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Intensive Hypnotherapy for Smoking Cessation:A Prospective Study

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This study reports on a prospective pilot trial of intensive hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. The hypnotherapy involved multiple individual sessions (8 visits) over approximately 2 months, individualization of hypnotic suggestions, and a supportive therapeutic relationship. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to either an intensive hypnotherapy condition or to a wait-list control condition. The target quitting date was 1 week after beginning treatment. Patients were evaluated for smoking cessation at the end of treatment and at Weeks 12 and 26. Self-reported abstinence was confirmed by a carbon-monoxide concentration in expired air of 8 ppm or less. The rates of point prevalence smoking cessation, as confirmed by carbon-monoxide measurements for the intensive hypnotherapy group, was 40% at the end of treatment; 60% at 12 weeks, and 40% at 26 weeks (p < .05).
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Intl. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 54(3): 303–315, 2006
Copyright © International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
ISSN: 0020-7144 print / 1744-5183 online
DOI: 10.1080/00207140600689512
303
NHYP0020-71441744-5183Journal of Clinical and Experimenta l Hypnosis, Vol. 54, N o. 03, April 2006: pp . 0–0Intl. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
INTENSIVE HYPNOTHERAPY FOR
SMOKING CESSATION:
A Prospective Study1
INTENSIVE HYPNOTHERAPY FOR SMOKING CES SATIONGARY ELKINS ET AL. GARY ELKINS, JOEL MARCUS, JEFF BATES, AND
M. HASAN RAJAB2
Scott and White Memorial Hospital and Clinic, Temple, Texas, USA
TERESA COOK
Baylor University, Waco, Texas, USA
Abstract: This study reports on a prospective pilot trial of intensive
hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. The hypnotherapy involved mul-
tiple individual sessions (8 visits) over approximately 2 months, indi-
vidualization of hypnotic suggestions, and a supportive therapeutic
relationship. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to either an
intensive hypnotherapy condition or to a wait-list control condition.
The target quitting date was 1 week after beginning treatment. Patients
were evaluated for smoking cessation at the end of treatment and at
Weeks 12 and 26. Self-reported abstinence was confirmed by a carbon-
monoxide concentration in expired air of 8 ppm or less. The rates of
point prevalence smoking cessation, as confirmed by carbon-monoxide
measurements for the intensive hypnotherapy group, was 40% at the
end of treatment; 60% at 12 weeks, and 40% at 26 weeks (p < .05).
Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of disease and it is a
major cause of premature death. Smoking is a leading risk factor in
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and vascular disease
and mortality (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1990).
Most people who smoke are aware of the fact that smoking is associ-
ated with health risks, and as many as 80% of current smokers express
a desire to stop smoking (USDHHS, 1990), however most smokers
are unlikely to be successful in quitting smoking without assistance
(Giovino, Henningfield, Tomar, Escobedo, & Slade, 1995).
Manuscript submitted May 20, 2005; final revision received August 29, 2005.
1The authors wish to thank Paul Cinciripini at University of Texas M.D. Anderson
Cancer Center for his guidance in selection of outcome measures and study design. Also,
appreciation is expressed to Matthew Ridley and Jennifer Gibbons-Rameriz who served
as study coordinators.
2Address correspondence to Gary Elkins, Ph.D., ABPP, ABPH, Scott & White Clinic,
2401 South 31 Street, Temple, TX 76508, USA. E-mail: gelkins@swmail.sw.org
304 GARY ELKINS ET AL.
Several retrospective clinical studies of hypnotherapy have shown
some encouraging promise for smoking cessation (Crasilneck, 1990;
Elkins & Rajab, 2004). However, most of the outcome studies of hypno-
therapy for smoking cessation, to date, have failed to achieve random-
ization and have not included biological markers of smoking cessation
(Fiore et al., 1996; 2000). As a result, the potential effectiveness of hyp-
nosis remains largely unknown (Greene & Lynn, 2000).
Further, many of the randomized studies of hypnosis have examined
a minimal approach to hypnotherapy involving one or two sessions or
group interventions (Berkowitz, Ross-Townsend, & Kohberger, 1979;
Cornwell, Burrows, & McMurray, 1981; Hyman, Stanley, Burrows,
& Horne, 1986; Javel, 1980; Neufeld & Lynn, 1988; Pederson, Scrimgeour,
& Lefcoe, 1975; Rabkin, Boyko, Shane, & Kaufert, 1984; Spanos,
Mondoux, & Burgess, 1995; Spanos, Sims, deFaye, Mondoux, & Gabora,
1992; D. Spiegel, Frischholz, Fleiss, & Spiegel, 1993; H. Spiegel, 1970;
Stanton, 1978; Williams & Hall, 1988). The findings regarding this minimal
approach to hypnosis for smoking cessation have indicated outcomes of
about 20% to 25% cessation (Cornwell et al.; Rabkin et al.). Recently, Green
& Lynn (2000) completed a comprehensive review of studies utilizing
hypnosis for smoking cessation and concluded that it seems apparent
that minimal hypnotic interventions, such as that developed by H. Spiegel
(1970) and group hypnosis interventions (Lynn, Neufeld, Rhue, & Matorin,
1993) achieve abstinence rates of only around 20% or less.
Hypnosis may yet be shown to be a very effective treatment for smok-
ing, however, an intensive treatment approach may be necessary for hyp-
nosis to be of greater benefit for smoking cessation (Green & Lynn, 2000).
Also, it has been suggested that more intensive interventions with more
contact in general may result in higher cessation rates (Fiore et al., 2000).
We have developed an innovative new intensive approach to hypnosis for
smoking cessation that is consistent with these recommendations.
The purpose of the present study was to establish the beneficial
effect of an intensive approach to hypnotherapy for smoking cessation
in a prospective randomized pilot study using biological markers of
abstinence. We hypothesized that the intervention would result in
smoking-cessation rates of 30% or higher that would be sustained at
6-month follow-up visits.
METHOD
Subjects
Subjects were recruited from physician referral and advertise-
ments. A total of 28 volunteers who were interested in stopping
smoking were evaluated, of whom 20 met the study criteria (see
below). This study was approved by the Scott and White Clinic and
Hospital Institutional Review Board. After the initial screening, subjects
INTENSIVE HYPNOTHERAPY FOR SMOKING CESSATION 305
attended an informational meeting at which the study was explained,
questionnaires completed, and written informed consent provided.
The subjects were eligible for inclusion if they were at least 18 years
of age, reported smoking 10 or more cigarettes per day, were inter-
ested in quitting smoking in the next 30 days, had the ability to attend
weekly sessions and spoke English. Exclusion criteria included regular
use of any noncigarette tobacco product, reported current abuse of
alcohol or psychoactive drugs, current use of any other smoking-cessa-
tion treatments, any reported history of borderline personality disor-
der, or currently using hypnotherapy for any reason.
The baseline characteristics of the participants are shown in Table 1.
The average age of the participants was early to mid-40s and the
majority were female; Caucasian; married; with a high school edu-
cation; were smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day; and had a
Fagerstrom score of slightly greater than 10.
Table 1
Baseline Characteristics of the Subjects
Characteristic Control Hypnotherapy
Age 41.7 ± 10.2 43.7 ± 8.4
Female Gender 80% 60%
Caucasian Race 100% 90%
No. cigarettes
Smoked/day 25.7 ± 9.6 22.2 ± 6.1
Fagerstrom Score 10.9 ± 1.2 10.7 ± 8
Marital Status (%)
Married/living
with partner 70% 90%
Single 0% 10%
Divorced 30% 0%
Education
HS/GED 60% 80%
1–3 yrs coll. 20% 0%
Coll. degree 10% 1%
Post grad.
Degree 10% 1%
Reasons for wanting to stop smoking
Health 100% 100%
Expensive 50% 80%
Spouse/family request 30% 30%
Job requirement 10% 0%
Insurance costs 40% 10%
Smells bad 80% 40%
Other 30% 20%
306 GARY ELKINS ET AL.
Measures
Baseline data assessments were completed regarding demographic
information, smoking behaviors, reasons for wanting to stop smoking,
and perceived benefits from smoking cessation. Also at baseline,
nicotine dependence was assessed with the 8-item Fagerstrom Test for
Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scale. The FTND is a widely used mea-
sure of nicotine dependence with a score ranging from 0 to 11; a score
of 6 or greater indicates higher levels of dependence (Fagerstrom &
Schneider, 1989). Self-reported abstinence was confirmed by expired
carbon monoxide (CO) measured at baseline, at the end of treatment
(Week 8) and at Weeks 12 and 26. Subjects were classified as abstainers
if they reported no smoking in the 7 days prior to assessment and had
CO values of less than 8 ppm (Cinciripini et al., 2003). Inconsistencies
in self-reports and CO values were noted in 7% of measurements. Any
inconsistency in self-reports and CO values was resolved with saliva
cotinine analysis less than 20 ng/mL.
