Prospective observational study on the effects of caesarean section on breastfeeding
Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025, China. Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
To study the effects of caesarean section on breastfeeding.
Six hundred and two [301 cases was caesarean section (caesarean section group) and 301 cases was vaginal delivery (vaginal delivery group)] nulliparas were interviewed face-to-face at antepartum and postpartum in an indication-matched prospective study.
There was a significantly lower postpartum prolactin (PRL) level in the caesarean section group (8.48 nmol/L, 95% CI: 7.80 - 9.21 nmol/L) compared with vaginal delivery group (9.61 nmol/L, 95% CI: 8.99 - 10.26 nmol/L) during 6 - 24 hours in the daytime after delivery. The median time of breastfeeding initiation was 12 hours and 2 hours after birth for caesarean section and vaginal delivery groups respectively. Caesarean section was an important hazard for a shorter duration of breastfeeding (RR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.10 - 1.33) within one year after childbirth.
Caesarean section is associated with significantly lower postpartum PRL, which is in line with the longer breastfeeding initiation and lower rate of successful breastfeeding. Necessary measures including promoting the secretion of postpartum PRL such as early contact, early sucking and analgesic method should be taken to improve the successful breastfeeding rate.
Available from: ijms.sums.ac.ir
- "95% CI: 1.10-1.33) within one year after childbirth.6 "
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ABSTRACT: Breast feeding has a great impact on the infant morbidity and mortality. According to Pakistan Demographic and Health survey (PDHS) infant mortality rate is 78 deaths per 1,000 live births. World Health Organization recommends that exclusive breast feeding for six months can decrease infant mortality rate by one-third. The objective of the study was to find out how the mode of delivery had impact on the practice of breast feeding. Data were collected for 2500 consecutive patients during a period of two years, and it was seen that maternal initiative to breast feed was low and problems with lactation were much more in cases delivering their babies via cesarean sections than those delivering theirs by normal delivery. Vaginal and cesarean section deliveries took place in 54% and 46% of the case, respectively. Thirty percent of the women studied felt that they had no problems regarding breastfeeding, but 70% of them had some sort of problems with breastfeeding their babies. When the women were matched for the mode of delivery, 58% of women who had breastfeeding problems belonged to the cesarean delivery group and 42% of complaining mothers were from women with normal delivery. The relative risk of having problems with breastfeeding for women subjected to cesarean was 1.38 and the odds ratio was 0.61. The findings of the present study indicate that more in depth counseling sessions are required for women undergoing operative delivery to improve breast feeding among them.
Available from: Colin Binns
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ABSTRACT: This review aims to describe changes in breastfeeding and summarise the breastfeeding rates, duration and reasons of discontinuing 'any breastfeeding' or 'exclusive breastfeeding' in P.R. China. Breastfeeding rates in China fell during the 1970s when the use of breast milk substitutes became widespread, and reached the lowest point in the 1980s. As a result many efforts were introduced to promote breastfeeding. The breastfeeding rate in China started to increase in the 1990s, and since the mid-1990s 'any breastfeeding' rates in the majority of cities and provinces, including minority areas, have been above 80% at four months. But most cities and provinces did not reach the national target of 'exclusive breastfeeding' of 80%. The 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates in minority areas were relatively lower than comparable inland provinces. The mean duration of 'any breastfeeding' in the majority of cities or provinces was between seven and nine months. The common reasons for ceasing breastfeeding, or introducing water or other infant food before four months, were perceived breast milk insufficiency, mother going to work, maternal and child illness and breast problems. Incorrect traditional perceptions have a strong adverse influence on 'exclusive breastfeeding' in less developed areas or rural areas. China is a huge country, geographically and in population size, and there is considerable ethnic diversity. Therefore breastfeeding rates in different parts of China can vary considerably.
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ABSTRACT: To provide an understanding of Chinese new mothers' breastfeeding behaviors and especially to explore the relationship between the mothers perceived family perception about breastfeeding and the new mothers' breastfeeding behaviors.
A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Beijing and Yinchuan, the capital of Ning Xia Province, China. 214 new mothers with a baby at the age of 4 months were recruited to the study. The family perception of breastfeeding scale and the new mothers' breastfeeding behavior record were used.
The response rate was n=200, 94%. Most of the new mothers perceived positive family perceptions about breastfeeding with an average score of 23.13 using the family perception of breastfeeding scale. Nearly half of the respondents reported that they exclusively breastfed their infants (n=94, 47%). The main reason for breastfeeding difficulty was inadequate lactation (n=56, 69%). The new mothers who breastfed their infants mentioned significantly stronger family perceptions/support compared to those who used mixed feeding or artificial feeding (p<0.001). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the types of mothers' feeding behaviors across the different age group, occupation, ethnicity, educational level, mode of delivery, the time of the baby's first suck, bottle feeding before the baby's first suck and the time of having colostrums.
It is suggested to develop some strategies, such as family-centered antenatal and postnatal education programmes, to increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding by influencing new mothers' families about breastfeeding. Further research is needed to explore socio-demographic variables associated with new-mothers' breastfeeding behaviors.
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