Article

Lead decline in the Indian environment resulting from the petrol-lead phase-out programme

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Abstract

Recently, the lead content of various environmental components has decreased in response to replacement of leaded petrol by unleaded petrol. In India, 15 research studies are here assessed with respect to lead concentrations in various environmental components during the leaded petrol phase (before 1996), the transitional phase (1996-2000) and the unleaded petrol phase (2000 onwards). The Ganga River Water exhibited a decrease in lead concentration from 18.0 microg/l in 1988 to 3.1 microg/l in 2001. In Lucknow urban centre, mean lead concentrations in the urban air decreased from 1.6 microg/m(3) in 1994 to 0.2 microg/m(3) in 2002. Lead concentrations in Dalbergia sissoo tree leaves also decreased from 18.7 microg/g dry wt. in 1994 to 8.3 microg/g dry wt. in 2004. Mean blood-lead levels of children from Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Amritsar and Lucknow urban centres have fallen from 18.1 microg/dl in the leaded petrol phase to 12.1 microg/dl in the unleaded petrol phase. The petrol-lead phase-out effort in India has reduced lead concentrations in the various environmental components after 2000. It will help to reduce the exposure of millions of people to environmental lead.

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... However, combustion of leaded gasoline in the automobile engine releases lead-associated particles as automobile emissions, which in turn, causes several health problems. Lead started to be phased out from gasoline in 1975 in the USA (phase out was completed in 1996) and Canada (phase out was completed in 1993); in 1985 in China (phase out was completed in 2000); in 1987 in Germany (phase out was completed in 1996); in 1989 in the UK and France;and in 1996 in India (phase out was completed in 2000) (Degobert, 1995;Nriagu, 1990;Singh and Singh, 2006;UNEP and OECD, 1999). Unlike Pb, in terms of their corresponding increasing/decreasing trends, other metals (e.g., Zn, Co, and Cu) have not been a focus of relevant legislation and urban development. ...
... Salma et al. (2000) indicated that the Pb concentration in the dust in Budapest, Hungary was reduced to 1/3-1/4 of that from 1996 to 1999 as a result of phasing out leaded gasoline in 1999 in Hungary. Singh and Singh (2006) found that the Pb content in the dust from various locations in India was reduced to 1/8 of that from 1994 to 2002 as a result of phasing out leaded gasoline in 2000. Similarly, Needleman (2000) indicated that the concentration of Pb in the dust was reduced to approximately ¼ of that in Philadelphia from 1977 to 1988. ...
... In India alone, IHME found 4.6 million lead-attributable DALYs and nearly 165,000 deaths (IHME, 2017a). The most significant historic source of global lead exposure was the use of tetraethyl lead in petrol in the 20th century (Bollhöfer and petrol was phased out in India from 1996 to 2000 and was similarly followed by BLL declines (Singh and Singh, 2006). Nichani et al. (2006), for instance, documented a 60% decrease in BLLs among residents of Mumbai from 1997 to 2002, following the full adoption of unleaded petrol. ...
... Nichani et al. (2006), for instance, documented a 60% decrease in BLLs among residents of Mumbai from 1997 to 2002, following the full adoption of unleaded petrol. Similarly, Singh and Singh (2006) found a mean BLL decrease of 33% following the leaded petrol phase out in the urban centers of Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Amritsar and Lucknow. ...
Article
Multiple studies in India have found elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in target populations. However the data have not yet been evaluated to understand population-wide exposure levels. We used arithmetic mean blood lead data published from 2010 to 2018 on Indian populations to calculate the average BLLs for multiple subgroups. We then calculated the attributable disease burden in IQ decrement and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). Our Pubmed search yielded 1066 articles. Of these, 31 studies representing the BLLs of 5472 people in 9 states met our study criteria. Evaluating these, we found a mean BLL of 6.86 μg/dL (95% CI: 4.38-9.35) in children and 7.52 μg/dL (95% CI: 5.28-9.76) in non-occupationally exposed adults. We calculated that these exposures resulted in 4.9 million DALYs (95% CI: 3.9-5.6) in the states we evaluated. Population-wide BLLs in India remain elevated despite regulatory action to eliminate leaded petrol, the most significant historical source. The estimated attributable disease burden is larger than previously calculated, particularly with regard to associated intellectual disability outcomes in children. Larger population-wide BLL studies are required to inform future calculations. Policy responses need to be developed to mitigate the worst exposures.
... In station, S4 which is a road-side area, the manganese deposition will be more in the post monsoon season. Previous studies by Singh and Singh (2006) [17] had shown that the manganese deposition in soils will be more in the post monsoon season in the road-side soils in India. Station, S9 which is an urban coastal area, this negative correlation will be more due to the hyper saline nature of these soils. ...
... In station, S4 which is a road-side area, the manganese deposition will be more in the post monsoon season. Previous studies by Singh and Singh (2006) [17] had shown that the manganese deposition in soils will be more in the post monsoon season in the road-side soils in India. Station, S9 which is an urban coastal area, this negative correlation will be more due to the hyper saline nature of these soils. ...
... Road space comprises approximately 6% of the city's area. In India, leaded petrol officially was phased out in 2000 (Singh and Singh, 2006;Nichani et al., 2006). However, other sources stated that India switched to unleaded petrol until 2005 (Gavaghan, 2002;Gallagher, 2003). ...
... Consequently, wind erosion of soils can be a source of Pb found in street sediments typically consisting at least for some parts of soil particles. Furthermore, unleaded petrol is not free of Pb, since it still contains Pb concentrations of up to 0.013 g/L (Singh and Singh, 2006). However, exhaust is not the only way vehicles pollute the environment. ...
Article
This article presents a fingerprinting study of the street sediments in the city of Kolkata, India. Street sediment samples were taken along a transverse running from north to south through Kolkata. Their chemical compositions reflect diverse land uses of the surrounding districts such as industry and urban and residential dwelling. In addition to the impact of geogenic sources on patterns of chemical elements in the sediments, various anthropogenic sources were identified: construction materials, traffic, coal combustion, metal processing, and diffuse distributed pollution sources. In these sediments, allowable concentrations are exceeded for various heavy metals with respect to existing limiting values of soils. Although leaded petrol was officially phased out in India in 2000, street sediments still show high Pb concentrations of up to 850 mg/kg. The results also show that some elements, such as Al, Ti, and Ca, which are generally accepted to indicate geogenic sources, can also be attributed to anthropogenic sources.
... As more countries phase lead out of gasoline, similar findings are reported. For example, Singh and Singh [33] reviewed 15 research studies all of which measured lead in the environment and some measured human blood during different periods. The reviewers categorized the studies according to three stages of their leaded gasoline phase-out: before (before 1996), during (1996– 2000), and after (2000 and after). ...
... The reviewers categorized the studies according to three stages of their leaded gasoline phase-out: before (before 1996), during (1996– 2000), and after (2000 and after). Reductions in lead tions were observed in tree leaves, water, air, and children's blood as lead was removed from gasoline [33]. In another study, Nichani et al. [34] assessed children's BLLs in Bombay, India, 2–3 years after the phase-out of leaded gasoline and compared their findings with results from BLLs in a study conducted by the George Foundation in 1997 (when leaded gasoline was still used in Bombay). ...
Article
Lead poisoning is an important environmental disease that can have life-long adverse health effects. Most susceptible are children, and most commonly exposed are those who are poor and live in developing countries. Studies of children's blood-lead levels (BLLs) are showing cognitive impairment at increasingly lower BLLs. Lead is dangerous at all levels in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among and within countries depending on past and current uses. Sources of lead may be from historic contamination, recycling old lead products, or from manufacturing new products. In all countries that have banned leaded gasoline, average population BLLs have declined rapidly. In many developing countries where leaded gasoline is no longer used, many children and workers are exposed to fugitive emissions and mining wastes. Unexpected lead threats, such as improper disposal of electronics and children's toys contaminated with lead, continue to emerge. The only medical treatment available is chelation, which can save lives of persons with very high BLLs. However, chelating drugs are not always available in developing countries and have limited value in reducing the sequelae of chronic low dose lead exposure. Therefore, the best approach is to prevent exposure to lead. Because a key strategy for preventing lead poisoning is to identify and control or eliminate lead sources, this article highlights several major sources of lead poisoning worldwide. In addition, we recommend three primary prevention strategies for lead poisoning: identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards.
... In addition, most documents surrounding the Asian countries and the open Indian Ocean revealed an early local Pb anomaly peak over the 1950s-1990s. These local peaks are in parallel with the increasing economic development of Asian countries (e.g., Afroz et al., 2003;Hilton, 2006;Hirota, 2006;Li et al., 2012;Singh & Singh, 2006;Xu et al., 2012), where we can expect increasing emissions of leaded gasoline since ∼1970 and phase-out of leaded gasoline around ∼1997/2000, with several peaks of Pb emission from vehicle gasoline combustion in the 1970s-1990s for different countries ( Figure S2 in Supporting Information S1). The time of Pb emission peaks from leaded gasoline combustion in Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, India, Indonesia and China is 1979, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1993, 1995, and 2000. ...
Article
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Since North America and European countries phased out leaded gasoline, Asia has become the major contemporary lead (Pb) source to the marine environment, at first from leaded gasoline, but more recently from coal burning and other high‐temperature industrial activities (Flegal et al., 2013, https://doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2012.671738; Lee et al., 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.04.030). Pb in the Indian Ocean remains relatively under‐evaluated after ∼2000 and is further complicated by various oceanic processes (e.g., monsoons, boundary exchange with particulates). Here, we present three annually resolved coral skeletal Pb isotope and concentration records from the central and eastern Indian Ocean (Salomon Atoll, 1989–2009; Diego Garcia Atoll, 1999–2009; and Phuket Island, 1945–2010), and synthesize published coral/sedimentary records to reconstruct the spatial‐temporal variability of anthropogenic Pb around the region. Pb isotopes in all corals coherently fall along the mixing line between Asian aerosols and the natural crust. However, higher contributions of natural Pb are found in corals located in the coastal region than those in the open ocean, despite the greater contributions of anthropogenic Pb expected in coastal water near human emission sources. This geographical difference suggests that exchanges between dissolved Pb and natural particles at ocean boundaries significantly contribute to the Pb isotope compositions in regional seawater and are subsequently recorded in corals. The temporal variability of Pb concentrations in corals and sedimentary records signifies decreasing trends in Southeast Asia but increasing trends in South Asia. This study contributes new and timely Pb and Pb isotope data for the Indian Ocean and illustrates the importance of boundary exchange in marine Pb cycling.
... However, the Pb flux increased significantly in the 1950s and increased sharply in the 1980s, and peaked in the 1990s and then decreased gradually. Huang et al. (2020b) proposed that the downward trend of Pb accumulation in sediments was due to the Pb decrease in gasoline and the decrease of anthropogenic Pb emissions caused by the phasing out of Pb gasoline (Singh and Singh, 2006). Therefore, the various trends of HMs in the sediment cores reflected the different sources, transport pathways, and geochemical circulation of HMs around the TP. ...