Procedure
At the baseline visit, subjects were randomly assigned to either
receive intensive hypnotherapy for smoking cessation or to a waiting-
list control group. Subjects in the waiting-list control group received
self-help material from the National Cancer Institute (Glynn & Manley,
1990) and encouraged to set a date to quit smoking. Assessments of
smoking cessation were completed at Weeks 8, 12, and 26. Participants
received $25 for each follow-up appointment attended. Research staff
provided brief supportive phone calls to all of the participants at 3
days after the target quit date and at Weeks 2, 4, and 5. The supportive
phone call lasted 5 to 10 minutes each.
The intensive hypnotherapy intervention was provided by a doc-
toral clinical psychologist (PsyD) or physician (MD). The therapists
completed 40 hours of training in hypnotherapy provided by the pri-
mary investigator. Training followed the guidelines and learning
objectives outlined in the publication, Standards of Training in Clinical
Hypnosis (Hammond & Elkins, 1994). Therapists also received addi-
tional training in the hypnotherapy treatment used in the study.
Subjects assigned to the intensive hypnotherapy intervention met
with a research therapist and at the first visit (preparation visit) were
provided with a brief discussion regarding myths and misconceptions
about hypnosis and the process used in hypnotic induction (Elkins &
Handel, 2001). At the first visit (preparation visit), subjects also
received self-help material from the National Cancer Institute (Glynn &
Manley, 1990). Subjects received a 30-minute counseling session that
included exploring ambivalence about quitting, preparing to quit,
problem solving difficult situations, and commitment following semis-
tructured counseling scripts. Subjects were asked to set a target quit
INTENSIVE HYPNOTHERAPY FOR SMOKING CESSATION 307
date approximately 7 days later. Also, subjects in the intensive hypno-
therapy group were provided with a self-hypnosis tape recording and
a tape player and instructed in the daily practice of self-hypnosis.
We collected self-reports of average number of cigarettes smoked
per day for each of the 7 days prior to assessment of abstinence.
Subjects who were unavailable for assessment were counted as non-
abstainers. We allowed participants to miss no more than one in-
person visit prior to each assessment. The 26-week outcome period
was chosen because there is evidence to suggest that cessation rates at
26 and 52 weeks do not differ substantially (Fagerstrom, 1989;
Hjalmarson, 1984; Hughes, Gust, Keenan, Fenwick, & Healey, 1989;
Hurt et al., 1994; Kornitzer, Boutsen, Dramaix, Thijs, & Gustavsson,
1995; Russell et al., 1993; Fee & Stewart, 1982; Sachs, Sawe, & Leischow,
1993; Tonnesen, Norregaad, Simonsen, & Sawe, 1991).
Subjects in the intensive hypnotherapy intervention group received
eight sessions, and each session lasted approximately 1 hour. A brief
counseling session occurred at each visit at which time subjects
received encouragement to practice self-hypnosis. The hypnotic induc-
tions were completed at Sessions 1, 2, 4, and 7 and were standardized
following a transcript. Suggestions were given for deepening relax-
ation, absorption in relaxing imagery, commitment to stop smoking,
decreased craving for nicotine, posthypnotic suggestions, practice of
self-hypnosis, and visualization of the positive benefits of smoking
cessation. Subjects were asked at each session for their preferences for
specific imagery for relaxation and dissociation. The suggestions fol-
lowed a transcript; however, the specific imagery for relaxation and
the positive benefits for smoking cessation were individualized based
upon questions to determine the patient’s preference regarding such
imagery. The hypnotic induction used is summarized below.
(a) Eye-focus induction. Begin by focusing your attention on a spot on
the wall. As you concentrate, begin to feel more relaxed. Concentrate
intensely so that other things begin to fade into the background. As this
occurs, noticing a relaxed and heavy feeling and allowing your eye-lids
to close.
(b) Relaxation. Noticing a wave of relaxation that begins at the top of
your head and spreads across your forehead, face, neck, and shoulders.
