Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-alpha subunits (HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha and HIF-3alpha), which play a pivotal role during the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH), are regulated through post-translational hydroxylation by their three prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing proteins (PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3). PHDs could also be regulated by HIF. But differential and reciprocal regulation between HIF-alpha and PHDs during the development of HPH remains unclear. To investigate this problem, a rat HPH model was established. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure increased significantly after 7 d of hypoxia. Pulmonary artery remodeling index and right ventricular hypertrophy became evident after 14 d of hypoxia. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA increased slightly after 7 d of hypoxia, but HIF-3alpha increased significantly after 3 d of hypoxia. The protein expression levels of all three HIF-alpha were markedly upregulated after exposure to hypoxia. PHD2 mRNA and protein expression levels were upregulated after 3 d of hypoxia; PHD1 protein declined after 14 d of hypoxia without significant mRNA changes. PHD3 mRNA and protein were markedly upregulated after 3 d of hypoxia, then the mRNA remained at a high level, but the protein declined after 14 d of hypoxia. In hypoxic animals, HIF-1alpha proteins negatively correlated with PHD2 proteins, whereas HIF-2alpha and HIF-3alpha proteins showed negative correlations with PHD3 and PHD1 proteins, respectively. All three HIF-alpha proteins were positively correlated with PHD2 and PHD3 mRNA. In the present study, HIF-alpha subunits and PHDs showed differential and reciprocal regulation, and this might play a key pathogenesis role in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.
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"In addition, a well-characterized impairment of cognitive function due to exposure to hypobaric hypoxia can be first detected at this altitude (Farmer et al. 1992 ). Generally, however, at this altitude the decrease in oxygen pressure should not generate too much difficulty in acclimatization for daily activities. Given the pivotal role of HIF in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) (Chen et al. 2006; Fu et al. 2008 ), an enhancement of the transcriptional activities of HIF should not be necessary; instead, enhancement may compromise fitness under normoxic and mild hypoxic conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, we did not observe any genes that enhance the transcriptional activity of HIF in our study of populations at moderate altitudes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Research into the mechanisms of human adaptation to the hypoxic environment of high altitude is of great interest to the fields of human physiology and clinical medicine. Recently, the gene EGLN1, from the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway, was identified as being involved in the hypoxic adaptation of highland Andeans and Tibetans. Both highland Andeans and Tibetans have adapted to an extremely hypoxic habitat and less attention has been paid to populations living in normoxic conditions at sea level and mild-hypoxic environments of moderate altitude, thus, whether a common adaptive mechanism exists in response to quantitative variations of environmental oxygen pressure over a wide range of residing altitudes is unknown. Here, we first performed a genome-wide association study of 35 populations from the Human Genome Diversity-CEPH Panel who dwell at sea level to moderate altitude in Eurasia (N = 691; 0-2,500 m) to identify the genetic adaptation profile of normoxic and mild-hypoxic inhabitants. In addition, we systematically compared the results from the present study to six previously published genome-wide scans of highland Andeans and Tibetans to identify shared adaptive signals in response to quantitative variations of oxygen pressure. For normoxic and mild-hypoxic populations, the strongest adaptive signal came from the mu opioid receptor-encoding gene (OPRM1, 2.54 × 10(-9)), which has been implicated in the stimulation of respiration, while in the systematic survey the EGLN1-DISC1 locus was identified in all studies. A replication study performed with highland Tibetans (N = 733) and sea level Han Chinese (N = 748) confirmed the association between altitude and SNP allele frequencies in OPRM1 (in Tibetans only, P < 0.01) and in EGLN1-DISC1 (in Tibetans and Han Chinese, P < 0.01). Taken together, identification of the OPRM1 gene suggests that cardiopulmonary adaptation mechanisms are important and should be a focus in future studies of hypoxia adaptation. Furthermore, the identification of the EGLN1 gene from the HIF pathway suggests a common adaptive mechanism for Eurasian human populations residing at different altitudes with different oxygen pressures.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Molecular Biology and Evolution
"Other studies have reported that PHD1 expression is regulated by estrogen [41,45] and it is plausible that the decreased PHD1 expression in preeclampsia is due to an alteration in the hormonal milieu. In rats with hypoxia-induced hypertension PHD1 expression negatively correlated with HIF-3a, but not HIF- 1a, expression, suggesting that PHD1 has a greater specificity for HIF-3a . Thus, the low expression of PHD1 in E-PE placentae does likely not contribute to the increase in HIF-1a levels in E-PE. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of preeclampsia, a serious pregnancy disorder, is still elusive and its treatment empirical. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) is crucial for placental development and early detection of aberrant regulatory mechanisms of HIF-1 could impact on the diagnosis and management of preeclampsia. HIF-1α stability is controlled by O(2)-sensing enzymes including prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs), Factor Inhibiting HIF (FIH), and E3 ligases Seven In Absentia Homologues (SIAHs). Here we investigated early- (E-PE) and late-onset (L-PE) human preeclamptic placentae and their ability to sense changes in oxygen tension occurring during normal placental development.
Expression of PHD2, FIH and SIAHs were significantly down-regulated in E-PE compared to control and L-PE placentae, while HIF-1α levels were increased. PHD3 expression was increased due to decreased FIH levels as demonstrated by siRNA FIH knockdown experiments in trophoblastic JEG-3 cells. E-PE tissues had markedly diminished HIF-1α hydroxylation at proline residues 402 and 564 as assessed with monoclonal antibodies raised against hydroxylated HIF-1α P402 or P564, suggesting regulation by PHD2 and not PHD3. Culturing villous explants under varying oxygen tensions revealed that E-PE, but not L-PE, placentae were unable to regulate HIF-1α levels because PHD2, FIH and SIAHs did not sense a hypoxic environment.
Disruption of oxygen sensing in E-PE vs. L-PE and control placentae is the first molecular evidence of the existence of two distinct preeclamptic diseases and the unique molecular O(2)-sensing signature of E-PE placentae may be of diagnostic value when assessing high risk pregnancies and their severity.
"mPAP was measured . In brief, after rats were intraperitoneally anesthetized with 40 mg/kg pentobarbital sodium, a specially designed PE-50 single lumen catheter, (BD Biosciecnces, Sparks, USA) was inserted into the main pulmonary artery through the right jugular vein. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha subunit (HIF-1alpha) plays a pivotal role during the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) by transactivating it' target genes. As an oxygen-sensitive attenuator, factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH) hydroxylates a conserved asparagine residue within the C-terminal transactivation domain of HIF-1alpha under normoxia and moderate hypoxia. FIH protein is downregulated in response to hypoxia, but its dynamic expression and role during the development of HPH remains unclear. In this study, an HPH rat model was established. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure increased significantly after 7 d of hypoxia. The pulmonary artery remodeling index became evident after 7 d of hypoxia, while the right ventricular hypertrophy index became significant after 14 d of hypoxia. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of HIF-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a well-characterized target gene of HIF-1alpha, were markedly upregulated after exposure to hypoxia in pulmonary arteries. FIH protein in lung tissues declined after 7 d of hypoxia and continued to decline through the duration of hypoxia. FIH mRNA had few changes after exposure to hypoxia compared with after exposure to normoxia. In hypoxic rats, FIH protein showed significant negative correlation with VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein. FIH protein was negatively correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary artery remodeling index and right ventricular hypertrophy index. Taken together, our results suggest that, in the pulmonary arteries of rat exposed to moderate hypoxia, a time-dependent decrease in FIH protein may contribute to the development of rat HPH by enhancing the transactivation of HIF-1alpha target genes such as VEGF.
Preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica