use of the Propensity Score Matching (PSM) to solve the endogenous problems. Analysis of the mediating effects using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) showed that caring for grandchildren indirectly contributed to the reduction of depression by increasing the diversity and frequency of participation in social activities. The constant adjustment of China’s fertility policy increases the possibility of the elderly caring for multiple grandchildren, and prolongs their time of caring for grandchildren. The elderly caring for grandchildren is a proactive choice, which continuously relieves the child-rearing stress, and highlights the family value and social value of the elderly. At the same time, raising and accompanying grandchildren makes the elderly’s lives more fulfilling and positive, which in turn promotes participation in social activities, and the mental health of the elderly.
... In the Romanian society, the involvement of grandparents / extended family in the care / supervision of the grandchild is a frequent practice and agreed by the parents; this form of care has a moderating role between well-being and stress factors (Gerard, Landry-Meyer, Roe, 2006;Bowers, Myers, 1999) and children cared for by grandparents have better behavioural and adaptive functioning than children cared for in outside the home or by nannies (Harnett, Dawe, Russell, 2012). ...
Article
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This study aims to assess the perception of parents of primary school children about the concerns they have, the knowledge they have about their child's skills. Starting from the educational and socializing function of the family (Jabbarova, 2020; Syamsuddin, 2021), we formulated the following research questions: What type of problems does a 7-11 years old child have to confront? According to parents, which are the necessary abilities a 7-11 year old child has to possess? How much do children participate in non-formal activities in their spare time? 62 participants completed a semi-structured questionnaire and participated in 10 interviews. The results reveal particularities of the reality of family life, such as the reduced time spent by parents with their children, the concern of parents for the time spent by the child in the online environment. Parents also reported the lack of interdisciplinary, non-formal, attractive programs and projects for children. The results indicate the focus of parents in the formation of memory skills and critical thinking and less on academic skills. Parents express concerns about spending their child's time online but are confident that they can still handle this. The study actually describes some parents worried about many aspects of a child's life, however they are not involved in parenting programs.
... While informal and formal social support have generally been beneficial to primary grandparent caregivers [13,14], it remains uncertain how they will affect supplementary grandparent caregivers in China, especially those who have migrated. Though current research has discovered the physical and mental health rewards of grandparent caregiving compared with noncaregivers, it neglects to measure the content and strength of grandparent caregiving with a valid scale by merely using the time spent in grandchild care [15]. ...
Article
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Urban China is witnessing a growth of migrant grandparents apart from the prevalent local grandparent caregiving. However, the health consequences and influencing factors of grandparent caregiving remain largely unknown among migrant and local grandparent caregivers. This study examined informal and formal social support’s mediation roles between domestic generative acts and life satisfaction, as well as investigating Hukou’s (household registration system) moderation effect. Our sample compromised 1013 grandparent caregivers (Migrant = 508, Local = 505) from 12 kindergartens with a multistage clustered random sampling from Eastern China. Migrant grandparent caregivers had significant lower informal social support (M = 4.000, L = 4.355, p < 0.001), formal social support (M = 1.787, L = 2.111, p < 0.001), and life satisfaction (M = 3.323, L = 3.574, p < 0.001) than local ones. Structural equation modeling results indicated that domestic generative acts positively associated with life satisfaction (b = 0.085, p < 0.05), informal (b = 0.223, p < 0.001) and formal social support (b = 0.080, p < 0.05); informal (b = 0.379, p < 0.001) and formal social support (b = 0.138, p < 0.001) positively associated with life satisfaction. In addition, both informal (β = 0.084, CI [0.039, 0.101], p < 0.001) and formal social support (β = 0.011, CI [0.001, 0.018], p < 0.05) mediated the relationship between domestic generative acts and life satisfaction. Furthermore, Hukou status moderated the indirect path from domestic generative acts to life satisfaction via informal social support (p < 0.01), but not formal social support (p > 0.05). Migrant grandparent caregivers, with limited formal social support resources, were found to be more dependent on informal social support than locals. The findings revealed social support and wellbeing disparities among migrant and local grandparent caregivers in urban China. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are also discussed.
... In general, higher levels of social support are associated with better health for GPCs (Leder et al., 2007). Social support also buffers the inverse association between stress and physical health (Gerard et al., 2006), and decreases stress outcomes regardless of stress levels (Landry-Meyer et al., 2005). It is also especially important for grandmothers; compared to their non-caregiving counterparts, grandmother-caregivers report less social support (Musil, 1998). ...
Article
This study examines changes in salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase among grandparents rearing grandchildren in rural Appalachia. Grandparent-caregivers experience greater stress than non- grandparent-caregivers. Participants included 20 grandparent-caregivers and a child for which they cared, who completed questionnaires assessing family functioning and mental health via interview. Grandparent-caregivers provided morning saliva samples once a year for two years. For grandparent-caregivers low in social support and religiosity, grandparent-caregiver depressive symptoms, child depressive symptoms, and child stress were associated with increased grandparent-caregiver salivary alpha-amylase. For grandparent-caregivers high in social support and religiosity, child depressive symptoms, child stress, and child aggression were associated with increased grandparent-caregiver cortisol.
... To illustrate the result, perceived social support is essential in predicting individuals' physical and psychological health from childhood to adulthood and as a shock shield. The sticker acts against stress [16]. ...
Article
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Objectives: Healthcare workers involved in the fight against corona are at high risk for depression and anxiety; therefore, this study aimed to predict Corona anxiety in nurses based on perceived social support and a sense of coherence. Methods: The research method was descriptive and correlational. The present study’s statistical population consisted of all nurses working in hospitals and clinics in Rasht, employed in 2020, and 200 people participated in the survey online and through virtual networks. Data collection tools included the Corona anxiety Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Sense of Coherence Inventory-(SOC)13 Scale. Data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test and simultaneous regression analysis using SPSS V. 23 software. Results: Corona anxiety in nurses had a negative and significant relationship with perceived social support (β=-0.581; P<0.03) and sense of coherence(β=-0.672; P<0.001). Perceived social support and a sense of coherence of 42% of variance predicted Corona anxiety scores in nurses (P<0.01). Conclusion: Therefore, perceived social support and a sense of coherence play an essential role in nurses’ Corona anxiety. Therefore, educating nurses to increase the understanding of cohesion to empower and implement understandable support programs is recommended.