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Permafrost regions account for about 22% of the exposed land area in the Northern Hemisphere (Obu et al., 2019). As one of physical characteristics in the cold environment, permafrost is sensitive to climate change. During the past decades, permafrost in high latitude and high-altitude regions shows obvious degradation, which is indicated by increasing ground temperature, deepening active layer, shrinking of permafrost area, and development of thermokarst features (Biskaborn et al., 2019). Permafrost is distributed beneath the earth’s surface. Permafrost can regulate the regional water cycle and ecology from several mechanisms. First, as a weak impermeable layer, permafrost can prevent water vertical infiltration and increase the surface soil water content. Second, the freeze-thaw cycles of the active layer can store excess water from summer rainfall as ice during winter, and the melting of this ice can supply soil water in the following summer. Third, ground ice melting can provide soil water for plant growth (Sugimoto et al., 2003). Permafrost regions also store a large amount of soil organic carbon, which is almost twice as the carbon currently contained in the atmosphere (Mishra et al., 2021). These carbon pools have been gradually accumulated and preserved during the past thousands of years due to the low-temperature limiting the microbial decomposition of organic matter. The permafrost degradation may remobilize these carbon pools by releasing greenhouse gases into the air. This process contributes one of the great uncertainties in the terrestrial carbon cycle feedback (Schuur et al., 2015). In addition, permafrost regions also store a large number of pollutants and heavy metals (e.g., mercury) which have been sequestrated for a long time. Permafrost degradation poses environmental risksand thawing permafrost may release these biological or chemical substances that can affect human health (Schuster et al., 2018; Miner et al., 2021). To address the issues on how permafrost environment is changing, to what extent the changing permafrost may affect the hydrology, ecology, carbon cycle, and pollutants, eleven multi-discipline studies are collected in this special topic on permafrost environment changes in a warming climate. Permafrost regions have been warming at two to three times the global average (Hu et al., 2021). Using the monthly air temperature reanalysis dataset from the Climate Research Unit (CRU, University of East Anglia), it was found that the air freezing index in the Mongolian Plateau decreased by 4.1 C d yr-1, and the air thawing index increased by 2.3 C d yr−1 during 1901–2019. The northern permafrost regions showed large variabilities in freezing and thawing index than the southern non-permafrost regions (Ma et al. ). Based on the meteorological station records from 1957 to 2019, the annual mean air temperature has increased by 0. 031–0.039°C yr−1 in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The ground temperature within the active layer at 1 m depth increased at an average rate of 0.05°C yr−1 (Zhou et al.). Along with climate warming, frequency of extreme events also changed. On the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the warmth indices such as warm days, warm nights, summer days, and tropical nights increased at rates of 1.1, 1.6, 1.4 and 0.3 days per decade from 1960 to 2016. Meanwhile, cold indices including the number of cool days, cool nights, ice days, and frost days decreased significantly (Gong et al.). These results confirmed the rapid warming of the permafrost environment during the past decades and also provide useful data to understand the changing patterns and future projections of permafrost. Three studies (i.e., Yang et al.; Rossi et al.; Polyakov et al. ) examined the detecting permafrost and soil mapping method in permafrost regions. The equivalent anti-flux opposing coils were used to eliminate the blind area for the transient electromagnetic method, and the results showed that this method solved the problem of the shallow detection blind area, eliminated the interference caused by the primary field, and improved the horizontal and vertical resolutions (Yang et al.). In the Russian Arctic, geophysical and geocryological methods including landscape microzonation, borehole drilling, ground temperature measurements, and geoelectric surveys were employed to investigate the active layer thickness. The results showed that the multidisciplinary approach can be also useful for other areas (Rossi et al.). In permafrost regions, soil type is one of the most fundamental properties because it is an important parameter for Earth System Models as well as the carbon stocks estimation. However, due to the harsh natural conditions, field investigation of soil types is usually costly and difficult. Using the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging data in the Lena River Delta, classical soil sections, geomorphological observation, and determination of the main chemical parameters of soils are presented. Although accurate mapping of soil types should be based on chemical analysis, this result suggests that the highresolution soil-geomorphological maps based on the Geographic Information System and UAV data are useful for the mapping of soil types under the high variability of the watershed dan cryogenic landscapes (Polyakov et al.). Permafrost significantly affects ecology and hydrology (Woo et al., 2008). A review paper in this topic summarizes that soil water potential is widely used to describe the energy state of liquid water. The movement of liquid water in the soil is mainly determined by soil matric potential. The process of ice lenses development in permafrost has been explained by mathematical models, however, existing models might be too simplified (Fu et al.). Therefore, new model development for ice formation for micro landscapes is still largely needed. To investigate the effects of hydrology on peat permafrost and carbon process, a process-based model, i.e., HPM-Arctic, was used the simulate the past and future changes in a peatland ecosystem in the Canadian Arctic. The results showed that the regional hydrology and basin characteristics strongly determined peat accumulation history and its future changes in organic carbon stocks under different climate scenarios (Treat et al.). For the carbon cycle in the Arctic permafrost, a pilot study showed that extensively grazing by large animals can cool the ground temperature by modifying ground cover properties. In addition, the soil organic carbon content is also higher in the extensively grazing sites than that of non-grazing sites, which is likely attributed to the higher carbon input (Windirsch et al.). Heavy metals are anthropogenic contaminants that can be transported for long distances. Due to the atmospheric circulation and deposition, large heavy metals have been transported to the Arctic, Antarctic, as well as the Qinghai- Tibet Plateau. A review paper in this topic issue pointed out that heavy metals on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau are mainly from surrounding heavily-polluted regions. The shrinkage of the cryosphere may increase the release of these heavy metals in the future. This work highlights the importance of heavy metals in permafrost environments. This special topic has collected the studies of permafrost regions located in the Arctic, Mongolia, and the Qinghai- Tibet Plateau. The results deepen our understanding of changing trends of climate and permafrost, interactions among permafrost, hydrology, ecology, carbon cycle, and risks of heavy metals. We hope this special topic could provide valuable references to the researchers with relevant interest and play an active role in promoting the research of permafrost changes and their environmental impacts.
... However, the Pb flux increased significantly in the 1950s and increased sharply in the 1980s, and peaked in the 1990s and then decreased gradually. Huang et al. (2020b) proposed that the downward trend of Pb accumulation in sediments was due to the Pb decrease in gasoline and the decrease of anthropogenic Pb emissions caused by the phasing out of Pb gasoline (Singh and Singh, 2006). Therefore, the various trends of HMs in the sediment cores reflected the different sources, transport pathways, and geochemical circulation of HMs around the TP. ...
... Leaded gasoline was a major source of atmospheric pollution in many countries before it was first eliminated out in the Mid 1970s in United States, and several other countries have also followed the initiative to ban leaded gasoline (Meyer et al., 2003).Studies in many countries have showed decrease in lead level after elimination of leaded gasoline. For instance studies in India by Singh and Singh (2006) compared the lead levels during the leaded petrol regime prior to 1999, the transitional phase and the unleaded phase from 2000.The results indicated decline in children blood lead level from 18.1µg/dl to 12µg/dl, decrease was also observed in Ganga River water from 18.0µg/l in1998 to 3.1 in 2001. ...
... However, the Pb flux increased significantly in the 1950s and increased sharply in the 1980s, and peaked in the 1990s and then decreased gradually. Huang et al. (2020b) proposed that the downward trend of Pb accumulation in sediments was due to the Pb decrease in gasoline and the decrease of anthropogenic Pb emissions caused by the phasing out of Pb gasoline (Singh and Singh, 2006). Therefore, the various trends of HMs in the sediment cores reflected the different sources, transport pathways, and geochemical circulation of HMs around the TP. ...
Article
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With a unique multi-sphere environmental system, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays an essential role in the ecological sheltering function for China and other parts of Asia. However, black carbon, persistent organic pollutants, and heavy metals (HMs) have been increased dramatically since the 1950s, reflecting rising emissions in Asia. In this context, the sources and distribution of HMs were summarized in the environment media of the TP. The results showed that 1) HMs in the TP may be generated from geogenic/pedogenic associations (Cu, Cr, Ni, As, and Co) and anthropogenic activities of local or long-distance atmospheric transmission (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Hg). 2) The atmospheric transport emission sources of HMs are mainly from the surrounding heavily-polluted regions by the Indian and East Asian monsoons and the southern branch of westerly winds. 3) Soil, water, snow, glacier, sediment, and vegetation act as vital sinks of atmospheric deposits of HMs; 4) Significant bioaccumulation of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and methylmercury (MeHg) have been found in terrestrial and aquatic biota chains in the TP; 5) The enhancement of anthropogenic activities, climate change, glacial retreat and permafrost degradation had potential impacts on the behaviors and fates of HMs in the TP. Therefore, the ecological risk of HMs is of particular concern, and feasible and effective environmental safety strategies are required to reduce the adverse effects of inorganic pollutants in the TP. Our review will provide a reference for researchers to further study regional HMs pollution around the TP.
... India phased out leaded gasoline in 2000 (Singh and Singh, 2006), however, gasoline Pb can remain and recirculate in the environment, as observed in Northern India (Morton- Bermea et al., 2011;Sen et al., 2016). The atmospheric residence time of Pb is 5-10 days (Sturges and Barrie, 1987). ...
Article
This study presents a simulation-based inversion model to estimate the quantitative contribution of Pb from differentsource materials to aerosols using a set of environmental proxies (²⁰⁶Pb/²⁰⁷Pb and ²⁰⁸Pb/²⁰⁶Pb). The proposed modeluses location-specificdataset (²⁰⁶Pb/²⁰⁷Pbaerosol and ²⁰⁸Pb/²⁰⁶Pbaerosol) and a model parameter (a priori)that includesPb isotopic composition of source materials and their fractional contribution to aerosol. Variability of Pb sources oftencausesa large spread ina priorivalues,resulting in erroneous interpretation. The proposed inversion model provides a means to obtain error-optimized and statistically best-fit values for the model parameter(a posteriori) therebyimproving our understanding of source apportionment.As an example, the inverse model was appliedin eastern India, where it estimated that Pb-ores, coal, and unleaded petroleum produced up to 46%, 39%, and 36% of atmospheric Pb, respectively. Counter to general belief, the model revealedthat a greater proportion of petroleum-derived Pbin the atmospherewas supplied bybituminous road (mechanical abrasion of road material) ratherthan direct usage ofpetrol and dieselas fuel. Increasing vehicle density and their activities on Indian roads (from 22 to 44 km⁻¹between the years 2005–2017) intensified Pb emissions from road materials to the atmosphere.The inversion model additionally exposedthe enormity of Pb contamination in the Indian atmosphere, where the sources such as vehicular emissions, road dust, and industrial emissions(petroleum and Pb-ores)contributed up to 65% of atmosphericPb.Together, model-derived results (ca. 90% anthropogenic Pb in aerosol), increased use of Pb-emitting raw materials and road vehicles, and the temporal distribution of Pb in aerosolsconfirm unrestrained Pb emissions continueinIndia despite the phasing-out of leaded petroleum.
... Since half of the electricity in India is currently generated by coal-fired plants, IC is an obvious choice for an end-member. Similarly, "legacy lead" contributions are recorded worldwide, 43,44 and although use of leaded gasoline in India has been phased out since 2000, 45 it is still used by surrounding countries including Afghanistan, Iran, and Myanmar. As the residence time of Pb aerosols in the atmosphere is 5−10 days, Pb particles derived from leaded gasoline combustion in these countries can potentially reach the Harsil site and will be included in the legacy lead component. ...
... Our study, however, reports low levels of Pb with an average concentration of 0.51 μg/g. The reason being leaded gasoline was phased out in India by the year 2000 (Singh and Singh 2006). The present study is the first-ever biomonitoring study in the Brahmaputra valley region of India, and hence the results are compared with studies from other parts of India. ...
Article
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In this paper, we have evaluated the bioaccumulation of metals by Atrichum angustatum, which is a readily available moss species in the Brahmaputra valley, India. A systematic investigation of metallic pollutants in the atmosphere was carried out using A. angustatum as a biomonitor collected from representative locations during three seasons viz. winter, pre-monsoon, and monsoon (n = 99) during the year 2018. The study was done in four unique habitations of the Brahmaputra Valley, which were further divided into three landuse areas: residential, roadside, and industrial. The highest accumulations were seen against Ca, Mg, Zn, and Fe. The calculated contaminant factors and ecological risk indices suggest that the Brahmaputra Valley is mostly contaminated by Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Pb, and these metals pose a maximum ecological risk. The accumulation trend of metallic pollutants was site-specific, but most metals showed positive seasonal accumulation. A significant difference in spatial and seasonal accumulation patterns was specific to metal species. Principal component analysis (PCA) and inter-species correlations revealed that the air quality of Brahmaputra valley was greatly affected by coal burning, vehicular emission, biomass burning, road dust, and crustal dust. Finally, the study led us to the conclusion that A. angustatum can serve as a potential biomonitor for metallic pollutants.
