York, I.A., Brehm, M.A., Zendzian, S., Towne, C.F. & Rock, K.L. Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) trims MHC class I-presented peptides in vivo and plays an important role in immunodominance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9202-9207

Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 07/2006; 103(24):9202-7. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0603095103
Source: PubMed


CD8(+) T cells respond to short peptides bound to MHC class I molecules. Although most antigenic proteins contain many sequences that could bind to MHC class I, few of these peptides actually stimulate CD8(+) T cell responses. Moreover, the T cell responses that are generated often follow a very reproducible hierarchy to different peptides for reasons that are poorly understood. We find that the loss of a single enzyme, endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1), in the antigen-processing pathway results in a marked shift in the hierarchy of immunodominance in viral infections, even when the responding T cells have the same T cell receptor repertoire. In mice, ERAP1 is the major enzyme that trims precursor peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum and, in this process, can generate or destroy antigenic peptides. Consequently, when ERAP1 is lost, the immune response to some viral peptides is reduced, to others increased, and to yet others unchanged. Therefore, many epitopes must be initially generated as precursors that are normally trimmed by ERAP1 before binding to MHC class I, whereas others are normally degraded by ERAP1 to lengths that are too short to bind to MHC class I. Moreover, peptide trimming and the resulting abundance of peptide-MHC complexes are dominant factors in establishing immunodominance.

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    • "ERAP1 is responsible for length-specific N-terminal trimming of peptides (derived from intracellular proteins) before presentation by HLA class I molecules [4] [5]. It is therefore hypothesized to be an important determinant of the repertoire of presented peptides, as has been shown in various ERAP1 downregulated mouse models [5] [6] [7]. Moreover, genetic variation in the ERAP1 gene is associated with both increased cervical carcinoma risk and decreased survival among patients [8] [9] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The antigen processing machinery (APM) plays an important role in immune recognition of virally infected and transformed cells. Defective expression of the APM component ERAP1 is associated with progression and poor clinical outcome in cervical carcinoma. However, the underlying mechanisms of ERAP1 protein downregulation remain to be established. We investigated ERAP1 mRNA expression levels in 14 patients with established ERAP1 protein downregulation. To further examine the possible pretranscriptional mechanisms of ERAP1 downregulation, ERAP1 DNA mutation status was analyzed alongside existing data on various single nucleotide polymorphisms. Moreover, loss of heterozygosity at various loci in the ERAP1 gene was investigated. In cases with ERAP1 protein downregulation, ERAP1 mRNA quantities were found to be significantly lower than in a cohort with normal ERAP1 protein expression P = 0.001 . Loss of heterozygosity was demonstrated to occur in up to 50% of tumors with ERAP1 downregulation. Our data indicate that ERAP1 downregulation is associated with loss of heterozygosity. These data provide the first insight into in vivo mechanisms of ERAP1 downregulation in cervical carcinoma.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Analytical cellular pathology (Amsterdam)
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    • "Besides the multicatalytic proteasome cleaving intracellularly synthesized, ubiquitinated proteins into intermediate peptide fragments, other cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteases are required for further trimming. The ER-associated aminopeptidases ERAP1 and ERAP2 either trim residual N-terminal extended peptides to a length fitting into the HLA class I peptide-binding groove [4] [5] [6] or even destroy peptides [7] [8] [9] [10] suggesting an important role for "
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    ABSTRACT: Altered expression of the ER-resident aminopeptidases ERAP1 and ERAP2 might play an important role in shaping the MHC class I-presented peptide repertoire, but their function in tumors has not been determined in detail. Thus, the expression of ERAP1, ERAP2 and HLA class I heavy chain (HC) was analysed in various renal tumor types and corresponding kidney parenchyma by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, comparative expression profilings of untreated versus interferon (IFN)-γ-treated RCC cell lines were performed applying qRT-PCR, Western blot and/or flow cytometry. Normal kidney tissues showed strong ERAP1 staining in the proximal tubules of 57.4 % of cases, in the distal tubules of 94.3 % of cases and in the medulla of 88.6 % of cases, whereas high ERAP2 levels were observed in the medulla of 77.1 % of cases and in both, proximal and distal tubules of about 88 % of cases. Imbalanced, downregulated and RCC subtype-specific ERAP1 or ERAP2 expression was detected in 12.7 % or 43.8 % of samples analyzed, respectively. A coordinated downregulation of ERAPs was found in 4.8 %, an upregulation of ERAP1 or ERAP2 in 22.8 % or 2.0 % of RCC lesions. No association exists between ERAP and HLA class I HC expression for any tissue type. A heterogeneous constitutive ERAP expression pattern was also detected in RCC cell lines with lower ERAP2 than ERAP1 expression levels, which was in 11/17 RCC cell lines inducible by IFN-γ. Conclusively, ERAP1 and ERAP2 might be involved in the development of immune escape mechanisms of RCC.
    Preview · Article · May 2013 · International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
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    • "ERAP1-deficient or wt mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) showed profound differences in the frequency of CD8+ T cells specific for particular LCMV peptides [30]. In wt mice the magnitude of T-cell responses to different LCMV epitopes followed a hierarchy of immunodominance that is markedly changed in the ERAP1-deficient mice [30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) aminopeptidases ERAP1 and ERAP2 (ERAPs) are essential for the maturation of a wide spectrum of proteins involved in various biological processes. In the ER, these enzymes work in concert to trim peptides for presentation on MHC class I molecules. Loss of ERAPs function substantially alters the repertoire of peptides presented by MHC class I molecules, critically affecting recognition of both NK and CD8(+) T cells. In addition, these enzymes are involved in the modulation of inflammatory responses by promoting the shedding of several cytokine receptors, and in the regulation of both blood pressure and angiogenesis. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified common variants of ERAP1 and ERAP2 linked to several human diseases, ranging from viral infections to autoimmunity and cancer. More recently, inhibition of ER peptide trimming has been shown to play a key role in stimulating innate and adaptive anti-tumor immune responses, suggesting that inhibition of ERAPs might be exploited for the establishment of innovative therapeutic approaches against cancer. This review summarizes data currently available for ERAP enzymes in ER peptide trimming and in other immunological and non-immunological functions, paying attention to the emerging role played by these enzymes in human diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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