... However, these were often insufficient, and more informational and emotional support was required in terms of the availability of informational resources and parenting classes, guides through legal processes, counseling, and support groups. The importance of emotional support from support groups, professional assistance, and community services in reducing the adverse impacts of childcare challenges on grandparents' and their grandchildren's health and well-being were also highlighted in previous studies (Gerard et al., 2006;Leder et al., 2007). Given the differences in the structures and functions of organizations and policies in different countries, this level of influence on grandparents' health should be scrutinized within each country. ...
Article
Objective To examine the effectiveness of simulation-based interventions in improving empathy among healthcare students. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and clinical controlled trials. Data sources Studies in English language were sourced from seven electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global) from their respective inception dates until October 2020. Review methods This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Random-effect meta-analyses were conducted. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I² statistics and Cochran’s Q chi-squared test. Quality appraisal was conducted using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Results Sixteen studies were included in this review. Meta-analysis reported statistically significant small, medium and very large effect sizes for empathy reported by healthcare students (SMD=0.46, 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.66), simulated patients (SMD=0.65, 95% CI: 0.41 to 0.89) and other personnel (independent observers, faculty members and examiners) (SMD=1.27, 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.90) respectively, showing the effectiveness of simulation-based interventions in improving empathy among healthcare students. Subgroup analyses found that role-play was more effective than simulated patient and disease-state simulations. Multi-sessional interventions conducted for up to seven months and group-based simulation delivery were found to be more effective. Conclusion Educational institutions should conduct regular simulation-based interventions to continuously develop healthcare students’ empathy during their academic journey. Future trials should involve students from more diverse healthcare disciplines. Empathy should be measured in a standardized manner and rely less on self-reported measures. Role-play segments and group-based simulations could be added to increase interventions’ effectiveness. Studies should conduct longer follow-up assessments to determine the sustainability of students’ empathy following intervention. Future research is needed to corroborate the current findings.
... However, these were often insufficient, and more informational and emotional support was required in terms of the availability of informational resources and parenting classes, guides through legal processes, counseling, and support groups. The importance of emotional support from support groups, professional assistance, and community services in reducing the adverse impacts of childcare challenges on grandparents' and their grandchildren's health and well-being were also highlighted in previous studies (Gerard et al., 2006;Leder et al., 2007). Given the differences in the structures and functions of organizations and policies in different countries, this level of influence on grandparents' health should be scrutinized within each country. ...
Article
Background and objective: Grandparenting trends have been increasing due to rises in female employment, economic stressors, and single-parent families. Since, the level of grandparental involvement could either result in beneficial or adverse physical and mental health outcomes, this review aims to use a social-ecological model to compare the childcare experiences of primary and non-primary grandparent caregivers and the effects of childcare on their physical and emotional health. Research design and methods: This is a systematic review. CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus were searched for qualitative papers. A thematic analysis was conducted, and data were framed using the social-ecological model. Results: Seventy-four qualitative studies were included. Four themes were generated: intrapersonal: attitudes and motivations (obligation and sense of responsibility, limited physical health, and emotional resources), interpersonal: relationships with grandchildren and adult children (grandparental roles and gendered differences, forging bonds with grandchildren, role ambiguities, conflicts and drawing boundaries, and support and relationships with others), organizational: social services and educational needs, and policy: financial and legal issues. Grandparental wellbeing is likely to be dependent on the context of the childcare provided, relational bonds with adult children and grandchildren, and the availability of a community and institutional, legal, and financial support. Discussion and implications: The act of grandparenting is laden with cost and reward. To ensure better quality of life in grandparents' later years, joint efforts between policy makers, educators, and organizations are required to meet their childcare support needs such that they can fulfil their grandparenting roles with ease.
... With regard to flexibility and adaptability, grandparents navigate dual roles (i.e., that of parent and grandparent) with their grandchildren and reconfigure all aspects of their lives to provide for their grandchildren . In making these adaptations, grandparents frequently lack the financial, social, legal, and other resources necessary to meet their varied needs ; however, utilization of both formal and informal supports has been shown to be protective for grandparents (Gerard et al., 2006). Whatever their particular circumstances, interpersonal connectedness also appears strong within grandfamilies: Grandparents routinely note a strong sense of commitment and obligation to their grandchildren and describe their relationships with their grandchildren as being personally fulfilling and emotionally close (Dolbin-MacNab & Keiley, 2006;Waldrop & Weber, 2001). ...
Article
Objective This study examined how custodial grandmothers navigated the process of their grandchildren being reunified with a biological parent. Background Prior research has focused on factors associated with unsuccessful reunification instead of resilient family processes that may support successful reunification. How custodial grandfamilies navigate reunification has not been examined, despite their unique relational configuration and grandparents' frequent involvement in raising their grandchildren. Method Guided by Walsh's model of family resilience, semistructured, in‐depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 17 grandmothers whose custodial grandchildren had been reunified with a biological parent. Data analysis was guided by grounded theory methodology. Results Grandmothers believed in parents fulfilling their obligations, prioritizing grandchildren's needs, and coping via their faith. Grandmothers supported reunified parents and children by providing emotional support and instrumental assistance, while maintaining clear role boundaries. Accessing resources and engaging in open family communication were helpful to the reunification, although there were still challenges in navigating family relationships. Conclusion Within custodial grandfamilies, not all reunifications were a positive outcome for the grandchildren. Grandmothers remained heavily involved in supporting and monitoring the reunifications, with the quality of the grandmother–parent relationship being paramount. Implications Practitioners should address family dynamics when working with custodial grandfamilies before, during, and after a reunification.
... 16 To that end, grandparents raising their grandchildren often report receiving inadequate support from those around them, and evidence suggests they are less likely to receive support resources. 17,18 There has historically been less attention on the positive outcomes of the grandfamily household structure. Although it is true that caregiving is particularly taxing for older adults, 19 evidence suggests that even when faced with unique financial and health burdens, custodial grandparents and their grandchildren can thrive. ...
