Expression of renal cell carcinoma-associated markers erythropoietin, CD10, and renal cell carcinoma marker in diffuse malignant mesothelioma and metastatic renal cell carcinoma
Department of Pathology, University of Vermont/Fletcher Allen Health Care, Burlington, VT 05401, USA. Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
(Impact Factor: 2.84).
07/2006; 130(6):823-7. DOI: 10.1043/1543-2165(2006)130[823:EORCCM]2.0.CO;2
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC) involving the thorax can be difficult to distinguish from diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) using traditional morphologic approaches. Standard panels of immunohistochemical markers are of limited benefit.
To investigate several antibodies to renal cell carcinoma-associated proteins for differentiating MRCC from DMM.
One hundred DMMs and 20 MRCCs were evaluated for immunoexpression of erythropoietin. The same cases and an additional 45 DMMs were evaluated for CD10 and renal cell carcinoma marker (RCCMa) immunoreactivity.
Erythropoietin was expressed in 100% of DMMs and MRCCs. Staining for CD10 was observed in 54% of DMMs and 100% of MRCCs. RCCMa stained 26% of DMMs and 55% of MRCCs. Although erythropoietin staining was similarly strong and diffuse in both DMM and MRC, patterns of staining for RCCMa and CD10 differed between MRCC and DMM. Immunoreactivity was strong and diffuse for both RCCMa and CD10 in most MRCCs. Of CD10-positive DMMs, nearly half showed staining in less than 50% of tumor cells and about one fourth of positive cases exhibited only weak to moderately intense staining. Only half of RCCMa-positive DMMs showed staining in more than 49% of tumor cells and staining was only weak to moderately intense in most cases.
Given the overlap in the expression of renal cell carcinoma markers in MRCC and DMM, results with these markers must be interpreted cautiously and should be used in conjunction with mesothelium-associated markers. Differences in expression may potentially help distinguish MRCC from DMM inasmuch as strong and diffuse expression of RCCMa and CD10 supports a diagnosis of MRCC over DMM.
Available from: Sudheer Arava
- "Mesothelial cells may also have foamy appearance due to the intracytoplasmic glycogen vacuoles. However, intracytoplasmic lipid, if detected by Oil Red O, along with immunocytochemistry for CD15, RCC Ma (RCC marker) and CD10 (positive in many RCC) may be helpful in this distinction. Immunostaining for mesothelial markers (calretinin, CK5/6, WT-1 and thrombomodulin) may also assist in the distinction. "
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ABSTRACT: Effusions, especially peritoneal, are seen in less than 2% of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Since the tumor cells in RCC are bland and nondescript, the involvement of serous effusions is difficult to diagnose. An accurate recognition of malignant effusion and differentiation from reactive mesothelial cells is imperative. A 55-year-old male presented with gradually progressive ascites. Cytospin preparations from ascitic fluid showed reactive mesothelial cells admixed with few smooth-contoured clusters of cells with moderate cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei with prominent nucleolus. He had undergone nephrectomy for papillary RCC two years earlier. Another 36-year-old man underwent left nephrectomy for suspected RCC. Intra-operative ascitic fluid was sent for cytologic examination and showed numerous reactive mesothelial cells along with few clusters of cells with scant to moderate amount of cytoplasm, vesicular nucleus and a small nucleolus. Considering the histomorphology of the primary renal tumor in both cases, a cytologic diagnosis of malignant peritoneal effusion, morphologically compatible with RCC was rendered. RCC, due to its bland cytologic features, is easily overlooked in effusions. In a known patient, the cytopathologist must be extra vigilant to pick up the few cell clusters present in the fluid preparations and differentiate them from reactive mesothelial cells. A close inspection of the cytologic features and comparison with the histopathology of the primary tumor helps in making an accurate diagnosis.
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ABSTRACT: Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon malignant epithelial neoplasm originating from the serosal surface of body cavities. Because serosal surfaces are a common site of metastatic spread for a variety of malignant neoplasms originating from internal organs, separating malignant mesothelioma from metastatic tumors is of clinical importance. The diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is complex and usually requires a multimodal approach that includes careful clinical history and physical examination, imaging studies, and tissue sampling for multimodal evaluation including routine histology, histochemistry, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical tests. Of these, immunohistochemistry has emerged as the most valuable and readily available modality for the routine evaluation of these tumors. Unfortunately, no specific antibodies have yet been developed that can be accepted as exclusive for these tumors. The immunohistochemical diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma therefore depends on the use of a panel of stains that includes markers that are commonly expected to react with these tumors ("positive" markers) and markers that are not commonly expected to react with these tumors ("negative" markers). Additionally, the selection and utility of these various markers can vary considerably based on a constellation of circumstances, including patient sex, histologic appearance of the tumor (ie, epithelioid vs. sarcomatoid, etc), and various other clinical circumstances. Herein, we will review the currently available immunohistochemical markers used for the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma and offer suggestions for the use of appropriate panels of stains based on specific morphologic types and clinical circumstances.
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