... Since half of the electricity in India is currently generated by coal-fired plants, IC is an obvious choice for an endmember. Similarly, "legacy lead" contributions are recorded worldwide (Gulson et al., 1994;Monna et al., 1997), and although use of leaded gasoline in India has been phased out since 2000 (Singh and Singh, 2006), it is still used by surrounding countries including Afghanistan, Iran, and Myanmar. As the residence time of Pb aerosols in the atmosphere is ~5-10 days, Pb particles derived from leaded gasoline combustion in these countries can potentially reach the Harsil site, and will be included in the legacy lead component. ...
Thesis
Automobile catalytic converters derived Platinum Group Elements (PGE) and gasoline combustion, smelters, mining, and coal combustion derived lead (Pb) are important and emerging environmental contaminants. Tracing the pathways of these pollutants is therefore critically important to identify the source and sink area of PGE and Pb in the Earth’s surface, and its associated environmental impacts. This thesis contains three modules to address various aspects of the PGE and Pb cycling on the Earth. The first module provides a comprehensive quantitative understanding of the biological, geochemical, and anthropogenic PGE cycles referred to as “anthro-biogeochemical” cycles, which has so far been lacking in the literature. The study shows that the total surficial anthropogenic mass transfer of platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and Rhodium (Rh) dominated by mining activities, fossil fuel burning, and automobile emissions were greater than their corresponding natural mass transfer dominated by soil erosion and net primary production, whereas crustal subduction and production dominate the total global PGE cycle. In the second module, a new method that accurately and precisely measures the PGE by combining isotope dilution (ID) as a calibration strategy, PGE separation and purification using cation exchange resin, and their measurements using inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) is proposed. The study shows that the combination of HPA-S digestion protocol with ID-ICP-MS/MS measurements enables measurement results with uncertainties fit for purpose for Pt, Pd, and Rh mass fractions in environmental samples with the complex matrix. The third module presents time-series records of 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, 206Pb/204Pb, and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic compositions of airborne particulate matters (≤10-micron sized atmospheric particulate matter~PM10) collected from the high-altitude Himalayan aerosol observatory to show that the remote boundary layer height dynamics in the Indo-Gangetic Plains controls the transport of anthropogenic Pb particles to the high mountains of Central Himalaya. This study represents a major breakthrough in the understanding of pollutant transport processes in the high Himalayan mountains as: (i) it prescribes a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the seasonal effects in long-range pollutant transport to the Higher Himalaya (ii) it for the first time integrates the long-lived radiogenic isotope data with climatological parameters, and (iii) it represents a significant step forward over the commonly used application of radiogenic isotopes for pollutant provenance tracing.
... Lead pollution is widely prevalent in India [10] and contributes towards behavioural deficits with lower functional skills during childhood and later in life [13,14]. Leaded gasoline was one of the major source of Pb in environment globally which was phased out in early 2001 from India [15]. Alleviation of an important source of Pb exposure warrants examination and re-evaluation of the prevalence of childhood Pb poisoning. ...
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Objectives Lead exposure in children contributes to 600,000 new cases of intellectual disabilities every year with maximum occurrence in developing countries. Currently limited information is available on the blood lead level (BLL) in children of India. The aim was to estimate BLL in the school going children of local population of Jodhpur. Methods Four hundred twenty-six primary school children of government and private schools participated in this cross sectional study. Information regarding possible lead exposure was collected. BLL was estimated on Lead Care II analyser (Magellan Diagnostics, USA). Results The mean and median BLL were 4.25 ± 1.75 μg/dL (<3.3–22.6 μg/dL) and 3.5 μg/dL (Inter Quartile Range 0.9). BLL was higher in children of illiterate mothers, those residing near traffic dense areas, urban region and studying in government schools of urban region. Conclusions BLL in children residing in Jodhpur is much higher in comparison to western counterparts. Screening and awareness programs regarding potential sources of lead exposure can help in improving BLL.
... Of these, the PM 10 profiles for PRD were found to have notable levels of Pb (3.2 ± 1.6 mg m À3 ). Most Indian cities, including Delhi, phased out leaded petrol after the year 2000 (Singh and Singh, 2006). Since Pb is still persistent in road dust samples implies that this is likely to be due to anthropogenic sources such as coal burning and possibly brake dust Zhang et al., 2014) and ongoing emission of Pb from industrial activities, etc . ...
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Increasing emissions from sources such as construction and burning of biomass from crop residues, roadside and municipal solid waste have led to a rapid increase in the atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter (≤2.5µm; PM2.5) over many Indian cities. Analyses of their chemical profiles are important for receptor models to accurately estimate the contributions from different sources. We have developed chemical source profiles for five important pollutant sources - construction (CON), paved road dust (PRD), roadside biomass burning (RBB), solid waste burning (SWB), and crop residue burning (CPB) - during three intensive campaigns (winter, summer and post-monsoon) in and around Delhi. We obtained chemical characterisations of source profiles incorporating carbonaceous material such as organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-, PO43-, Na+ and NH4+), and elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb). CON was dominated by the most abundant elements, K, Si, Fe, Al, and Ca. PRD was also dominated by crustal elements, accounting for 91% of the total analysed elements. RBB, SWB and CPB profiles were dominated by organic matter, which accounted for 94%, 86.2% and 86% of the total PM2.5, respectively. The database of PM emission profiles developed from the sources investigated can be used to assist source apportionment studies for accurate quantification of the causes of air pollution and hence assist governmental bodies in formulating relevant countermeasures.
... With phasing out of the leaded fuel and public health regulations, we have now been able to reduce the external environmental lead exposure. Many research studies in different parts of India have reported a declining lead concentration in various environmental components especially in the current unleaded petrol phase [5]. But the problem of lead toxicity appears to be more complicated. ...
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Background Although lead neurotoxicity is a known phenomenon, it can often be missed at a primary or secondary care level especially if detailed environmental exposure history is missed. Methods This is an outbreak investigation where we observed 15 pediatric cases with neurologic signs and symptoms clustered in a slum area known for an unorganized artificial jewelry industry. Their clinical, biochemical, and epidemiological features were compared with 14 other children from the same region reporting with non-neurological symptoms who were considered as unmatched controls. Results Cases with neurological manifestations had a higher in-house lead smelting activity [OR 7.2 (95% CI 1.4–38.3)] as compared to controls. Toddlers below 3 years of age were more vulnerable to the effects of lead. Conclusion This study emphasizes that many focal sources of lead poisoning still remain especially in the unorganized sector. In cases presenting with unexplained neurotoxicity, specific occupational and environmental inquiry for chemical poisoning, with special consideration for lead, should be actively pursued. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12199-019-0777-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Close to urban centers, metal pollution has been associated with sewage outlets [64]. Although, there have been several successful programmes of phasing out lead in the developing world modeled on the programs of industrialized countries [65], with important emission reducing by improved control to replace leaded petrol by unleaded petrol [66]. Zinc is a 'masculine' element that balances copper in the body, and is essential for male reproductive activity [67]. ...
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Ecotoxicology-Nanotoxicology and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Stress Combination of Free Radicals and Nanoparticles towards Antioxidant Defense Therapeutics Loutfy H Madkour* The mechanisms by which metalloids and xenobiotic metals (particularly arsenic, lead, cadmium, tin and mercury) induce their toxic effects have been investigated. The unifying factor in determining toxicity and carcinogenicity for the metals ions is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). The toxic manifestations of the metals are primarily due to imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis that is termed as oxidative stress. Metal ions interferes with body functions: the hematopoietic system, (CNS), renal liver, kidneys, cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, hepatic and dermatologic systems, include damage to lipids, proteins, enzymes and DNA via the production of free radicals. The metal ions deplete glutathione and protein-bound sulfhydryl groups, resulting in the production of (ROS) as superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical (1O2, O2 ●—, H2O2, ●OH, OH—). Toxicities of heavy metals can be increased by deficiencies of certain essential nutrients such as Ca, Fe, Zn, and Se. This review attempts a comprehensive account of recent developments in the research on heavy metals and NPs. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, ecotoxicology, nanotoxicology and nanopathology particularly the role of oxidative stress/ free radicals in the toxic manifestation, an update about the recent strategies for the treatment with a possible beneficial role of counteractive antioxidant defense supplementation to achieve the optimum effects in physiological processes and future needs for the safe environment. Keywords: Heavy Metals Ions; Nanoparticles; Ecotoxicology; Oxidative Stress; Nanotoxicology; Free Radicals; Antioxidants Therapeutics
... These factors chiefly contribute to increased accumulation of elements in sediments of Jharkhali, which in turn results into their greater bioaccumulation in plants and surrounding habitat. Interestingly, Pb is the only element in our study which showed notably lower concentration than the earlier decades mostly because of the use of unleaded petrol since 2000 (Singh and Singh 2006). ...
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Mangroves have wide applications in traditional medicines due to their several therapeutic properties. Potentially toxic elements (PTEs), in mangrove habitats, need serious concern because of their toxicity, bioaccumulation capacity and ecotoxicological risks. In the current study, we aimed to examine sediment quality and bioaccumulation of PTEs in a mangrove-dominated habitat of Sundarban, India, and their relation with antimicrobial property of ten mangrove species of the region. Antimicrobial activity of different solvent fractions of mangrove leaves was assessed against seven microorganisms. The highest antimicrobial activity was detected in ethyl acetate and acetone-extracted fractions of Avicennia alba. Various sediment quality indices revealed progressively deteriorating nature of surface sediment having moderate contamination, however, low ecotoxicological risk. The accumulation factors (AF) for different PTEs indicate a gradual metal bioaccumulation in leaf tissue. Antimicrobial activities indicated both positive and negative correlations with manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) concentrations of mangrove species. Concentration of Mn showed a significant correlation with almost all the fractions, whereas Cu had correlation with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol fractions (P < 0.05). The AF of Mn and Cu exhibited correlation with antimicrobial activities of acetone and methanol fractions, whereas Fe and Zn had correlation with hexane and ethyl acetate fractions. Overall, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations of Acanthus ilicifolius and Avicennia alba leaves and in the surface sediments demonstrated the strongest association (P < 0.05) with their antimicrobial activity as also depicted in correlation and cluster analysis studies. Thus, this study will help to establish a link between the PTEs in mangrove ecosystem with their bioactivity.
... Living in urban areas in South and East Asia can be associated with higher concentrations of blood Pb (Ikeda et al., 2000). Even following the phasing out of leaded gasoline, populations in major urban centers in India had an average blood Pb concentration of 121 μg L −1 , twice as high as the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference value (50 μg L −1 ) (Singh and Singh, 2006;CDC, 2010). Demographic information included factors such as age, parity, and current pregnancy that affect the uptake and storage of Pb in the body. ...