Article
Background and objectives: Little is known about the 2% of US children being raised by their grandparents. We sought to characterize and compare grandparent- and parent-headed households with respect to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), child temperament, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and caregiver aggravation and coping. Methods: Using a combined data set of children ages 3 to 17 from the 2016, 2017, and 2018 National Survey of Children's Health, we applied survey regression procedures, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders, to compare grandparent- and parent-headed households on composite and single-item outcome measures of ACEs; ADHD; preschool inattention and restlessness; child temperament; and caregiver aggravation, coping, support, and interactions with children. Results: Among 80 646 households (2407 grandparent-headed, 78 239 parent-headed), children in grandparent-headed households experienced more ACEs (β = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07 to 1.38). Preschool-aged and school-aged children in grandparent-headed households were more likely to have ADHD (adjusted odds ratio = 4.29, 95% CI: 2.22 to 8.28; adjusted odds ratio = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.34 to 2.20). School-aged children in these households had poorer temperament (βadj = .25, 95% CI: -0.63 to 1.14), and their caregivers experienced greater aggravation (βadj = .29, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.49). However, these differences were not detected after excluding children with ADHD from the sample. No differences were noted between grandparent- and parent-headed households for caregiver coping, emotional support, or interactions with children. Conclusions: Despite caring for children with greater developmental problems and poorer temperaments, grandparent caregivers seem to cope with parenting about as well as parents.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to explore the quality of social relationships of older Filipino church members by determining their perceptions of support and non-support in their social network. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative research approach with semi-structured interviews was utilized. Six Filipino older adults (ages 60-89) were invited to participate in the study. Findings The themes found in the study confirmed the types of support outlined in Social Convoy theory. Several unique nuances in the types of support and non-support between the interactions of older adult Filipinos with people very close to them, somewhat close to them, and merely acquainted with them were identified. The themes of support include instrumental support, emotional care, social connectedness, and companionship during engagement in activities, Forms of lack of support include disrespect and lack of understanding, constraining one's actions, helplessness in responding to the other's needs, non-dependabiltiy and nonreliabilty, difficulty in maintaining social connections, making it difficult to play a desired or expected role. Research limitations/implications The study's limitations are the small sample size, the quality of support explored only with the nomination of two members of each level of closeness within the older adults' social convoy, sample size adequacy to reach data saturation, and the lack of data on support reciprocity that may influence the respondents' perceptions of support and non-support. Practical implications The findings of our paper point to possible interventions to improve social support for the older population. The road map for those interested in developing interventions should also put some emphasis on older adults’ needs in their continued societal engagement. Interventions may involve facilitating role transitions and providing social support systems attuned to the needs of the elderly. Originality/value The results suggest another form of support distinct from the emotional and instrumental support elaborated in previous work. This support is identified as companionship from within the social network that allows older adults a sustained engagement in meaningful activities. The study's results further suggest a lack of clarity in societal roles, i.e. a sense of role ambiguity, which is experienced in the transitioning from adulthood to later adulthood.
Article
Background: Kinship foster caregivers often face serious challenges but lack adequate parenting capacities and resources. The importance of parenting interventions for kinship foster caregivers has been well recognized, and researchers have assessed the effect of various parenting interventions on the caregivers and children. However, no systematic review study has been conducted to summarize findings from parenting interventions targeting kinship foster care. Objectives: This study aims to systematically summarize the effect of parenting interventions on kinship foster caregivers and the cared children, and to synthesize the intervention strategies and research methods used in the evaluation, which provides a context to better understand the intervention effect. Methods: Twenty-eight studies were identified from six academic databases for review. A data template was used to extract information of intervention targets, forms/settings, contents, lengths, and research methods from each study. Results: Various parenting interventions targeting kinship foster care families have been developed to improve parenting capacities and reduce parental stress. Most of the interventions had a positive impact on the outcomes of both caregivers and children, although the assessed outcomes often differed across studies. Parenting interventions are beneficial to caregivers’ parenting competency improvement, parental stress reduction, and child wellbeing advancement. However, some interventions may be less promising in achieving targeted goals. Discussion: This review provides meaningful information about the development of evidence-based parenting intervention for kinship caregivers. The findings suggest that promoting evidence-based parenting interventions with a special focus on kinship care is important in child welfare practices.
Article
This study explored preservice teachers’ (PSTs) perceived competencies and weaknesses in regard to working with a diverse range of students’ families, as well as what contributes to their level of preparedness to serve different family types. A sample of 25 Elementary Education PSTs completed surveys and participated in interviews related to their family-related coursework and experiences, memories of home-school connections, and future plans to connect with students’ families. Numeric frequencies of responses showed that PSTs felt the most prepared to serve traditional (‘nuclear’) families and the least prepared to serve divorced, single and same-sex parents. A thematic analysis revealed a contrast between participants who simply desired to serve and those who felt ready to serve different family types. Participants also rejected the notion of a ‘normal’ family, while simultaneously using heteronormative language when discussing different family types. The article offers implications for teacher educators.
Article
The study explored parenting experiences of informal kinship caregivers who were not currently involved with the public child welfare system. Forty-one informal kinship caregivers participated in an anonymous survey that inquired about their demographic information and parenting experiences. The majority of participants were African American grandmothers in their mid-50s with a high school diploma and annual household income below $50,000. Approximately 70% of the participants had legal custody of a related child in their care, and were committed to providing a long-term or permanent placement for the child. While financial hardship was the most common challenge participants reported, only 37% of them received governmental assistance. Other challenges included children’s medical and mental health issues, and childcare. Despite these challenges, the majority of participants (82.9%) perceived their kinship caregiving experience as positive or very positive. Forty-two percent of participants acknowledged the bidirectional nature of their relationship with related children. Another positive experience noted was children’s growth and safety. These findings illustrate both common and diverse parenting experiences of informal kinship caregivers. They also highlight limited resources available and accessible for this population. The implications of the study findings are discussed.
Article
Culture and ethnic diversity are critical factors in understanding the roles and well-being of grandparent caregivers. Values, beliefs, traditions continue to influence child rearing practices and may also be influential in persons’ responses to policies and services. Although culture can be a source of support, it can also create stress as persons feel they are not fulfilling expected roles or feel frustrated by demands of more assimilated grandchildren. Strengthening these families requires sensitivity to the cultures and concerns of diverse groups of grandparents at all levels of interventions.
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The present study examines the impact of change processes on outcomes in a solution-based thinking and goal-setting intervention for grandparents raising their grandchildren. We found that across the 6 program sessions there was stability and/or increases in the salience of hypothesized change processes, i.e., hopefulness about the future, solution-based thinking, positive thoughts about one's grandchild, multiple indicators of decisional personal goal-setting regarding one's own well-being and grandchild relationship quality. Indicators of change processes were for the most part, related to both post-program outcomes as well as to pre-post program outcome difference scores. Regression analyses suggested that change processes in many cases partially mediated pre-post primary program outcome scores. These data suggest that how grandmother caregivers think about themselves and their grandchildren and their approach to setting personal goals are key change processes explaining the impact of a solution-based, goal-setting intervention on them.
Article
Despite the use of support groups among adoptive parents, few empirical works have assessed outcomes associated with participation in these groups, particularly those delivered via virtual platforms. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of participation in a virtual, pilot‐phase 10‐week adoptive parent support group, on adoptive parent stress and parental competence. The pilot included support groups at two sites in one south‐eastern state, one urban and the other rural. Data were collected via a retrospective pre‐/post‐design and utilized the Parental Stress Scale and Parental Sense of Competency measures to assess variables of interest. Analyses indicate significant increases in adoptive parent competency and significant decreases in parental stress within support groups at the urban site. No such significant differences were detected for participants in the rural group. Overall, findings indicate that support groups can be beneficial in addressing challenges associated with caregiver stress and competency among adoptive parents. As well, data suggest the need to be attentive to support group structure and duration, among other factors. After a brief review of pertinent background information, this paper will outline findings from this study and discuss salient implications derived from this effort.
Article
Objective: The literature on the gendered differences of mental health as a result of grandchild care has shown mixed results. Research on grandchild care further suggests that nonresidential grandchild care improves mental health outcomes, while residential grandchild care arrangements decrease mental health outcomes in grandparents. The moderating or buffering role of social engagement remains understudied in the grandchild care-mental health relationship. The present study examines mental health effect differences between caregiving grandmothers and grandfathers, and the moderating effects of social engagement. Method: Using 2002-2012 data from the HRS (Health and Retirement Study), a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults aged 50 and over, I examine the mental health effects of grandchild care and the moderating effect of social engagement in fixed effects models. Results: Grandfathers experience particularly worsened mental health outcomes when providing grandchild care in a skipped-generation household. Both grandmothers and grandfathers experience mental health improvements from increased social engagement. Social engagement, particularly for grandmothers, serves as a buffer or produces role enhancement for grandmothers in skipped-generation care arrangements. Discussion: Nonresidential and residential grandchild care affect mental health outcomes differently for grandmothers and grandfathers. However, social engagement consistently serves as a buffer or mental health improvement for all grandparents. Findings further encourage the continued study of social engagement and gender differences in older adults more broadly.
Article
Guided by a convoy model of social relations, this study investigates the relationships between grandparenting status, social relations, and mortality among community-dwelling grandparents age 65 and older who are caring for their grandchildren. The data were drawn from the 2008 and 2016 waves of the Health and Retirement Study ( N = 564). Latent class analysis was used to identify the social network structure based on six indicators of interpersonal relationships and activities. A series of hierarchical Weibull hazard models estimated the associations between grandparent caregiving, social relations, and mortality risk. Results of survival analyses indicate that co-parenting and custodial grandparents had higher all-cause mortality risk than grandparents who babysat occasionally; however, for custodial grandparents, the association was not significant once social relation variables were added to the model. This study suggests that community-based support may be beneficial to older grandparents and improved relationship quality is integral to the well-being of older adults.
Article
The effectiveness of help received from home care workers and volunteers to the life satisfaction of community-dwelling older adults is vital but uncharted. To address the effectiveness, this study aims to optimize the use of social resources for the older adults’ life quality. The study thus surveyed 398 community-dwelling older adults in a city of China about the help and life satisfaction. Results showed a significant positive effect of help from home care workers, but not that from volunteers, on the older adult’s life satisfaction. Moreover, the effect of help from volunteers was significantly greater when the older adult had higher education or lower family income. These effects are explicable with resource theory and need fulfillment theory. They imply the worth of promoting help from home care workers generally and volunteers conditionally to champion older adults’ life satisfaction.
Chapter
Amber Tatro was born with spina bifida and went on to win a 1984 Supreme Court case. Amber had partial paralysis, impaired speech, and difficulty urinating on her own. Her family notified the Irving Independent School District that she would begin kindergarten in the fall, and would need catheterization every few hours to prevent kidney damage. The school took an individualistic approach to disabilities, arguing that catheterization was medical care that fell outside federal mandates and that accommodations for Amber’s disabilities were the responsibility of Amber and her family. Amber and her family sued and her case moved to the Supreme Court. By unanimous decision, the justices ruled that catheterization fell within the related services the school district was federally required to provide. The Supreme Court took a social approach to disabilities, arguing that the accommodations she needed were the responsibility of society at large.
Chapter
Caring for grandchildren with disabilities can be both rewarding and taxing. It may generate very positive, and very negative, emotional impacts. Often simultaneously. For some grandparents, care work is almost entirely positive, in part because they so enjoy spending time with their grandchildren and in part because they know they are providing much needed care and their adult children appreciate it profoundly. Providing care gives some grandparents abundant joy that, in some cases, relieves their poor health and sadness and gives new purpose and meaning to their lives. They tend to have enough resources to provide the amount of care needed. These families tend to have close emotional bonds and clear channels of communication, even if they also face health and financial challenges. For other grandparents, caring for grandchildren with disabilities creates emotional distress. Some are reluctant to accept the diagnoses and to let go of the visions they had of grandparenting. Some are concerned about the impact on their own health, their marriages, and their adult children’s wellbeing. Some do not have sufficiently good health or deep enough pockets to provide the amount of care and support needed. Some are overwhelmed by becoming custodial grandparents and providing so much unexpected care at such a late age. And some feel tremendous frustration and disappointment that their adult children are taking advantage of them and failing to express appreciation.