Every muscle and every fiber of your body becoming more and more
completely relaxed. More and more noticing a feeling of letting go and
becoming so deeply relaxed.
(c) Comfort. . . . and as you become and remain more relaxed, finding a feel-
ing of comfort. Feeling safe and secure. A peaceful feeling, calm and secure.
Feeling so calm that nothing bothers or interferes with this feeling of comfort.
(d) Mental imagery for relaxation. As you can hear my voice with a
part of your mind, with another part going to a place where you feel safe
308 GARY ELKINS ET AL.
and secure. A place where you become so deeply relaxed that you are
able to respond to each suggestion just as you would like to, feeling
everything you need to feel and to experience.
(e) Commitment for smoking cessation. . . . and today becoming a non-
smoker, becoming free from nicotine and free from cigarettes . . . you
will not smoke cigarettes or use tobacco again. With each day that
passesh, your commitment to remain free from cigarettes will become
stronger and each time you enter this relaxed state you will remember
the reasons you want to stop smoking.
(f) Dissociation from cravings. As you enter an even deeper level of hyp-
nosis, you may notice a floating sensation, less aware of your body, just
floating in space. Your body floating in a feeling of comfort and your mind,
just so aware of being in that pleasant place [individualized imagery for a
pleasant place]. As your body floats, you will not be bothered by craving
nicotine. Your mind blocks from conscious awareness any cravings and you
can feel more detached from your body as you become more relaxed.
(g) Posthypnotic suggestions. . . . and as you become and as you
remain free from nicotine and free from cigarettes, you will find a sense
of satisfaction and accomplishment. You will find that, more and more,
you are able to sleep very well, your sense of smell will improve, and
your sense of taste will improve. You will not eat excessively and you
will find an appropriate amount of food to be satisfying to you.
(h) Self-hypnosis. Each time you practice self-hypnosis or listen to the tape
recording that I will provide to you today, you will be able to enter a very
deep state of relaxation, just as deep as you are today . . . and within this
relaxed state, you will find a feeling of control. You will be able to become
so deeply relaxed that you will become very comfortable and you will be
able to have a feeling of dissociation that keeps from conscious awareness
any excessive craving for nicotine. Within this relaxed state, your commit-
ment to remain free from cigarettes will become even stronger, and you will
find a kind of strength from your practice of self-hypnosis.
(i) Positive imagery for benefits of smoking cessation. ...now,seeing
yourself in the future as a nonsmoker, free from nicotine and cigarettes.
Notice all of the good things going on around you, how healthy you feel,
and [here, individualized imagery is introduced, depending on the patients
perceived benefits from smoking cessation]. Seeing how well you are able to
feel and you will not smoke, no matter if times become stressful or difficult.
You will be able to remain calm and relaxed, both now and in the future.
RESULTS
The efficacy of the intervention for smoking cessation was evaluated
with the use of weekly point-prevalence abstinence rates and rates of
continuous abstinence. In all cases, an intention-to-treat analysis was
performed. For the point-prevalence rates, subjects were classified as
INTENSIVE HYPNOTHERAPY FOR SMOKING CESSATION 309
abstinent if they reported not smoking during the previous 7 days and
this report was confirmed by an expired carbon monoxide value of
8 ppm or less. To be classified as continuously abstinent, the subject
had to be confirmed as not smoking on the basis of carbon monoxide
measurement at each visit.
The biochemically confirmed point-prevalence smoking-cessation
rates are shown in Table 2. Fisher’s Exact Test was utilized to compare
the intervention to wait-list control. The respective point-prevalence
smoking-cessation rates for the intensive hypnotherapy intervention
and waiting-list control condition at the end of treatment, 12 weeks,
and 26 weeks was 40% vs. 10% (p < .15), 60% vs. 0% (p < .005), and 40%
vs. 0% (p < .043).
The rates of continuous abstinence from the target quitting date
through the end of treatment are shown in Figure 1. Results indicated
30% continuous abstinence at the end of the treatment period. None of
the subjects in the control group achieved continuous abstinence.
The average numbers of cigarettes smoked per day at each assess-
ment point are shown in Figure 2. At Week 26, the average number of
cigarettes smoked by those in the intensive hypnotherapy group was
three. In comparison, the average number of cigarettes smoked by those
in the waiting-list control group remained stable at 20 cigarettes per day.