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Background: Newcomers bring with them histories of environmental exposure in their home countries and may have different sources of lead (Pb) exposure compared to other residents of their adopted country. Aims: To describe past and current factors associated with Pb exposure and blood Pb among South and East Asian newcomer women of reproductive age in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Ontario, Canada. Methods: In collaboration with public health units and community organizations a community-based research model was utilized by recruiting peer researchers to assist in all aspects of the study. Blood samples were taken and phone interviews were conducted. Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) cycles 1, 2, and 3 data was used to contextualize the distribution blood Pb levels. Multiple regression was applied to log-transformed blood lead measurements, using a hierarchical model building process. Results: In total, 211 participants were recruited from Bangladesh, China, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The distribution of the blood Pb varied by country of origin, and higher blood Pb values were found above 75th percentile compared to the CHMS. Distal factors significantly influencing blood Pb concentrations related to life history, such as duration of stay in Canada (RR=0.91; 95% CI 0.86-0.97), living near agricultural fields (RR=0.78; 95% CI 0.62-0.93), and country of origin. Proximal factors with significant contribution were use of cosmetics, traditional remedies, and smoking cigarettes. Recommendations: Different past and current exposures may be important in various newcomer populations, informing international stakeholders, public health agencies, and primary care practitioners to adapt health education and exposure reduction programs to consider pre- and post-migration factors.
... Close to urban centers, metal pollution has been associated with sewage outlets(Chen et al. 2005). Although, there have been several successful programmes of phasing out lead in the developing world modeled on the programs of industrialized countries(Singh and Singh 2006), with important emission reducing by improved control to replace leaded petrol by unleaded petrol(AMAP 1997(AMAP , 2002. A major source of air contamination is the non-ferrous metals industry, which emits Cd, Pb, Ni, As, Cu, Se, and Zn (Blake et al. 2007). ...
Article
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Contamination of the water bodies occurs from different sources including oil refineries. Oil refinery effluent contains different chemicals at different concentrations including ammonia, sulphides, phenol, hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Monitoring the impact of pollutants on aquatic life forms is challenging due to the differential sensitivities of organisms to a given pollutant, and the inability to assess the long-term effects of persistent pollutants on the ecosystem as they are bio-accumulated at higher trophic levels. A number of tests and system have been developed to investigate the toxicity of refinery waste effluent and other surface water. Many studies indicate that the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay), micronucleus, chromosomal aberration and microbial assays are sensitive enough to monitor genotoxic responses of indigenous aquatic organisms to environmental pollution. This article reviews the toxicity in general and genotoxicity as major caused by the exposure of refiner waste effluent to the living system. Mutagenicity/genotoxicity assays should be performed to assess the presence of genotoxicants in the waste water, in addition to the chemical analysis. This review high-lightens the sensitive and reliable tools to measure the mutagenic and genotoxic activities in aquatic environment.
... The average Pb concentration found in our study is 11.54 μg/g which is within clean coastal sediments (lower than 25 μg/g) (UNEP 1985;Bryan and Langston 1992;Chatterjee et al. 2009) and Indian River sediments (about 14 μg/g) (Decov et al. 1999) and is lower than the values obtained by earlier researchers. The reason behind this may be the allover reduction of Pb in India due to the use of unleaded petrol since 2000 (Singh and Singh 2006). ...
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This work describes the micro-spatial variation of elemental distribution in estuarine sediment and bioaccumulation of those elements in different mangrove species of the Indian Sundarbans. The potential ecological risk due to such elemental load on this mangrove-dominated habitat is also discussed. The concentrations of elements in mangrove leaves and sediments were determined using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Sediment quality and potential ecological risks were assessed from the calculated indices. Our data reflects higher concentration of elements, e.g., Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb, in the sediment, as compared to that reported by earlier workers. Biological concentration factors for K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in different mangroves indicated gradual elemental bioaccumulation in leaf tissues (0.002–1.442). Significant variation was observed for elements, e.g., Ni, Mn, and Ca, in the sediments of all the sites, whereas in the plants, significant variation was found for P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn. This was mostly due to the differences in uptake and accumulation potential of the plants. Various sediment quality indices suggested the surface sediments to be moderately contaminated and suffering from progressive deterioration. Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Ni showed higher enrichment factors (0.658–1.469), contamination factors (1.02–2.7), and geo-accumulation index (0.043–0.846) values. The potential ecological risk index values considering Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn were found to be within “low ecological risk” category (20.04–24.01). However, Cr and Ni in the Sundarban mangroves exceeded the effect range low and probable effect level limits. Strong correlation of Zn with Fe and K was observed, reflecting their similar transportation and accumulation process in both sediment and plant systems. The plant–sediment elemental correlation was found to be highly non-linear, suggesting role of some physiological and edaphic factors in the accumulation process. Overall, the study of micro-spatial distribution of elements can act as a useful tool for determining health of estuarine ecosystem.
... respectively (Lahd Geagea et al., 2008). In India, leaded gasoline was phased out from 2000 (Singh and Singh, 2006), but neighbouring countries as Afghanistan, Iran and Myanmar still use leaded gasoline products. Additionally, there was a widespread use of adulterated diesel (katatel) by the three-wheelers of Kolkata till recently. ...
Article
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Lead isotopic ratios (LIR) of eight common food items, street dust, coal, diesel, sediments, lead ore and rainwater from India have been reported for the first time in this paper. This study characterized the source and extent of lead pollution in the different foodstuff consumed in Kolkata, a major metropolis of eastern India. The atmospheric lead input to the food items, sold openly in busy roadside markets of the city, has been quantified. The mean 207/206 and 208/206 LIRs of the eight food items ranged from 0.8847 to 0.8924 and 2.145 to 2.167, respectively. Diesel had the highest mean 207/206 and 208/206 values of 0.9015 and 2.1869, respectively, apart from the lead ore. The food items had a mean lead concentration between 3.78 and 43.35 mg kg−1. The two ratio scatter plots of all the different environmental matrices were spread linearly between the uncontaminated Ichapur sediment and diesel. The 207/206 LIRs of the coal with a mean of 0.8777 did not fall in the linear trend, while the street dust and food samples overlapped strongly. The rainwater sample had a 207/206 LIR of 0.9007. Contaminated sediments in Dhapa, the repository of the city’s municipal garbage, had a mean 207/206 LIR of 0.8658. The corresponding value obtained from the sewage-fed vegetable grown there was 0.8058. The present study indicated that diesel was one of the main contributor to Pb pollution. The atmospheric lead contribution to the food items was in the range of 68.48–86.66 %.
... Pb mean values obtained for all the sampling stations can be compared with clean coastal sediments (lower than 25 ppm) (UNEP, 1985;Bryan and Langston, 1992;Chatterjee et al., 2009) and Indian River sediments (about 14 ppm) (Decov et al., 1999). Singh and Singh (2006) reported that in India presence of Pb in different environmental components have been reduced after year 2000 due to the use of unleaded petrol. Attributed signatures of Pb observed in our study may be due to industrial effluent, battery manufacturing unit, thermal power plant and emissions of mechanized boats. ...
... Leaded petrol was the main source of emission and environmental exposure to Pb (Landrigan, 2002) until the early 2000s, when increasing concern led to the regulation and phase-out of leaded gasoline in developed regions (Zaborska, 2014). Although exposure to Pb still affects developing regions (Tong et al., 2000), decline in its commercial usage has been a key contributor to the decrease of Pb in different environmental compartments (Singh et al., 2006). Although it has lately declined in the Arctic (CACAR, 2003), Pb concentrations above thresholds for human consumption have been detected in many Arctic biota (Muir et al., 1999). ...
Research
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This study investigated the levels of metals (Hg, Se, Cd, Pb, As), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in female black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). Blood samples were collected from adult birds within the same week of the chick-rearing period at two breeding colonies (Blomstrandhalvøya and Krykjefjellet) in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. PCBs was the major organic pollutant class in plasma samples from Blomstrandhalvøya (n=14, median 18.9 ng·ml-1, range 10.6-33.6 ng·ml-1) and Krykkjefjellet (n=11, median 27.2 ng·ml-1, range 11.2-70.2 ng·ml-1). Selenium was the most concentrated metal in red blood cells from Blomstrandhalvøya (n=14, median 52.3 μg·g-1 dw, range 24.8-79.4 μg·g-1 dw) and Krykkjefjellet (n=11, median 43.5 μg·g-1 dw, range 34.5-56.4 μg·g.1 dw). Significant differences in pollutant levels were not found between the study colonies. Insights into foraging ecology were provided by stable isotope analysis (δ15N, δ13C) of kittiwake blood and regurgitates. The estimated trophic level ranged from 3.4 to 4.0, and did not significantly differ between study colonies. Neither did the origin of the carbon source (δ13C) or the body condition of the two kittiwake groups. Altogether, similar trophic levels, feeding habitats and body condition are consistent with the lack of observed differences in pollutant levels between colonies.
... The ceramic industry has been reported to be associated with heavy metal contamination in neighboring soils previously [26]. In addition, a lot of researches confirmed that battery making and the storage of gasoline may cause heavy metal accumulation in soils [27,28]. According to Liao et.al, Cd concentration in soils in Dingshu Town ranged from 0.53 to 5.92 mg kg -1 in 2012, however, Cd contents was 0.15 to 0.40 mg kg -1 in 2004, the other heavy metal elements like Pb, Cr, Zn were also accumulated in soils [29]. ...
Article
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Heavy metals in agricultural soils were investigated and assessed in a typical industrialized region in eastern China. Different sources for heavy metals in soils were estimated by Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression (PCA-MLR). The results showed that Cd and a proportion of Cu, Cr, As came from the ceramic industrial processes; most of Hg was contributed by the emission of gasoline products; and high concentrations of Pb mainly resulted from the battery manufacture factory. A pollution diffusion response model was used to estimate the diffusion and mixture of heavy metals from the sources and the pollution index of the study region. Calculated pollution index (PI) using model was in accordance with the PCA analysis, which demonstrated that the ceramic manufacture was the most serious pollution source in the study region. This method displayed that the different pollution diffusion from sources for different metals and pollution stress for soils.
... The Pb isotopic composition of Indian aerosols from this study plot close to the Broken Hill and Mississippi Valley type ore deposits mixing line, as well as overlaps with the Pb isotopic composition of leaded gasoline (Fig. 4) suggesting that combustion of leaded gasoline can be a dominant source of Pb in Kanpur. While leaded gasoline was phased out from India in 2000 (Singh and Singh, 2006), countries around India such as Afghanistan, Iran and Myanmar still use leaded gasoline products. Since the residence time of Pb aerosols in the atmosphere is around~5e10 days (Sturges and Barrie, 1987), anthropogenic Pb could be readily dispersed from countries that use leaded gasoline. ...
... The lead level in air decreased from 1.6 to 0.2 lg m À3 while in river water the values decreased from 18.0 to 3.1 lg l À1 . The mean blood lead levels of children decreased from 18.1 to 12.1 lg dl À1 (Singh & Singh, 2006). ...
Article
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There are contrary reports of association of lead and cadmium with the decline in semen quality. This study evaluates whether seminal lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) at environmental concentration are associated with altered semen quality. We conducted a study of healthy fertile and infertile men 20–43 years of age attending the Andrology Laboratory of Reproductive Biology Department for semen analysis. The semen analysis was carried out according to the WHO 2010 guidelines. Seminal lead and cadmium were estimated by ICP-AES. The lead and cadmium values were significantly higher in infertile subjects. A negative association between seminal lead or cadmium concentration and sperm concentration, sperm motility and per cent abnormal spermatozoa was found. This study shows that exposure to Pb (5.29–7.25 μg dl−1) and cadmium (4.07–5.92 μg dl−1) might affect semen profile in men. Age, diet, smoking and tobacco chewing habits may have an influence on the increase in exposure to Pb and Cd in the individual subjects.
... Studies have showed that estuaries are particularly vulnerable to nutrient over-enrichment and trace metal contamination hence highlighting the need to monitor these aspects of pollution in estuarine regions [25][26][27]. The major source of dissolved phosphate in lagoons may come from runoff of phosphate fertilizers that leach from sugarcane plantations into groundwater, which feeds the wetlands and the lagoons. ...