Article
Zmiany zachodzące w ostatnich latach w rodzinie coraz częściej przyczyniają się do przejmowania przez dziadków ról związanych z opieką nad wnukami. Dlatego też ważne staje się poszukiwanie odpowiedzi na pytanie dotyczące czynników warunkujących charakter relacji pomiędzy wnukami a „dziadkami-rodzicami”. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie wyników badań ukazujących relacje pomiędzy wnukami a „dziadkami-rodzicami” oraz rolę, jaką najstarsi członkowie rodziny odegrali, zdaniem wnuków, w ich życiu.
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This paper examined depression and health of grandmothers who co-resided with grandchildren in 1997 in two cohorts of women, one aged 30-44 in 1967 (N= 2,080), and the other aged 14-24 in 1968 (N= 1,708). Co-resident grandmothers in both cohorts were more likely than other mothers to have higher levels of depression and about one-fifth were likely to exhibit levels high enough to place them "at risk" for clinical depression. Co-residency, however, was not found to be a good predictor of either level of depression or changes in the level of depression, but prior levels of depression were positively related to changes in the level of depression among mothers in general when controlling for current or previous co-residency. Health status was found to be a good predictor of depression when accounting for co-residency and work effort among other factors.
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Using an informal data capture technique, 164 grandparents caring for 208 children with developmental delay or diagnosed disabilities were surveyed in New York City to determine their health status, emotional state, use of formal and informal services, and general life situation. The vast majority of grandparents were female (96%) and African-American (80%). Their ages ranged from 40 to 82. Generally they had cared for at least one grandchild for an average of seven years. The data showed that for these grandparents (1) caregiving was an all-consuming role, (2) their lives were fraught with uncertainty and they could not access sufficient formal and informal supports, and (3) they were constantly worried about the future.
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This paper examines correlates of self-reported depressive symptoms among a sample of 74 urban Latino grandparent caregivers. Nearly half of grandparents in the study scored above the clinical threshold score on the Geriatric Depression Scale, and those rearing grandchildren with special needs reported significantly more depressive symptoms than those who were not. This differential level of depressive symptoms held even with the effects of other known risk and protective factors held constant.
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The development of a self-report measure of subjectively assessed social support, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), is described. Subjects included 136 female and 139 male university undergraduates. Three subscales, each addressing a different source of support, were identified and found to have strong factorial validity: (a) Family, (b) Friends, and (c) Significant Other. In addition, the research demonstrated that the MSPSS has good internal and test-retest reliability as well as moderate construct validity. As predicted, high levels of perceived social support were associated with low levels of depression and anxiety symptomatology as measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Gender differences with respect to the MSPSS are also presented. The value of the MSPSS as a research instrument is discussed, along with implications for future research.
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Studied whether caregiving affects the genesis and persistence of heightened health and mental health problems in 74 Latino grandparents (aged 50–78 yrs) rearing their grandchildren in New York City. Factors studied included depression, health status, life stressors, informal supports, unmet service needs, and special needs of the grandchildren. Poverty rates were found to be roughly 3 times those of grandparent caregivers nationwide and rates of self-reported poor health and depression to be twice as high. Correlates of depression included young age, poor health, greater life stress, few informal supports, and rearing grandchildren with special needs. Intervention needs and directions for future research are discussed.
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The importance of major life stress and minor daily hassles associated with parenting was studied in 74 mothers and their 5-year-old children. Of interest were the relative and absolute contributions of the stress factors to indices of parental, child, and family functioning. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding stressors, aspects of parenting and individual psychological status, social support, family functioning, and child behavioral status. Mother-child pairs were also observed in interactions in a laboratory setting. Analyses indicated that life stress and parenting daily hassles significantly predicted aspects of child, parent, and family status. Hassles, however, proved to be a more powerful stress construct. Further analyses indicated that mothers' social support moderated the influence of hassles on indices of maternal behavior. The results are discussed in relation to the potential for minor parenting stresses to influence microsocial processes within parent-child relationships and contribute to dysfunction in children and families.
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The purpose of this article is to determine whether the positive association between social support and well-being is attributable more to an overall beneficial effect of support (main- or direct-effect model) or to a process of support protecting persons from potentially adverse effects of stressful events (buffering model). The review of studies is organized according to (a) whether a measure assesses support structure or function, and (b) the degree of specificity (vs. globality) of the scale. By structure we mean simply the existence of relationships, and by function we mean the extent to which one’s interpersonal relationships provide particular resources. Special attention is paid to methodological characteristics that are requisite for a fair comparison of the models. The review concludes that there is evidence consistent with both models. Evidence for a buffering model is found when the social support measure assesses the perceived availability of interpersonal resources that are responsive to the needs elicited by stressful events. Evidence for a main effect model is found when the support measure assesses a person’s degree of integration in a large social network. Both conceptualizations of social support are correct in some respects, but each represents a different process through which social support may affect well-being. Implications of these conclusions for theories of social support processes and for the design of preventive interventions are discussed.
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Community interventions and service programs for grandparents raising grandchildren are being identified and tracked through the Brookdale Grandparent Caregiver Information Project. Based on the first year's examination of 124 such programs, an overview of community intervention efforts is provided, with special attention to support groups and comprehensive multi-service programs for grandparent caregivers. Lack of funding and institutional support, and the consequent inability to provide child care, were among key obstacles faced, while sponsorship by health and social service agencies often played a vital role in providing in-kind support and part-time professional staff.
