A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for Erectile Dysfunction
Department of Nutrition , Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States The Journal of Urology
(Impact Factor: 4.47).
08/2006; 176(1):217-21. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-5347(06)00589-1
We examined the impact of obesity, physical activity, alcohol use and smoking on the development of erectile dysfunction.
Subjects included 22,086 United States men 40 to 75 years old in the Health Professionals Followup Study cohort who were asked to rate their erectile function for multiple periods on a questionnaire mailed in 2000. Men who reported good or very good erectile function and no major chronic disease before 1986 were included in the analyses.
Of men who were healthy and had good or very good erectile function before 1986, 17.7% reported incident erectile dysfunction during the 14-year followup. Obesity (multivariate relative risk 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.2 compared to men of ideal weight in 1986) and smoking (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.7) in 1986 were associated with an increased risk of erectile dysfunction, while physical activity (RR 0.7, 95% CI 0.7-0.8 comparing highest to lowest quintile of physical activity) was associated with a decreased risk of erectile dysfunction. For men in whom prostate cancer developed during followup, smoking (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9) was the only lifestyle factor associated with erectile dysfunction.
Reducing the risk of erectile dysfunction may be a useful and to this point unexploited motivation for men to engage in health promoting behaviors. We found that obesity and smoking were positively associated, and physical activity was inversely associated with the risk of erectile dysfunction developing.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "In both the cross-sectional Massachusetts Male Aging Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts it was observed that obesity doubles the risk of having ED, even after adjusting for lifestyle confounders.1718 Similar figures were derived from European studies.1920212223 "
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ABSTRACT: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent complication of obesity. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the framework of obesity and ED, dissecting the connections between the two pathological entities. Current clinical evidence shows that obesity, and in particular central obesity, is associated with both arteriogenic ED and reduced testosterone (T) levels. It is conceivable that obesity-associated hypogonadism and increased cardiovascular risk might partially justify the higher prevalence of ED in overweight and obese individuals. Conversely, the psychological disturbances related to obesity do not seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related ED. However, both clinical and preclinical data show that the association between ED and visceral fat accumulation is independent from known obesity-associated comorbidities. Therefore, how visceral fat could impair penile microcirculation still remains unknown. This point is particularly relevant since central obesity in ED subjects categorizes individuals at high cardiovascular risk, especially in the youngest ones. The presence of ED in obese subjects might help healthcare professionals in convincing them to initiate a virtuous cycle, where the correction of sexual dysfunction will be the reward for improved lifestyle behavior. Unsatisfying sexual activity represents a meaningful, straightforward motivation for consulting healthcare professionals, who, in turn, should take advantage of the opportunity to encourage obese patients to treat, besides ED, the underlying unfavorable conditions, thus not only restoring erectile function, but also overall health.
Available from: Graham Jackson
- "The modifiable risk factors for CVD are shared with ED. They include hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, obesity, lack of physical exercise, cigarette smoking, poor diet, excess alcohol consumption, and psychological stress, including depression . Of clinical importance is the recognition that ED is an independent marker of increased risk in addition to the conventional risk factors  . "
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ABSTRACT: Patients with cardiovascular disease are at increased risk of developing erectile dysfunction (ED). This may be a consequence of atherosclerosis of the penile arteries, a reduced cardiac output, or a side-effect of drugs used to reduce cardiovascular risk factors (particularly beta-blockers, thiazide diuretics and, occasionally, lipid-lowering drugs). ED is a distressing condition, which often diminishes the patient's self-esteem, with the potential for damage to his psychological health and his relationship with his partner and family. When treating ED, the underlying aetiology should be established by careful examination and consideration of medical history and concurrent medication. Until recently, pharmacological treatment options involved intracavernous injections (alprostadil or moxisylyte) or intraurethral alprostadil. These treatments are often inconvenient and not well accepted by the patient. The recent introduction of oral sildenafil promises to revolutionise the treatment of ED. In double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in patients with ED, sildenafil improved erectile function and quality of life and was well tolerated. ED is a clinically important complication of cardiovascular disease and should be asked about and treated accordingly. It is important that effective treatments, including sildenafil, should be available for treating patients with cardiovascular disease and ED.
Available from: Zaliha Ismail
- "Our study had shown that WHR and not BMI was associated with ED. Higher BMI was shown to be associated with increased risk of ED in a few studies   but not others   . This could possibly be due to differences in the socio-demographic characteristics of study subjects or BMI is not an accurate measure of obesity in the geriatric population because decrease of height and loss of muscle mass which accompany geriatric obesity . "
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The main aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of ED and the associated socio-demographic and psychological correlates among hypertensive patients from a rural multiethnic community in Malaysia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among hypertensive patients attending rural primary care clinics. The socio-demographic, health characteristics, erectile function and levels of depression, anxiety and stress were recorded and analysed. The International Index of ErectileFunction-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were used to assess erectile function and the levels of depression, anxiety and stress, respectively.
A total of 253 hypertensive patients comprising 178 (70.4%) Malays, 56 (22.1%) Chinese and 18 (7.5%) Indians participated. The mean age of participants was 59.8 ± 10.62 years. Overall, the prevalence rate of ED was 62%: 90 (35%) with moderate and 69 (27%) with severe ED. The prevalence rate of ED among those aged 65 years or older (83.1%) was significantly higher than those less than 65 years (51.8%), (p<0.001). Higher prevalence rates were also noted among the Chinese (78.6%) compared to Malays (59.6%) and Indians (50%) (p=0.021); lower education level (69.1%) (p=0.026), among hypertensive patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (70.6%) (p=0.026) and WHR ≥ 0.9 (31.3%) (p=0.021). However, no significant association was found between depression, anxiety and stress scores with IIEF-5 score.
The prevalence rate of ED among Malaysian hypertensive patients is high. The rate increases significantly with age, Chinese ethnicity, concomitant diabetes mellitus, lower education level, WHR and the number of pack years of smoking. ED should be properly recognized and managed in hypertensive patients.
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