Article
The National Climate Change Adaptation Policy (NCCAPF) enabling framework in Mauritius has been designed to address key barriers such as lack of financing options, lack of institutional framework and low levels of adaptation technology transfer and aims to integrate and mainstream climate change into core development policies, strategies and plans of Mauritius. The long term energy Strategy 2009-2025 now aims to meet 35% of the energy demand throughrenewable energy sources by the year 2025. The limits of the EEZ of Mauritius (1850 km2, 20°S, 58°E, South Western Indian Ocean, 1.3 million inhabitants) have been defined by geographical coordinates through subsequent regulations under the Maritime Zones Act 1977 as the Maritime Zones (EEZ) Regulations 1984. Flash floods in Port-Louis have become increasingly frequent with floods of March 2013, dubbed as the ‘Black Saturday’ due a death toll of 11. Swells with wave heights of about 10 m occurred on the western coast in May 2007 whereas floods were recorded on the island in March 2008 as a consequence of climatic change. The Capability Approach would ensure that social arrangements target at increasing people’s capabilities and would consider indicators that reflect the importance of assessing the quality of processes rather than simply outcomes of policies and the significance of measures to enhance the ownership and participation of local communities in the management of their natural resources under integrated coastal zone management ICZM. The overall objective should be to develop climate compatible projects for vulnerable coastal regions. The paper reviews measures to strengthen coastal zone management facing climate change and natural disasters and to further improve natural disaster risk management in Mauritius in line with climate compatible development schemes and effective integrated coastal zone management of small islands states under the DPSIR Framework.
... In India, a survey conducted by George Foundation in (1999) revealed that over 51 % of the children below the age of 12 living in major urban areas of India had unacceptably elevated levels of blood lead of 10 lg/dL or more (The George Foundation 1999;Van Alphen 1999). Later studies by Nichani et al. (2006) and Singh and Singh (2006) revealed that the lead poisoning decreased significantly after the ban imposed by Government of India on use of leaded gasoline (petrol) in 2000. Still in 2003, 33.2 % of the 754 tested children in Bombay (Mumbai) had blood lead levels C10 lg/dL (Nichani et al. 2006). ...
Article
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The paint industry in India is broadly classified into two categories: organized sector and unorganized sector. Multinational and big Indian companies form the organized sector, whereas the small- and medium-scale industries which produce paints for the local market form the unorganized sector. The present study was undertaken to determine the level of lead in decorative paints in India. A total of 148 paint samples sourced from four organized sector companies and six unorganized sector companies were analyzed for the total lead content. Results of this study reveal that 39 % of the total paints tested (n = 148) contain lead more than 300 ppm, the voluntary limit prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards, BIS (IS 15489:2011), and 45 % of the tested paints contain lead more than 90 ppm, the US limit. Further analysis of the data indicates that only 5 % of the tested paints manufactured by organized sector companies contain lead more than 300 ppm (n = 91), whereas 93 % of the tested paints manufactured by unorganized sector companies contain lead more than 300 ppm (n = 57). Comparison with earlier reported data suggests that while organized sector companies are gradually abandoning the use of lead-based compounds in their paints, the unorganized sector companies are still adding lead-based compounds intentionally in their paints despite the potential health hazards associated with it. The maximum concentration of lead obtained was 80,350 ppm in one of the paints manufactured by an unorganized sector company. The presence of high concentration of lead in yellow and green color paints indicates that color can be a predictor of lead content in decorative paints.
... PM 2.5 profile developed for Pune city, when compared to PM 10 profile for road dust, indicated higher abundance of Pb. This indicates that though most of the cities in India including Pune, started to use unleaded gasoline (petrol) after the year 2000 (Singh and Singh, 2006), the lead prevalence in dust is still observed. ...
Article
A nationwide study was carried out to develop air pollution source profiles specific to India. Chemical speciation profiles are reported for 27 major non-vehicular sources of particulate matter (combustion and non-combustion) in six cities in India viz. Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Kanpur, Mumbai and Pune. PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected from these sources using three different modes of sampling viz. dilution, resuspension and source dominated sampling, depending on the nature of the source. Filter samples were analyzed for mass by gravimetric analysis, elements by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), water soluble ions by ion chromatography and elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) by thermal/optical reflectance. Reported profiles include 39 elements, 12 ions, EC and OC. Developed profiles are compared with similar profiles that have been reported previously.
... Lead is one of the contaminants and, because all forms of Pb may be toxic, considerable effort has been devoted to tracing different Pb sources (for a review, see Komárek et al., 2008). The isotope composition of Pb is widely used to determine the proportions of lithogenic and anthropogenic Pb in contaminated samples and to identify major sources of anthropogenic Pb (e.g., Sturges and Barrie, 1987;Kelly et al., 1996;Miller et al., 2002;Veysseyre et al., 2001;Ettler et al., 2004Ettler et al., , 2006Singh and Singh, 2006;Wang et al., 2006;Bird et al., 2010). ...
Article
To discriminate possible anthropogenic and lithogenic sources of Pb in Lower Silesia (SW Poland), the Pb isotope composition was investigated in a spectrum of rocks and anthropogenic materials as well as within 10 soil profiles. Silicate rocks in Lower Silesia have 206Pb/207Pb ratios that vary from 1.17 for serpentinites to 1.38 for gneisses, and this variability is reflected in the isotope composition of the mineral soil horizons. The Pb isotope composition of coals, ores and anthropogenic materials (slags and fly ashes) is rather uniform, with 206Pb/207Pb ratios ranging from 1.17 to 1.18. Similar ratios were observed in ore and coal samples from Upper Silesia. The O soil horizons also have uniform 206Pb/207Pb ratios of 1.17–1.18 and the heterogeneity of the 206Pb/207Pb ratios increases with depth in the soil profiles. Five soils, with varying Pb concentrations, analysed far from contamination centres, show consistent, approximately 2-fold enrichment in Pb concentration from the C to A horizons, which is consistent with natural re-distribution of Pb within the profiles. The increase in the Pb concentration is accompanied by a decrease in 206Pb/207Pb ratios, also attributed to natural Pb isotope fractionation. Four soil profiles from industrial areas show variable enrichments in Pb concentrations and these are attributed to anthropogenic input from airborne pollutants or even slag particles at smelting sites. The implication is that a lithogenic Pb source can deviate from the basement rock composition, and detailed isotope characteristics of the geological background and natural enrichments in soils are often needed to determine the lithogenic/anthropogenic proportions of Pb in soils.
... Lead is a toxic heavy metal that is ubiquitous in the environment as a result of industrialization. Exposure occurs primarily through ingestion and inhalation [1,2]. In the Middle East, the major reported sources of lead exposure are industrial, including smelters, battery factories and radiator repair shops; flour from traditional stone mills; and the occasional burning of wastes [3,4]. ...
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In Palestine, chronic exposure to lead has not been adequately addressed as a problem for children. To assess the exposure of Palestinian schoolchildren, we surveyed blood lead levels in 3 schools in Nablus city and collected demographic and clinical data. Blood samples were collected from 178 children (140 boys, 38 girls), age range 6-8 years. The overall mean blood lead level was 3.2 (SD 2.4) microg/dL, and 4.5% of children had levels above 10 microg/dL. Blood lead levels were significantly higher among children living in refugee camps near industrial/high traffic regions than among children living in residential areas of the city. Blood lead levels were positively correlated with family size (r = 0.15) and negatively correlated with household area (r = -0.18). Blood lead levels among these Palestinian schoolchildren were higher than those of other countries where leaded gasoline has been banned and seemed to be higher in more economically deprived children.
... First, the phase out of leaded gasoline in Pakistan began in October 2001 and was completed by July 2002, and leaded gasoline is no longer cited as the main source of Pb pollution (Kadir et al., 2008). In neighboring India, leaded gasoline was phased out by 2000 (Singh and Singh, 2006). Second, a paper by Shah and Shaheen (2008) found average annual lead levels from total suspended particulate samples in Islamabad to be 0.144 μg m − 3 , approximately 30-fold lower than measured in Lahore. ...
Article
Lahore, Pakistan is a rapidly growing megacity with a population approaching 10 million. A significant issue affecting many of the world's megacities is extremely high levels of air pollution associated with transportation, solid fuel combustion, and industrial sources. High ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM), as well as high levels of toxic components of PM, have been linked to increased mortality and morbidity. Although much focus has been directed at particulate matter mass, in many developing and underdeveloped nations, the adverse health impacts of high levels of PM are further enhanced by the high concentrations of toxic components in PM. To address these issues is Lahore, a measurement campaign of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) particulate matter was conducted for the 2007 calendar year, which included measurements of particle mass, detailed chemical composition of PM and source apportionment calculations. Annual average PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were measured to be 194 µg m-3 and 336 µg m-3, respectively, with daily 24-hour maximum concentrations of 410 µg m-3 and 650 µg m-3 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were analysed for organic and elemental carbon, organic species, ionic species, elemental composition, water soluble elements and biological activity using a macrophage ROS assay. The coarse mode was dominated by crustal dust components, while the fine fraction was dominated by carbonaceous aerosols. The PM10 elemental composition data, which included data for toxic metals, was processed using principle component analysis to determine likely source categories. Seven factors were identified explaining 91% of the variance of the measured components. The factors included a number of industrial sources, re-suspended soil, mobile sources, and regional secondary aerosol. Source contributions to the organic carbon (OC) component of the PM2.5 fraction were identified using organic tracer species and chemical mass balance modelling. Over half of the PM2.5 OC was attributed to non-catalyzed motor vehicle emissions on an annual basis. Other important contributions to OC originated from biomass burning, diesel engines and residual fuel oil combustion, as well as secondary organic aerosol. In addition, ROS activity was found to be associated with the very high concentrations of metals found in PM2.5 and PM10 in Lahore. An overview of the results will be presented.
... High concentrations of particulate matter lead to high toxic trace element concentrations in the atmosphere (Kandlikar and Ramachandran, 2000;Mage et al., 1996), which in turn can affect adversely human health, especially those of children and elderly people. With respect to Pb, investigations in megacities of emerging economies were conducted in Jakarta (Kondo et al., 2007), Beijing (Sun et al., 2004), Shanghai (Zheng et al., 2004), Mumbai and Delhi (Kandlikar and Ramachandran, 2000;Singh and Singh, 2006) but to date, no South American city was systematically studied. ...
... Our extensive use of leaded petrol and both current and historical lead-emitting industrial activities have contributed to its widespread distribution over the Earth's system (Murozumi et al., 1969;Schaule and Patterson, 1981;Nriagu and Pacyna, 1988) and nowadays, there is a global background concentration of this metal in the environment due to these past activities (Cossa et al., 1993). The reduction of lead emissions from gasoline consumption over the past two decades has resulted in a decline of lead contamination in various environmental matrices, including aerosols (Migon et al., 1993;Grousset et al., 1994), snow and ice cores (Boutron et al., 1991;Sherrell et al., 2000), seawater (Boutron et al., 1991;Véron et al., 1993;Wu and Boyle, 1997) and rivers (Singh and Singh, 2006). ...
Article
Over this one-year study, we examined the variations of lead along the salinity gradient of the Penzé estuary (Brittany, Western Channel, France). Concentrations of total dissolved and total particulate lead ranged from 0.04 to 0.62 nM and from 29 to 61 mg g À1 , respectively. These values, though being higher than contamination-free systems, remain lower than those found in heavily industrialised systems indicating a limited effect of agricultural practices. Our field data showed, for most seasons (i.e. spring, summer and autumn), a metal removal in the salinity range 0e10, effected mainly by co-precipitation with iron and manganese oxides. On the other hand, after a strong winter ascending flood, an addition of dissolved lead occurred in the estuary following resuspension of particles and desorption mechanisms. This metal addition along with the high water discharge were responsible for the particularly high Pb output flux reported for winter (67 g day À1) compared to the ones estimated for other seasons (1e18 g day À1).