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This study compared three groups of grandparents, attempting to disentangle grandparental role demands from child-specific problems as sources of role-specific and grandchild-relationship distress. Those grandparents raising grandchildren reported to demonstrate neurological, physical, emotional, or behavioral problems exhibited the most personal distress, the least role satisfaction and role meaning, and the most deteriorated grandparent-grandchild relationships. Custodial grandparents raising grandchildren reported to have few difficulties also differed in the ways listed above from those grandparents not raising their grandchildren and from those raising grandchildren displaying problems. For men, but not women, more positive grandparent meaning was associated with raising a grandchild. Significantly, custodial grandparents were more likely to be raising boys, suggesting that boys may be either more difficult for grandparents to raise or that boys react more negatively to the adverse circumstances under which grandparents assume care.
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The family caregiving process for children with severe emotional disorders is conceptualized from an ecological perspective and examined in light of outcomes for caregivers. This study of 259 families assessed the relative importance, individually and in combination, of various clusters of caregiver, child, family, and environmental characteristics and responses as predictors of caregiver stress. Findings raise questions about current practice and policy, and suggest directions for future research.
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate predictors of psychological distress in grandmother kinship care providers. More specifically, it was hypothesized that social support, family resources, and physical health would predict psychological distress in grandmothers raising grandchildren. One hundred and two grandmothers raising grandchildren in parent-absent homes completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, Short Health Form-36, Family Resource Scale, Family Support Scale, and a questionnaire requesting background and demographic data. Results indicated that psychological distress was predicted by family resources, participants' physical health, and to a lesser extent, social support. The findings indicate that family resources, social support, and physical health affected psychological distress in grandmothers raising grandchildren. Grandmothers who reported fewer resources, less social support, and poorer physical health tended to experience higher levels of psychological distress. This study suggests that greater attention be given to interventions aimed to decrease psychological distress and improve the financial resources and physical health of grandmothers raising grandchildren.
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Prior studies have conceptualized and operationalized social support in different ways, making it difficult to determine if the inconsistencies in findings are due to differences in study design, samples, conceptualization, or measurement. The present study examined the replicability of models of social support and caregiver distress across 4 community-based caregiving studies representative of many conducted in the past 10 years. The goal was to identify areas of consistency in findings across the data sets. The authors analyzed 3 models specifying patterns of relationship between social support and depression (main effect, mediation effect, and moderation effect) separately within data sets using hierarchical ordinary least squares regression. Results were compared across data sets. The replication analysis confirmed the robustness of behavior problems and caregiver health as important contributors to caregiver distress. Results of hypotheses examining the pattern of relationship between social support and distress were inconsistent, however. Only 1 type of social support was associated with distress in the expected direction: Less emotional support was associated with higher levels of distress in 2 of the 4 data sets. More complex theoretical models that incorporate common measures to represent the linkages between types of stressor, types of support, and their interactions are needed to foster replicability and generalizability of research results.
Article
This study examines the challenges faced by custodial grandparents in light of the beneficial role that mental health services might play in helping them to raise grandchildren and to deal with both role demands and child-specific problems as sources of distress. Findings indicate those grandparents raising grandchildren demonstrating greater degrees of neurological, emotional, or behavioral problems, to exhibit the most personal distress, the least role satisfaction and role meaning, as well as the most deteriorated grandparent-grandchild relationships. Surprisingly, however, having sought help for a grandchild is linked to lower personal and psychosocial adjustment, and custodial grandparents generally reject formal mental health services as a means of coping with the personal costs of childrearing. While such effects are somewhat attenuated, having sought help for oneself is associated with lower well-being and less role satisfaction. The implications of these findings for enhancing custodial grandparents' use of mental health services are discussed.
Article
The recent increase in the incidence of grandparents raising grandchildren has prompted research focusing on the grandparent-grandchild family structure. Using a role theory framework, this article contributes to the current literature by identifying the needs of grandparent caregivers and proposing interventions. A random survey of 6,307 Ohio households found that approximately 10% of households with children consisted of a grandparent providing the majority of care to a grandchild. Intervention strategies are proposed based on grandparent caregivers' documented needs. Implications are noted for state jurisdictions within the context of welfare reform.
Article
This article explores the differences between grandmothers who provide different levels of caregiving responsibility for a grandchild. One-hundred and one grandmothers participated in the study: 23 who were providing full-time care for a grandchild, 33 who were providing part-time care for a grandchild, and 45 who visited a grandchild regularly but had no caregiving responsibility for that grandchild. Results showed that the grandchild's behavior problems made the largest impact on the grandmother, increasing her feelings of burden and parenting stress and decreasing her grandparenting satisfaction. In addition, full-time caregiving grandmothers experienced more burden and parenting stress and less grandparenting satisfaction than part-time caregiving grandmothers. Full-time caregiving grandmothers also reported less life satisfaction than other grandmothers in the study. An area that deserves attention in future studies is how the relationship with the adult child (the grandchild's parent) influences the stress, burden, and satisfaction associated with full-time caregiving.
Article
We studied the role of social support (marital adjustment, spousal support, and global support) in the relationship between child externalizing behavior problems and mothers' and fathers' well being. Seventy-five first grade children were classified into three groups (control, moderate externalizing, and high externalizing) based on parent and teacher reports of behavior problems. Outcome measures were parents' perceived negative impact of the child on social relationships, as well as negative and positive feelings toward parenting. There was evidence for main, moderating (buffering), and mediating effects of social support indicators on outcome measures. Implications of these findings for family intervention are discussed.
Article
Drawing from family stress theory, this study examined the associations among caregiver stress, social support, and stress outcomes measured by life satisfaction and generativity among grandparents raising grandchildren. Social support was hypothesized to moderate the association between caregiver stress and stress outcome indicators. Using survey data from a non-probability sample of 133 grandparent caregivers with full-time responsibility of raising at least one grandchild, regression analysis demonstrated that caregiver stress is associated negatively with life satisfaction and generativity. Informal and formal social support was found to have a beneficial influence on stress outcomes that generalizes to grandparent caregiver participants regardless of the amount of stress they experience. Contrary to predictions, social support did not buffer the association between caregiver stress and life satisfaction nor the association between caregiver stress and generativity. A high degree of perceived informal support was found to function as a detriment to grandparents under conditions of high stress through lowered generativity. Results suggest the need to examine the functional role of social support in the caregiving context.