DISCUSSION
The results of the present study revealed that an intensive hypno-
therapy intervention can be an effective means of achieving smoking
cessation. The rate of smoking cessation at 26-week follow-up was
40%, as confirmed by an expired carbon monoxide value of 8 ppm or
less. This rate of smoking cessation is comparable to or higher than
that achieved through pharmacological or nonhypnotic behavioral
interventions. In this small sample, the hypnosis intervention was well
accepted, and the overall results of the present study support the effi-
cacy of an intensive approach to hypnotherapy for adult smokers.
Table 2
Point-Prevalence Smoking Cessation Rates Confirmed by Carbon Monoxide Measurements
Time after target
quitting date
% of Subjects not smoking
p valueControl Intensive Hypnotherapy
8 weeks 10% 40% .15*
12 weeks 0% 60% .005
26 weeks 0% 40% .043
*Fisher’s Exact Test.
310 GARY ELKINS ET AL.
Our hypothesis that the intervention would result in smoking-cessa-
tion rates of 30% or higher and would be sustained at 26-week follow-
up visits was confirmed and is consistent with previous observations
that have suggested that interventions that involve considerable
patient contact and are extended over a longer period of time may be
more effective than minimal-interventions rates (Fiore et al., 2000). For
example, Holroyd (1980) suggested that the likelihood of success for
hypnosis in treatment of tobacco dependency may be increased by an
approach that includes: (a) multiple sessions; (b) individualized hyp-
notic suggestions; (c) individualized counseling with follow-up; and
(d) an intense interpersonal relationship. The present intervention was
consistent with these observations and adds support to this approach
to hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.
However, the present study has limitations, and these include a
small sample size and the lack of measurements of hypnotizability.
Additional research with a larger sample size would enhance confi-
dence in the generalizability of the results and allow exploration of
potential variables that may relate to the success of the intervention.
For example, it would be important to assess the subjects’ levels of
F
igure 1. Percentage of subjects who maintained continuous abstinence from smoking
from Week 1 through Week 7.
INTENSIVE HYPNOTHERAPY FOR SMOKING CESSATION 311
hypnotizability, as some previous studies have suggested that hypno-
tizability may be associated with responses to hypnotic interventions
for smoking cessation (Marcovitch, Gelfand, & Perry, 1980; Perry &
Mullen, 1975). Also, the effect of hypnosis on reducing withdrawal
symptoms from tobacco cessation needs to be determined (Hughes &
Hatsukami, 1986).
Further investigation of this intensive hypnotherapy for smoking ces-
sation is warranted and may provide an innovative new focus for
behavioral research. For example, Fiore et al. (2000) recently observed
that there have been few innovations in developing new nonpharmaco-
logical interventions for smoking cessation in the past 20 years (Niaura &
Abrams, 2002; Shiffman, 1993). Innovative new behavioral interventions
for smoking cessation are clearly needed. Pharmacological interventions
such as bupropion and nicotine replacements have yielded cessation
rates of up to 35% when used in combination with each other (Jorenby
et al., 1999) or in combination with behavioral interventions (Cinciripini,
Cinciripini, Walfisch, Van Vunakis, & Haque, 1996). However, up to
30% or more of smokers may reject pharmacological interventions
because of unpleasant or unacceptable side effects (Jorenby et al.) or for
other reasons discontinue use. Further, pharmacological and/or com-
bined interventions are ineffective for others (Hurt et al., 1997). Because
F
igure 2. Average number of cigarettes smoked per day from baseline to 26 weeks by
intensive hypnosis group and control group.
312 GARY ELKINS ET AL.
of this, many smokers prefer and seek nonpharmacological interven-
tions such as intensive hypnotherapy.
In conclusion, an intensive hypnotherapy intervention was effec-
tive for smoking cessation and resulted in cessation rates that are
higher than previously achieved by minimal approaches in random-
ized prospective studies. Based on the results of this initial pilot
study, it would appear that intensive hypnotherapy may be an inno-
vative behavioral intervention of significant benefit to some smokers.
A larger, randomized study that integrates state-of-the-art methods
for achieving high follow-up rates (Scott, 2004) is warranted to fully
determine the effects of the intervention. Such a study could also
reveal potential cost savings and mediating factors such as hypnotic
susceptibility and expectancies.