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Introduction: Children are most susceptible to Lead (Pb) toxicity. Exposure to lead in the environment still exists in various pockets of urban cities due to continued practices of using lead in jewellery making, paints, battery smelting and in cosmetics. Aim: To evaluate Blood Lead Level (BLL) and its association with haemoglobin, Red Blood Corpuscle (RBC) indices and bone parameters (vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus, and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in children residing near lead battery smelting units of Kolkata. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional field-based pilot study carried out by Institute of Child Health, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. A camp was organised in the month of August 2015, at a known major cluster of secondary lead smelting area ward no. 66 in the Kolkata metropolitan district. A total of 45 camp attending children were enrolled. BLL was measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and association with haematological and bone parameters were evaluated. Results: Mean age of the participants was 5.6±3.3 years, and mean BLL was 3.7±1.9 μg/dL (range:1.3-8.2). About 35 children were found to have low BLL
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Lead (Pb) exposure may cause severe health outcomes such as decreased fertility, joint pain and neurological disorders. It is important to know the Pb exposure level in tea and the risk assessment for local residents who drink brick tea daily. This study detected sixteen brick tea samples over 26 years and fifteen green tea samples in 2011 in a southeast city of Hubei province. The Pb content in brick tea was found to increase rapidly with the fast development of industrial activities represented by car sales from 1985 to 2011, which was less susceptible to gasoline. The concentrations of Pb in 16 brick tea were in the range of 1.77–17.8 mg/kg with a mean value of 11.1 mg/kg. Their percentiles P50, P90, and P95 were 13.22, 16.95, and 17.21 mg/kg. A regressional model was built, suggesting strong correlation between the Pb content in brick tea and the car sales. The concentrations of Pb in 15 green tea samples were between 0.36–1.30 mg/kg with a mean value of 0.66 mg/kg and the percentiles P50, P90, and P95 were 0.62, 1.05, and 1.23 mg/kg. The MOE values of brick tea and green tea were all greater than 1 just considering tea consumption which displayed low Pb exposure risk. By adding the Pb exposure by food, the MOE values for green tea were still greater than 1 while the MOE values of brick tea were less than 1 suggesting a potential risk of Pb exposure to the people drinking brick tea daily, who should pay more attention.
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Mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) accumulation since the Industrial Revolution has been generally observed to increase concurrently in lake sedimentary records around the world. Located downwind during the monsoon season from a rapidly developing South Asia, the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau are expected to receive direct anthropogenic Hg and Pb loadings, yet the source, pathway and effects of such transport remain poorly known due to logistic challenges in accessing this region. When studying the sediment record from Lake Gokyo (4,750 m a.s.l.) in the Himalayas, we find remarkably different Hg and Pb accumulation trends over the past 260 years. Whereas Hg accumulation has continued to increase since the Industrial Revolution, Pb accumulation peaked during that time and has been decreasing since then. Stable isotope analysis reveals that the decoupling trends between these two elements are due to different sources and pathways of Hg and Pb to the region. Both δ202Hg and Δ199Hg have been increasing since the Industrial Revolution, suggesting that anthropogenic Hg emissions from South Asia have been continuously increasing, and that the Indian monsoon-driven wet deposition of atmospheric Hg is the dominant pathway for Hg accumulation in the sediments. In contrast, analysis of 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios suggests that Pb accumulation in the sediments originates primarily from natural sources, and that the decreasing trend of Pb accumulation is most likely due to a weakening input of atmospheric mineral dust by the westerlies. These decoupling trends highlight the ongoing issue of transboundary Hg transport to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau that are source waters for major freshwater systems in Asia, and calls for regional and international collaborations on Hg emission controls in South Asia.
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Manufacturing and industrial facilities are often guilty of releasing toxic metals into the environment. The role of free radicals in normal cellular functions and different pathological conditions has been a focus of pharmacological studies in the recent past. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals in general are essential for cell signaling and other vital physiological functions; however, excessive amounts can cause alteration in cellular reduction–oxidation (redox) balance and disrupt normal biological functions. When there is an imbalance between activities of ROS and antioxidant/scavenging defense systems, oxidative stress (OS) occurs. Protein synthesis can be disturbed at many levels of toxic metals at a variety of mechanisms either by affecting the nucleic acid metabolism of structure or in the protein-forming system itself. Correlation between environmental exposures and nutritional status is complex. Thirty-five metals pose a threat to human health, 23 of which are heavy metals. Among the heavy metals As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Fe, Cu, Hg, and Ni are of major concern, can induce generation of reactive radicals, and cause cellular damage via depletion of enzyme activities through lipid peroxidation and reaction with nuclear proteins and DNA. As and Cd are classified as human carcinogens. Heavy metals and their risk role on organisms of biological systems have been discussed.
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The documentation of lead toxicity (plumbism) dates back to the times when man learnt its various applications. This versatile heavy metal is non-degradable and its ability to get accumulated in the body that goes undiagnosed, makes it a serious environmental health hazard. Lead is now known to affect almost every organ/tissue of the human body. With irreversible effects on neurobiological development of young children and foetus, its toxicity has lasting implications on the human life. Outlining the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment therapy for lead poisoning, the present review elaborates the pathophysiological effects of lead on various organs. This will be of immense help to the health professionals so as to inculcate a better understanding of the lead poisoning which otherwise is asymptomatic. With chelation therapy being the classic path of treatment, new strategies are being explored as additive/adjunct therapy. It is now understood that lead toxicity is completely preventable. In this regard significant efforts are in place in the developed countries whereas much needs to be done in the developing countries. Spreading the awareness amongst the masses by educating them and reducing the usage of lead following stricter industry norms appears to be the only roadmap to prevent lead poisoning. Efforts being undertaken by the Government of India and other organisations are also mentioned.
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Background: Cerebral palsy is a common motor disability in childhood. Raised lead levels affect cognition. Children with cerebral palsy may have raised lead levels, further impairing their residual cognitive motor and behavioral abilities. Environmental exposure and abnormal eating habits may lead to increased lead levels. Aims and Objectives: To measure blood lead levels in children with cerebral palsy and compare them with healthy neurologically normal children. To correlate blood lead levels with environmental factors. Material and Methods:Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Participants: Cases comprised 34 children with cerebral palsy, and controls comprised 34 neurologically normal, age- and sex-matched children. Methods: Clinical and demographic details were recorded as per proforma. Detailed environmental history was recorded to know the source of exposure to lead. These children were investigated and treated as per protocol. Venous blood was collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid vials for analysis of blood lead levels. Lead levels were estimated by Schimadzu Flame AA-6800 (atomic absorption spectrophotometer). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. P < .05 was taken as significant. Results: Mean blood lead levels were 9.20 ± 8.31 µg/dL in cerebral palsy cases and 2.89 ± 3.04 µg/dL in their controls (P < .001). Among children with cerebral palsy, 19 (55.88%) children had blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL. Lead levels in children with pica were 12.33 ± 10.02 µg/dL in comparison to children with no history of pica, 6.70 ± 4.60 µg/dL (P = .029). No correlation was found between hemoglobin and blood lead levels in cases and controls. Conclusion: In our study, blood lead levels are raised in children with cerebral palsy. However, further studies are required to show effects of raised levels in these children.
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Metal contamination is a global problem because metals are widely used, from building materials to information technology, and the bioavailable fraction of metals is increasing. The development of infrastructure highly depends on metals because of their useful properties. Because of metals necessity for infrastructure, industrialization causes a huge increase in metal use and waste. Before industrialization the functions were not mechanized and were primarily based on agriculture. As a result of mechanization, the use of metals increased tremendously and then later fell off or at a higher per-capita gross domestic product (GDP), as represented by the environmental Kuznets curve. The inverted U-shaped environmental Kuznets curve best models the amount of pollution emitted by a country as it develops, and shows a drastic increase in metals use followed by a gradual decline owing to regulatory policy. After 1974 there was a significant decrease in the demand for most metals except aluminum, which may correlate with slower growth in the GDP.
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Estuaries and coastal zones are dynamic transitional systems which provide many economic and ecological benefits to humans, but also are an ideal habitat for other organisms as well. These areas are becoming contaminated by various anthropogenic activities due to a quick economic growth and urbanization. This chapter explores the sources, chemical speciation, sediment accumulation and removal mechanisms of the harmful elements in estuarine and coastal seawaters. It also describes the effects of toxic elements on aquatic flora and fauna. Finally, the toxic element pollution of the Venice Lagoon, a transitional water body located in the northeastern part of Italy, is discussed as a case study, by presenting the procedures adopted to measure the extent of the pollution, the impacts on organisms and the restoration activities.
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Atmospheric particulate matter in two size fractions 2.5-10 mu m and <= 2.5 mu m were collected on nuclepore polycarbonate filter papers and were analyzed for elements using NAA and EDXRF. Varimax rotated factor analysis identified five major sources contributing to coarse and fine particulate mass. FA-MLR technique is applied to apportion the sources. Source apportionment studies showed maximum contribution of the coarse fraction was from sea salt (35%) and crustal (25%) sources. A considerable amount of the mass was also contributed from industrial (14%), vehicular (10%) and fugitive emissions (7%). These results also showed the percentage contribution of soil, two-stroke emission with fugitive dust, industrial emission, motor vehicles and sea salt to the average fine mass concentration was 3%, 18%, 23%, 29% and 9%, respectively. The contribution of each source to their constituent elements also has been determined using the same technique.
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Blood samples of 160 children, ranging age between 3 months and 6 years were selected from five different parts of Amritsar district of Punjab (India) and were analyzed for Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu using anodic stripping voltammetry. Large variations in the results have been correlated to the area inhabited, age differences and other factors. It was found that the areas, more prone to environmental stress, had shown more quantities of these metals in blood samples in comparison to those which were taken from safer sites. Similarly the younger children lesser exposed to environmental pollution had shown comparatively lesser quantity of these metals in comparison to older objects.
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In Reply.— Dr Needles raises several important points about our study. He questions the presence of a dose-effect relationship between blood lead level at age 24 months and intellectual functioning at age 10, as well as our assertion that a threshold for this relationship was not apparent. His skepticism is understandable. Our conclusions were based on three observations, not all of which we were able to include in our paper. 1) Examination of the partial regression residual plot (IQ adjusted for all covariates and blood lead level adjusted for all covariates) indicated symmetrical distribution of residuals about the regression line and similarity in the residual variances over the blood lead range.
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In a cohort of 170 middle and upper-middle class children participating in a prospective study of child development and low-level lead exposure, higher blood lead levels at age 24 months were associated with lower scores at age 57 months on the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. The mean blood lead level at age 24 months was 6.8 micrograms/dL (SD = 6.3; 75th, 90th, and 99th percentiles: 8.8, 13.7, 23.6, respectively) and for all but 1 child was less than 25 micrograms/dL, the current definition of an "elevated" level. After adjustment for confounding, scores on the General Cognitive Index decreased approximately 3 points (SE = 1.4) for each natural log unit increase in 24-month blood lead level. The inverse association between lead level and performance was especially prominent for visual-spatial and visual-motor integration skills. Higher prenatal exposures were not associated with lower scores at 57 months except in the subgroup of children with "high" concurrent blood lead levels (ie, greater than or equal to 10 micrograms/dL). The concentration of lead in the dentine of shed deciduous teeth was not significantly associated with children's performance after adjustment for confounding.