Article
In this study, we explored the nature of the relationship between custodial grandparents' perception of control over caregiving outcomes and their discipline behavior with grandchildren. Perceived control moderated the relationship between frequency of difficult child behaviors and grandparents' use of strict disciplinary practices. However, unexpectedly, a high frequency of difficult grandchild behavior was associated with greater use of strict, even harsh, discipline among grandparents with highrather than low perceived control. This pattern was evidenced across the total sample; however, it was especially pronounced in African-American grandparent families. Among custodial grandparents, especially among African-American grandparents, it is possible that both nurturing and aggravation are intensified by the reparenting experience. Between-group differences may reflect the fact that grandparents embedded in different cultures have differing beliefs about how to socialize their grandchildren.
Article
The development of a measure of parental stress, the Parental Stress Scale, is presented. All participants (total N = 1276) completed the Parental Stress Scale and some also completed the Parenting Stress Index, a generic measure of stress called the Perceived Stress Scale, relevant measures of emotions and role satisfaction (e.g. loneliness, marital satisfaction, guilt, etc.), and one group completed the Parental Stress Scale twice. Analyses suggested that the Parental Stress Scale is highly reliable, both internally and over time, and related to the general measure of stress. Also, results were consistent across parents of differing parental characteristics, suggesting the stability of scale characteristics. The validity of Parental Stress Scale scores was supported by predicted correlations with measures of relevant emotions and role satisfaction and significant discrimination between mothers of children in treatment for emotional/behavioral problems and developmental disabilities vs mothers of children not receiving treatment. Finally, a factor analysis suggested that a 4-factor structure underlies responses to the Parental Stress Scale, despite its high internal reliability.
Article
Approximately 5% to 6% of grandchildren and 10% of grandparents live in grandparent-grandchild households at any point in time. The proportion of children living with grandparents appears to have remained relatively stable over time. In this article, the authors critically review previous research on the determinants of grandparent care for grandchildren. This research suggests that grandparent care generally is precipitated by need or problems experienced by parents. However, the determinants of custodial care (in which grandparents become sole caretakers) and of coresidence (three-generation households) are quite different. Custodial care generally occurs when parents are no longer able or willing to take care of their children. Coresidence more commonly is associated with the middle generation's problems with living independently or with transition among roles.
Article
This study is based on a screening and in-depth interview with each of 114 grandparents who provide daily care to their grandchildren. Three categories of caregivers emerge from the data: grandparents whose grandchildren live with them and with whom they have a legal relationship, grandparents whose grandchildren live with them but with whom there is no legal relationship, and grandparents whose grandchildren do not live with them but for whom they provide day care. Questions about the impact of providing care on the caregivers' lives reveal effects in four categories: changes in lifestyle, changes in relationships with friends, changes in relationships with family, and changes in relationships with spouses. These effects differ according to the type of care provided.
Article
Using role theory to guide a qualitative analysis of 26 grandparents raising grandchildren, the role transition from grandparent to grandparent caregiver was explored. Participants were predominantly female, low income, married, with an average age of 53. On average, participants were raising 1.7 grandchildren for 4 years and at the time of interview had legal custody of the grandchildren. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were used. With a 92% interrater reliability, themes focused on the grandparent caregiver role being off-time or unexpected, achieving a sense of role clarity, and the experience of role conflict.
Article
Data collected over a three-year period compared two groups of African American grandparent caregivers with a group of European American grandparents who were raising their grandchildren. Gender, marital status, and household income differentiated minority from nonminority participants. Statistically significant differences among certain of the demographic variables between the two groups of African American grandparents were also found. Practical implications of the results for research and practice are discussed through illustrating differences in advocacy needs and agenda-making between two grandparent caregiver support groups.
Article
This cross-sectional study of 129 grandparents raising their grandchildren examined the extent to which social supports are related to the grandparents' stress (psychological anxiety). A hierarchical regression analysis, with variables entered in blocks, revealed that contextual factors, stressors related to caregiving, and lack of supports accounted for 35% of the variance. Younger grandparents, grandchildren with psychological and physical problems, and low family cohesion were associated with stress. Implications for clinical and educational intervention are discussed.
Article
Social support networks, supportive behaviors, and subjective appraisals of support (perceptions, satisfaction) have emerged as three approaches to social support conceptualization and measurement. We see these as three equally legitimate components of the social support meta-construct, and ask what support network characteristics are associated with perceptions of and satisfaction with support. Ninety-eight nontraditional women students (ages 30 to 61) provided data on characteristics of networks providing five modes of support, satisfaction with each mode of support, and perceptions of support from family, friends, and others. Bi- and multivariate analyses yielded complex findings but indicated that support perceptions and satisfaction are related to size of support mode-specific networks, closeness of network relationships, and composition of networks, particularly the presence of a spouse, and the proportion of close friends, social acquaintances, and immediate family. Since Cobb's (1976) enthusiastic review, a huge volume of empirical literature has emerged under the rubric of "social support"-recognition of the importance of social context in the development and maintenance of individual well-being and distress. Unfortunately, this research has often been conducted without the prerequisite theoretical and conceptual analysis of the social support construct, resulting in a plethora of idiosyncratic measures (often post hoc) exhibiting dubious relevance to unclear concepts (Barrera, 1981; Dean & Lin, 1977; Heller & Swindle, 1983; Thoits, 1982).
Article
The placement of children in need of out-of-home care with relatives (i.e., kinship care) has been an increasing trend. The study summarized in this paper represents the first comprehensive assessment of the physical and mental health and educational status of children in kinship care. The anticipated high risk status of these children was supported by study findings in all areas of assessment. These findings are discussed and recommendations are offered for policy, practice and future research.
Article
This article reports findings from two qualitative studies of black grandparents and great-grandparents who are rearing their children's children as a consequence of parental drug addiction. Data were collected in two urban black communities from 60 grandmothers, grandfathers, and great-grandmothers (ages 43–82). Only 3% of the respondents received consistent, reliable familial support in their role as surrogate parents. Although respondents found parenting their grandchildren an emotionally rewarding experience, they also incurred psychological, physical, and economic costs in performing their roles.
