Article

The national security implications of HIV/AIDS

Centre on Global Change and Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
PLoS Medicine (Impact Factor: 14.43). 07/2006; 3(6):e171. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030171
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Feldbaum and colleagues look at evidence on the links between HIV and national security, and evaluate the risks and benefits of addressing HIV/AIDS as a national security issue.

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Available from: Kelley Lee, Dec 18, 2013
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    • "For instance, among United States Armed Forces, persons who were younger, women, soldiers (enlisted and officers), and unmarried had higher STI rates across 13 years of surveillance[2]. While it appears that HIV infection has decreased among military members, current estimates lead many to categorize service members as a high risk group[8]. For a defense force that requires conscripted service, STI rates may more closely mirror the population; however , rates of disabilities and chronic illnesses, including some risk factors for STIs, such as injection drug use and pre-existing drug misuse, are lower due to pre-enrollment medical screenings. "
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    ABSTRACT: Risk taking behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) research outcomes vary among militaries. A common theme indicates STI prevalence and risk taking among military personnel is higher than the general population. Alcohol and drug misuse is well documented. From these behaviors, high-risk sexual encounters increase. Exploring STI prevalence, knowledge, and risk behaviors among conscripted military forces, we recruited 584 conscripts from a defense force in Eastern Europe. The observed STI prevalence in the young, male conscripts was equal or less than their non-conscripted counterparts. Military entry screenings could reduce STIs, creating a healthier population. However, these findings remain informative as the notion of high STI rates among military forces is not supported. As this study was one of the first of its type in the region, it demonstrates the ability of a nation to secure their defense forces against HIV/STIs even in the face of increased prevalence within that nation.
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    • "2. Applied Research: Translation of modern biomedical research into deliberately cost-effective health interventions for poorer nations, perhaps by using open access science and avoiding the pitfalls associated with the protection of intellectual property is a key step to achieving equitable global health as well as diplomatic aims [17]. There is increasing awareness that major disease burdens can contribute to the weakening of state capacity and the destabilisation of states is closely associated with the threat of weak or failed states [18]. Controversies surrounding the limitations to equitable access to the influenza vaccine during the avian influenza A (H5N1) and the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) have led to defiance of international protocols. "
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    ABSTRACT: Three years ago, the Lancet’s frontispiece stated “Health is now the most important foreign policy issue of our time” and last year, the Director-General of WHO, Margaret Chan, in her opening address, to the Executive Board at its 132nd Session said “health diplomacy works”. The nascent field of health diplomacy provides a political framework which aims to deliver the dual goals of improved health in target populations and enhanced governmental relations between collaborating countries. Any government that offered tangible health improvement as a component of aid to a nation with whom they wished to develop stronger diplomatic links would have an advantage in developing a deeper relationship with its citizens. Here we suggest several different mechanisms through which such links could be developed or enhanced, including: provision of relevant health solutions, applied research, cultural alignment and the development of collaborative networks. The Islamic tradition promotes the practice of medicine as a service to humanity. Physical and spiritual wellbeing are intimately related in popular Muslim consciousness. Thoughtful Health Diplomacy therefore has the potential to bridge the perceived divides between Western and predominantly Muslim nations.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Globalization and Health
    • "In June 2011, the UN Security Council renewed its commitment to address the impact of HIV/AIDS, on peace and security, by unanimously adopting UNSCR 1983 that calls for increased efforts by UN member states to address HIV/AIDS in peacekeeping missions. It also calls for HIV/AIDS prevention efforts among uniformed services to be aligned with efforts to end sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings (Feldbaum et al. 2006; Rushton 2010). "

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