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Lead poisoning is a global health problem, whatever the source -- leaded petrol, lead-contaminated land, lead-containing cosmetics, lead piping, lead-containing caulking and roofing materials, lead-based paint, lead smelters, lead recycled from car batteries, or lead in ammunition in war zones. Of these many sources, leaded petrol stands indicted as one of the worst offenders against public health. In countries still fuelling vehicles with leaded petrol, about 90% of the lead in the environment comes from emissions in the form of fine particles that are inhaled and absorbed through the lungs. The evidence from the US is very. strong, says WHO chemical safety expert Dr Jenny Pronczuk. In 1978, the US banned lead from paint, thereby reducing the risk of local exposure in the home, and in 1986, from petrol. Surveys in the US in the early 1980s showed that 88% of children had blood lead levels above the 10 [micro]g/dl lead concentration safety limit that the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, established in 1991. (This limit is now being challenged, but is still the universally accepted safety level.) A decade later, when the lead phase-out had taken effect, only 5% of US children had blood levels exceeding the CDC's safety limit. Not surprising then that there is consensus among international bodies, such as the World Bank, WHO and the UN Commission on Sustainable Development, that countries must give up leaded petrol for the sake of public health. In 1994, the UN commission called on governments worldwide to switch from leaded to unleaded petrol. Yet by the end of 2000, only 42 countries, including China, New Zealand, the US, some Western and Eastern European countries, and several Latin American countries, had phased out or were phasing out lead from petrol. India and a dozen or more countries in Latin America and Western Europe are committed to making the switch by 2005, while the remaining 150 or so countries in the world have still not decided. Yet there is undoubtedly a need for such a switch, as work by Dr Annette Pruess, from WHO's protection of the human environment department, shows. Pruess is coordinating the work of a team of experts evaluating more than 700 epidemiological and population studies to extract information about the global disease burden from lead. She estimates that about half of urban children under age 5 globally have blood levels exceeding 10 [micro]g/dl. The great majority of cases of lead poisoning, she says, are in the developing world. In the June 2001 issue of Environmental Health Perspectives, for example, Dr Reinhard Kaiser and colleagues from the CDC and the National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine in Dhaka, Bangladesh, showed that 87. …
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To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element.
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Concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg, together with Na, K, Ca and Mg in 19 species of fish captured from the Indus River, Pakistan, are estimated by the atomic absorption method. Corresponding data for sediment and water from 11 sites along the down-stream route of the river are also reported. Mercury and arsenic concentrations were high (3.920 and 3.072 μg/g, respectively) in the muscle of fish from Guddu barrage as compared with those from other sites. Hetroptirus fossilus showed maximum concentrations of Ag, Cu and Pb in its muscle as compared with other fish. Labeo calbasu from Guddu barrage showed highest As concentration at 3.072 μg/g. Mystus vitatus from Chashma barrage contained maximum cadmium concentration at 0.990 μg/g. Several other fish exhibited elevated levels of metals along the downstream route of the river, a trend exhibited also by the elevated metal contents of sediment and water at Guddu and Lloyd barrages. The study indicated a gross pollution of the sediment and water at various locations of the river, e.g. As (7.452 μg/g) in sediment from Lloyd barrage, Hg (5.710 μg/g) in sediment from Jinnah barrage, Pb (2.709 μg/g) in sediment from Guddu barrage and Mn (0.038 μg/g) in water from Lloyd barrage. The macronutrients showed an inverse relationship with trace metals. Hetroptirus fossilus could be used as indicator species for Ag, Cu and Pb.
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The changing levels of SO2 and Pb in the air and vegetation, along ten road transections of Lucknow city (having varying traffic densities) have been investigated, with a view to authenticate a possible correlation between SO2 and Pb concentration in air and sulphate and lead accumulation in the foliage of avenue trees. The study showed that the road transection at Alambagh (traffic density 4835 for 2 h) revealed the highest level of pollutants (SO2, 202 µg m(-3); SPM, 1080 µg m(-3); and lead, 2.96 µg m(-3), 2 h average) in air, as well as in the foliage of plants, whereas the road stretches with less traffic density correspondingly showed lower levels of pollutants. Pb and sulphate in leaves were found to be positively correlated with Pb and SO2 pollution in the air. Results suggest that Dalbergia sissoo and Calotropis procera are the ideal plant species to monitor as indications of Pb and SO2, respectively, in the air.
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Our observation gives the total influx of metal calculated on the basis of a formula derived as follows: C¯=0.83Cp+0.17CInflux of metal =C¯X volume of water discharge annually Where C¯ is the average cocentration of metal in river water, Cp is the concentration of metal at peak flow, C is the average concentration of metal between moderate and lean flows. The discharge constants 0.83 and 0.17 are for peak and rest of the year flows, respectively. Our data here show that the river Ganges at Uluberia (80 Km upstream from the mouth of Bay of Bengal) transports 0.00005 million tons (MT) of As and Cd, 0.015 MT of Cr, 0.007 MT of Cu, 4.1 MT of Fe, 0.014 MT Pb, 0.056 MT of Mn, 0.005 MT of Ni and 0.14 MT of Zn each year. The quantity of trace metals are dictated by the weathering of rocks and minerals, soil erosion, industrial activities and influxes from various tributaries. Most of the metals were found highest during peak flow followed by moderate flow and lean flow. Trace metal composition of the river Ganges is comparable to that of Rhine and less than those of the Amazon and the Mississipi.
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The relation between uptake of lead and the level in blood (PbB) is curvilinear, but it is not certain whether this is true for all levels of intake, or only when PbB exceeds some value. Volunteers have been exposed to enhanced air lead (PbA) and epidemiological studies of the relation between PbB and PbA have been made. From these, the slope of the curve of PbB vs PbA can be estimated. Tracer experiments using radioactive or stable isotopes of lead can be used to derive the contribution of PbA to PbB. Because the response is curvilinear, the fractional contribution of PbA to PbB is greater than the slope of the curve.
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To assess the relations between use of lead in gasoline (GPb) and population blood lead levels (BPb), we examined 19 studies from six continents. In 17 of the studies, there are data on changes in BPb before and after changes in use of lead in gasoline. In 11 of the studies, there are data on air lead levels (APb). For a given location, there is a strong linear correlation between BPb and GPb, with a median correlation coefficient of 0.94. Across locations for a given GPb, BPb is positively correlated with city population. As GPb is reduced to zero, blood lead levels across locations converge to a median of 3 μg/dL. This convergence of BPb levels occurs at different times for different locations and corresponds to the timing of gasoline lead reductions. For those locations with available air lead data, air lead concentrations converge to ≤0.2 μg/m3 as GPb is reduced to zero. Together, these features indicate that reductions in gasoline lead levels have been a major causal factor in the observed reductions in population blood lead levels at these locations and show that BPb levels of about 3 μg/dL are widely achievable.
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Freshly deposited stream sediments from six urban centres of the Ganga Plain were collected and analysed for heavy metals to obtain a general scenery of sediment quality. The concentrations of heavy metals varied within a wide range for Cr (115–817), Mn (440–1 750), Fe (28 700–61 100), Co (11.7–29.0), Ni (35–538), Cu (33–1 204), Zn (90–1 974), Pb (14–856) and Cd (0.14–114.8) in mg kg-1. Metal enrichment factors for the stream sediments were <1.5 for Mn, Fe and Co; 1.5–4.1 for Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb; and 34 for Cd. The anthropogenic source in metals concentrations contributes to 59% Cr, 49% Cu, 52% Zn, 51% Pb and 77% Cd. High positive correlation between concentrations of Cr/Ni, Cr/Cu, Cr/Zn, Ni/Zn, Ni/Cu, Cu/Zn, Cu/Cd, Cu/Pb, Fe/Co, Mn/Co, Zn/Cd, Zn/Pb and Cd/Pb indicate either their common urban origin or their common sink in the stream sediments. The binding capacity of selected metals to sediment carbon and sulphur decreases in order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni and Cu > Zn > Cr > Ni, respectively. Stream sediments from Lucknow, Kanpur, Delhi and Agra urban centres have been classified by the proposed Sediment Pollution Index as highly polluted to dangerous sediments. Heavy metal analysis in the <20-μm-fraction of stream sediments appears to be an adequate method for the environmental assessment of urbanisation activities on alluvial rivers. The present study reveals that urban centres act as sources of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd and cause metallic sediment pollution in rivers of the Ganga Plain.
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Atmospheric concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn have been measured at different locations in Bombay. The concentration levels of these metals in blood and teeth of Bombay residents were also measured to assess the current and integrated exposure. Higher atmospheric concentrations were observed in higher vehicular traffic zones in Bombay. Environmental monitoring of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn was also carried out at Moradabad, the largest production and exporting centre of brass wares in India. Surface soil concentrations of these metals were also measured in Moradabad and Bombay. The analysis of samples was carried out by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). The study indicates that automobile exhaust is the dominant source for heavy metals in the environment of Bombay whereas the brass industry is responsible for enhanced concentrations of these metals in Moradabad.
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Monitoring of lead in ambient air was undertaken in the city of Varanasi, India, over a period of 2 yr from January 1988 to December 1989. Air samples were collected from 10 sampling sites and analysed by the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry method. Lead levels in India are found to be low compared to western countries. The highest concentration of Pb was recorded at Andhra Pul, a busy crossing in the city and lowest at Sarnath, i.e. about 10 km away from the city centre. The experimental results obtained, show that the automobile emission is the predominant source for lead pollution in the city. The concentrations follow a log-normal distribution at most of the sites.
Article
Blood lead levels of healthy Karachi population were estimated. Mean levels for males, females, soldiers and school children were 34.4, 31.8, 29.9 and 38.2 micrograms/dl respectively. About 93% cases of either sex had elevated lead levels, of whom 30% males and 10% females had levels above the safety limits (40 micrograms/dl). Soldiers living in relatively pollution free area though had levels lower than the rest of the population but 91% had levels over 25 micrograms/dl and only two had acceptable levels. Ninety-two percent children showed levels above 25 micrograms/dl with a large number having levels over 40 micrograms/dl. A very small percentage had normal levels. Pollution by traffic exhaust was assumed to be the principal cause for these high levels.
Article
During the fall of 1984, we conducted a survey of umbilical cord blood lead levels of 723 live births that occurred at 5 hospitals located in 5 cities in California. Historical ambient air lead levels were used as a qualitative surrogate of air and dust exposure. The area-specific cord blood means (all means approximately 5 micrograms/dl), medians, deciles, and distributions did not vary among locations. The California distributions included means that were lower than the 6.6 micrograms/dl reported in Needleman et al.'s Boston study in 1979. Indeed, the entire California distribution was shifted to the left of the Boston study distribution, even though 3% of the California cord lead levels exceeded 10 micrograms/dl--the level above which Needleman et al. have documented psychoneurological effects in children during the first few years of life. Fourteen percent of premature babies had cord blood lead levels above 10 micrograms/dl. The association between prematurity (i.e., less than 260 d gestation) and elevated (greater than 5 micrograms/dl) cord blood lead was observed in all hospitals and yielded a relative risk of 2.9 (95% CI: .9, 9.2) and a population attributable risk of 47%. Further research is needed to confirm this association and to explore the roles of endogenous and exogenous sources of lead exposure to the mothers who give birth to premature infants.
Article
A prospective method was used in this study to assess the effects of fetal lead exposure on neurodevelopmental status in 3- and 6-month old infants. At their first prenatal medical appointments, 305 lower socioeconomic status women residing in predesignated lead-hazardous areas of Cincinnati were recruited. Lead was measured in whole blood in both the mother and fetal-placental unit (prenatal and cord) and the neonate (ten days and 3 months). All blood lead levels were less than 30 micrograms/dL. Infant development was assessed with the Bayley scales at 3 and 6 months of age. Multiple regression analyses which treated perinatal health factors such as birth weight and gestation as confounders indicated an independent, inverse relationship between both prenatal and neonatal blood lead levels and performance on the Bayley Mental Developmental Index at both ages. Male infants and infants from the poorest families appeared to be especially sensitive to these psychoteratogenic influences. Further study using a structural equations approach indicated that neurobehavioral deficits were partly mediated by lead-related reductions in birth weight and gestation.