Article
In a study of 125 mothers, parental stress was associated with lower role satisfaction and maternal self-esteem and with higher psychological and somatic symptomatology for those mothers with less social support. In addition, more highly educated mothers were found to be less affected by parental stress. Theoretical and policy implications of the findings are discussed.
Article
Examines changes in family and friendship networks of 71 African-American grandmothers (aged 41–79 yrs) in Oakland, California, who were raising at least 1 preschool-aged grandchild, great-grandchild, or grandniece or grandnephew as a direct consequence of the crack-cocaine epidemic. Ss completed 1 structured and 1 open-ended interview lasting a total of at least 3 hrs and received $50. Despite continued strong social ties, many of the women reported decreased contact with family and friends other than confidants and a decline in marital satisfaction.
Article
An overview of grandparenting in light of changing demographics, family composition, and intergenerational dynamics is presented, as well as a review of custodial grandparenting which is impacted not only by these changes, but also by factors unique to this role. Research to date suggests that the demands of custodial grandparenting may be harmful to the psychosocial adjustment of those raising grandchildren and that such persons may be particularly in need of mental health services, especially if they are caring for problem grandchildren. However, such work also suggests that there are nevertheless many strengths and rewards associated with raising a grandchild later in life. The implications of these stressful demands on middle-aged and older persons' adjustment and life satisfaction are discussed, as are methodological issues in such research as well as future directions work in this area might take.
Article
To assess the effect of undertaking custodial care of a grandchild on grandparents' depression levels and to determine what characteristics are associated with higher depression levels among caregiving grandparents. A longitudinal national probability panel study: the National Survey of Families and Households. The first wave of data (n= 13 008) was collected in 1987 and 1988, and the second wave of data (n=10008) was collected from 1992 through 1994. The survey was conducted in respondents' households in the coterminous United States. The subsample for this study was composed of 3111 respondents who reported being grandparents during the 1992-1994 interviews and for whom complete depression information was available. Of these grandparents, 158 were the primary caregivers for their grandchildren in the 1990s. Depression was measured using a modified version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Those who provide primary care for a grandchild are almost twice as likely to have levels of depressive symptoms above the traditional Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale cut point of 16 (25.1% vs 14.5%). Even when controlling for baseline depression and demographic variables known to affect depressive symptoms, undertaking the care of a grandchild was associated significantly with higher depression levels in a multivariate prospective analysis (P<.01). Among caregiving grandparents, those who recently assumed caregiving responsibilities (P<.05) and women (P<.10) were more depressed and older respondents (P<.10) and those in good health (P<.001) were less depressed. Undertaking the primary care of a grandchild is associated with an increase in levels of depression. Particularly in light of the recent dramatic increase in the prevalence of grandparent caregiving in the United States, physicians need to explore familial role changes with midlife and older patients who have symptoms of depression. Special attention should be paid to the most at-risk subsets of grandparent caregivers: those who are new caregivers, those in poor health, those who are younger, and women.
Article
To critique social support and caregiver burden studies for (a) explication of constructs, (b) associations between constructs, (c) statistical conclusion validity, and (d) generalizability. Social support moderates caregiver burden, yet studies using different conceptualizations raise questions about validity. FRAMEWORK AND SCOPE: Cooper's (1984) methodology for an integrated literature review was used to examine 50 studies (1980-1995) involving adult caregivers of older family members. Inadequate explication of social support, potential spuriousness and reverse causation, threats to statistical conclusion validity, and lack of generalizability were found. Progress has been made in caregiving and social support research, yet many problems remain. Future research should include multiple measures of support, controls for spuriousness and reverse causation, valid and reliable instruments, and samples of diverse populations.
Article
Data were collected from 252 coresident caregiving daughters and daughters-in-law and their husbands. We hypothesized that biological children would give more care than children-in-law and that children-in-law would have very different caregiving experiences and resultant appraisals than biological children. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found that the experiences are very similar for biological children and children-in-law in caregiving families. We suggested that the important factor is not the relationship to the elder that has the impact–it is the quality of the relationship with the elder that is consistently significant.
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This article contrasts the experiences of 398 White and 319 Black grandmothers raising their grandchildren in the absence of the middle generation. Similarities include age, education, familial relationship to the grandchild, age of the grandchild being raised, reasons that grandmothers are raising their grandchildren, behaviors characteristic of the grandchildren, and impacts on the grandmother's work life. Differences include marital status, work status, and income. Black grandmothers are more likely than White grandmothers to have peers who also live with their grandchildren. Black grandmothers are also more likely to come from families in which multiple generations lived together and to be receiving support from formal sources. White grandmothers experienced more burden from their caregiving role than did Black grandmothers.
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This cross-sectional study compared three groups of custodial grandparents, those raising problematic grandchildren, those raising "normal" grandchildren, and noncustodial grandparents to identify the unique challenges and expectations faced by custodial grandparents due to their nontraditional roles while attempting to disentangle grandparental role demands from child-specific problems as sources of distress. Those grandparents raising grandchildren demonstrating neurological, physical, emotional, or behavioral problems exhibited the most distress, the most disruption of roles, and the most deteriorated grandparent-grandchild relationships. Although custodial grandparents raising apparently normal grandchildren demonstrated less distress, less disruption of roles, and less deterioration of the grandparent-grandchild relationship than those grandparents raising grandchildren displaying problems, in these respects, they still demonstrated higher such levels than did traditional grandparents.
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An increasingly prevalent family constellation is a home headed by a grandparent who is raising grandchildren. We explore the state of our knowledge about such grandparents with particular attention to its implications for service providers and researchers. In our review we address several key areas: (a) the costs and benefits of raising a grandchild; (b) the heterogeneity of custodial grandparent caregivers; (c) the critical need for social support among custodial grandparents; (d) parenting practices and attitudes among grandparents raising grandchildren; and (e) helping efforts at multiple levels with custodial grandparents. We also discuss directions for research and practice concerning custodial grandparents.