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The history of advances in the understanding of the toxic effects of lead over the past 20 years is an outstanding example of how knowledge learned from research can impact public health. Measures that have had the greatest impact on reducing exposure to lead are reduction of lead from gasoline, elimination of lead solder from canned food, removal of lead from paint, and abatement of housing containing lead-based paint. Nevertheless, continuing factors that enhance risk to lead exposure, particularly during fetal life, are low socioeconomic status, old housing with lead-containing paint, and less than ideal nutrition, particularly low dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc. Prenatal exposure may result from endogenous sources such as lead in the maternal skeletal system or maternal exposures from diet and the environment. Experimental studies have shown that the developing nervous system is particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of lead and that a large number of the effects in the nervous system are due to interference of lead with biochemical functions dependent on calcium ions and impairment of neuronal connections dependent on dendritic pruning. There is need for more study to determine whether these effects are a continuum of prenatal lead exposure or whether prenatal exposure to lead produces unique effects.
Article
Lead poisoning is among the most prevalent and serious preventable diseases of occupational and environmental origin. Many sources contribute to human exposures, and the residues from past uses continue to present risks due to contamination of dusts, soils, and drinking water. In many aspects, lead poisoning is a local-scale problem, and factors in specific environments and workplaces, as well as characteristics of specific populations, determine the nature and extent of disease. However, lead is also a global pollutant: emissions from stationary and mobile sources are transported across boundaries and even oceans; lead-containing products are traded extensively; and lead-containing wastes such as batteries also move internationally. For these reasons, national regulations are insufficient to prevent this disease. This paper discusses evidence for undertaking international efforts to control lead exposures.
Article
Population exposures to toxic trace metals are of great concern due to their nonbiodegradable nature and long biological half-lives for elimination from the body. Response to a toxic metal varies with age group; children are more sensitive and hence more at risk than others. The present study was therefore undertaken on 6- to 10-year-old children residing in various localities of Greater Mumbai and Thane. Blood samples from 566 children residing in 13 locations in Mumbai along with 410 air particulate samples and 64 "duplicate diet" samples were collected for this study. Levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in these samples were estimated by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric technique. Intake of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn for 6- to 10-year-old children through ingestion and inhalation pathways have also been assessed. A correlation coefficient of 0.88 is observed between air lead and blood lead. It is also seen that every microgram increase in the Pb concentration in air (m-3) results in 3.56 microg increase in the blood Pb concentration (dl-1) in children. Similar correlation, however, was not observed in cases of Cd, Cu, and Zn.
Article
Lead is the most abundant of the heavy metals in the Earth's crust. It has been used since prehistoric times, and has become widely distributed and mobilized in the environment. Exposure to and uptake of this non-essential element have consequently increased. Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries, as well as in some developed countries. In most developed countries, however, introduction of lead into the human environment has decreased in recent years, largely due to public health campaigns and a decline in its commercial usage, particularly in petrol. Acute lead poisoning has become rare in such countries, but chronic exposure to low levels of the metal is still a public health issue, especially among some minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. In developing countries, awareness of the public health impact of exposure to lead is growing but relatively few of these countries have introduced policies and regulations for significantly combating the problem. This article reviews the nature and importance of environmental exposure to lead in developing and developed countries, outlining past actions, and indicating requirements for future policy responses and interventions.
Article
Average concentration of Pb in atmospheric air particulates in different suburbs of Mumbai was studied for almost a decade and its spatial and temporal profiles are discussed in relation to emission sources. In general the concentration of Pb in all the residential suburban atmosphere is well below the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB, 1994) prescribed limit of 1.5 microg m(-3) barring a few exceptions for some residential/industrial sites, such as those of Thane and Kurla scrap yards. The correlation between blood lead of children and air lead reveals that the blood Pb level in children could increase by 3.6 microg dl(-1) for an incremental rise of 1.0 microg Pb m(-3) of air. The temporal profile of air Pb values indicates a decreasing trend in residential suburbs (Khar: 1984, 0.39 microg m(-3); 1996, 0.17 microg m(-3)) as well as in suburban residential areas with low traffic (Goregaon: 1984, 0.53 microg m(-3); 1996, 0.30 microg m(-3)).
Article
The Ganga is the most important perennial river originating from Gangotri in the snow-bound Himalayas about 3,900 m above mean sea level. Gorging a distance of about 220 km in the Himalayas, it enters the plain at Hardwar and after meandering and braiding over a distance of about 2,525 km through the Indo-Gangetic plains, ultimately joins the Bay of Bengal. The course of this river has been changed due to: (i) subsurface geotectonic movement leading to change in slope of the deltaic plain and subsidence of the Bengal basin; (ii) changing pattern of water discharge with time; (iii) variations in sediment load. The environment of Ganga basin is also deteriorating with time due to severe natural episodes of periodic floods and storms as well as anthropogenic factors such as population growth, deforestation, agricultural activities, urbanisation, fertiliser and fossil fuel consumption and construction activities such as dams and bridges. All these have inconceivable adverse impacts on the health and natural regeneration capacity of the river basin. The presence of micropollutants in water and sediments of this river turns the system into being unsustainable to the biota. The present study synthesises the available information on the changes of its geological, geomorphological and ecological aspects and suggests some remedial measures to be adopted now and in future.
Article
The relationship between blood lead level and neurodevelopment was assessed in a pilot cross-sectional study of 74 4-14-year-old children in Chennai, India. Mean blood lead level was 11.1 microg/dL (2.5-38.3). The Binet-Kamath IQ test and the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Activity (WRAVMA) were administered to 58 children. Teachers completed the Connor's Behavioral Rating Scale. Excluding two outliers, IQ and WRAVMA composite scores were inversely related to blood lead level, with an effect size of approximately 6 points decline for a 10-microg/dL increase in blood lead. Children in the highest and lowest blood lead quartiles had mean IQs of 95.6+/-13.3 and 102.0+/-22.5, respectively. Behavior ratings were not associated with blood lead level. Lead exposure is a significant problem among Indian children, with many having blood lead levels associated with increased neurodevelopmental risk.
Article
Lead is a global concern because of its ubiquity in the environment and known to be associated with abnormal neurobehavioral and cognitive development of young children. There is no study from India to describe a composite profile of blood lead and its biochemical influences in children. The present study was aimed at determining the proportion of children with >10 mug/dL blood lead levels (BLLs), association between BLLs, and sociodemographic characteristics, if any, and alterations in biochemical indices in the blood as an underlying mechanism of lead intoxication. A total of 62 children (4--12 y) of Lucknow and nearby areas were recruited to determine BLLs, delta-amimolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the blood. Mean level of blood lead was 7.47+/-3.06 microg/dL (2.78--15.0) and 29%-exceeded 10 microg/dL, CDC intervention level. The BLLs were found to be significantly influenced by social status, area of residence, source of water supply, maternal educational status (p<0.001), type of house, and proximity to traffic density (p<0.01). delta-ALAD was significantly lower in the group of children with BLLs 11.39+/-1.39 microg/dL when compared to children with BLLs 7.11+/-1.25 microg/dL and 3.93+/-0.61 microg/dL (p=0.0007, 0.0005, respectively). However, CAT activity was higher in the groups of children with higher blood levels than with lower BLLs (p=0.0159, 0.0001, respectively). There was an increase in MDA level with a concomitant decrease of GSH in children with BLLs 11.39+/-1.39 microg/dL compared with those of children with BLLs 7.11+/-1.25 microg/dL and 3.93+/-0.61 microg/dL (p=0.0001, 0.0002, and p=0.0001, respectively). There was statistically significant correlation of BLLs with delta-ALAD (r=-0.44, p=0.00035), MDA (r=0.46, p=0.00018), GSH (r=-0.62, p=0.00001), and CAT (r=0.44, p=0.00035). Significantly, CAT activity, MDA, and GSH levels were in turn, found to be correlated with delta-ALAD (r=-0.45, p=0.00024; r=-0.43, p=0.00053; r=0.43, p=0.00053, respectively). Results of the present study indicate a declining trend of BLLs in children when compared with those reported from metropolitan cities of India when leaded gasoline was in practice and that the BLLs were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of lead intoxication.
Article
Monitoring of atmospheric lead from the Dalbergia sissoo tree was undertaken at Lucknow urban centre of the Ganga Plain, India. A total of 26 leaf samples were collected in spring, monsoon and winter seasons from 16 sampling sites and was analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry method. Lead concentrations were low in spring season, increased in monsoon to winter seasons and range from 2.1 to 28.2 microg/g (dry wt.). This accumulative response of lead in the tree leaves is directly linked with the exposure time of automobile emission that is considered to be the predominant source for it. Highway localities show higher lead concentrations by a factor of 2 as compared to urban localities. Highest concentration was recorded at Sitapur Road (National Highway No. 24) in winter season. A linear quantitative relationship between urban air-lead levels and lead-in-the Dalbergia sissoo leaves is used to infer the qualitative assessment of present day atmospheric lead pollution. Reported results suggest a drastic reduction in mean lead concentration in Lucknow urban air from 1.32 microg/m3 in 1994 to 0.19 microg/m3 in 2002. Similarly, mean lead concentration in the tree leaves during winter season also dropped from 17.9 microg/g in 1994 to 8.1 microg/g in 2004. Despite of increasing urban population, urban area, vehicle population and traffic density, the introduction of unleaded-petrol (vehicular fuel) keeps lead level in the urban environment of Lucknow much lower than the past. Like Lucknow, other urban centres of the Ganga Plain are also on way to the exponential increase in pressure of urbanization. An appropriate urban public transport planning is required to provide healthy atmospheric environment for millions of people especially future young generation.
observed a good correlation between air lead and the blood-lead of 6–10 year-old children residing in Mumbai (Fig. 5A) It was also reported that an increase of 1 μg/m 3 in air lead level corresponded to an increase of 3.56 μg/dl lead in children blood concentration
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Fergusson, 1990). Raghunath et al. (1999) observed a good correlation between air lead and the blood-lead of 6–10 year-old children residing in Mumbai (Fig. 5A). It was also reported that an increase of 1 μg/m 3 in air lead level corresponded to an increase of 3.56 μg/dl lead in children blood concentration. In the United States, blood-lead levels decreased from about 16 μg/dl to 10 μg/dl between 1976 and 1980 as the lead in petrol fell from 0.47 g/l to
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1 μg/dl, respectively. During measured the blood-lead concentration of 160 children (3 months–6 years) from Amritsar. Concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 12.6 μg/dl with a mean of 7
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3 μg/dl and 11.1 μg/dl, respectively. During 2002 to 2004, Mahajan et al. (2005) measured the blood-lead concentration of 160 children (3 months–6 years) from Amritsar. Concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 12.6 μg/dl with a mean of 7.3 μg/dl. In 2003, Ahamed et al. (2005) studied 62 children between 4 and 12 years Fig.
5B displays the decrease in blood-lead level of children from urban localities in Mumbai from 1995 to 1998, attributable to the use of unleaded petrol along with emission regulations and better transport and traffic management policies
  • Fig
Fig. 5B displays the decrease in blood-lead level of children from urban localities in Mumbai from 1995 to 1998, attributable to the use of unleaded petrol along with emission regulations and better transport and traffic management policies (Tripathi et al., 2001).
studied the blood-lead concen-trations of 178 children from Mumbai during
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Tripathi et al. (1989) studied the blood-lead concen-trations of 178 children from Mumbai during 1984– 1985.
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Intellectual impairment and blood lead levels:500. Fig. 6. Bar diagram showing response (in %) resulting from switch to unleaded petrol for lead in the various components of Indian environment
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