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Intensiv-Hypnosetherapie zur Raucherentwöhnung: Eine
prospektive Studie
Gary Elkins, Joel Marcus, Jeff Bates, M. Hasan Rajab und Teresa Cook
Zusammenfassung: In diesem Artikel wird eine prospektive Pilotstudie einer
intensiven Hypnosetherapie zur Raucherentwöhnung vorgestellt. Die
Hypnosetherapie bestand aus mehrfachen Einzelsitzungen (acht Sitzungen)
über einen Zeitraum von etwa zwei Monaten, der Individualisierung der
hypnotischen Suggestionen und einer supportiven Therapeutenbeziehung. 20
Teilnehmer wurden zufällig einer Gruppe mit intensiver Hypnosetherapie
oder einer Wartelistenkontrollgruppe zugeteilt. Das Zieldatum zur Beendigung
des Rauchens lag 1 Woche nach Aufnahme der Behandlung. Die Patienten
wurden am Ende der Behandlung sowie nach 12 und 26 Wochen evaluiert.
Selbstberichtete Abstinenz wurde durch einen Kohlenmonoxid-Test der
ausgeatmeten Luft (weniger als 8 ppm) bestätigt. Die Punktprävalenz für
Rauchabstinenz, welche mithilfe die Kohlenmonoxid-Messung objektiviert
INTENSIVE HYPNOTHERAPY FOR SMOKING CESSATION 315
wurde, lag in der Hypnosetherapie-Gruppe am Ende der Behandlung bei 40%,
nach 12 Wochen bei 60% und nach 26 Wochen bei 40% (p < 0.05).
RALF SCHMAELZLE
University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
Hypnothérapie intensive pour arreter de fumer: Une étude prospective
Gary Elkins, Joel Marcus, Jeff Bates, M. Hasan Rajab et Teresa Cook
Résumé: Cette étude rend compte d’un essai exploratoire prospectif
d’hypnothérapie intensive pour arreter de fumer. L’hypnothérapie intensive
impliquait des séances individuelles multiples (8 consultations) au cours
d’environ deux mois, l’individualisation de suggestions hypnotiques et une
relation thérapeutique étayante. Vingt sujets étaient affectés au hasard soit à
une condition d’hypnothérapie intensive, soit à une condition de contrôle
sur liste d’attente. La date d’arret envisagée était d’une semaine après le
début du traitement. Les patients étaient évalués par rapport à l’arrêt du
tabac à la fin du traitement et après 12 et 26 semaines. L’auto-déscription
d’abstinence était confirmée par une concentration de monoxyde de carbone
dans l’air expirée de 8 ppm ou moins. La ratio de prévalence d’arrêt du tabac,
tels que confirmés par les mesures de monoxyde de carbone pour le groupe
d’hypnothérapie intensive, étaient de 40% à la fin du traitement, 60% après
12 semaines et 40% après 26 semaines (p < .05)
URSULA KNAPP-MCINNES
Clinical psychologist, Boulogne-Billancourt,
France
La hipnoterapia intensiva para dejar de fumar: Un estudio prospectivo
Gary Elkins, Joel Marcus, Jeff Batea, M. Hasan Rajab, y Teresa Cook
Resumen: Este es un estudio prospectivo piloto de hipnoterapia intensiva
para dejar de fumar. La hipnoterapia intensiva incluyó múltiples sesiones
individuales (8 visitas) durante aproximadamente 2 meses, individualización
de sugestiones hipnóticas, y una relación terapéutica de apoyo. Asignamos
aleatoriamente a 20 participantes a una condición intensiva de la hipnoterapia
o a una lista de espera como control. El objetivo era dejar de fumar 1 semana
después de empezar el tratamiento. Evaluamos la abstinencia de los pacientes
al finalizar el tratamiento y en las semanas 12 y 26. Informes de abstinencia
fueron confirmads por una concentración de monóxido de carbono en aire
expirado de 8 ppm o menos. Las tasas de abstención de fumar, confirmadas
por medidas de monóxido de carbono para el grupo intensivo de
hipnoterapia, fueron de 40% al finalizar el tratamiento, 60% a las 12
semanas, y 40% a las 26 semanas (P < . 05).
ETZEL CARDEÑA
University of Lund, Sweden
... In a pilot study, Elkins, Marcus, Bates, Rajab, and Cook (2006) aimed to establish the effects of intensive hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Randomly assigned participants received hypnotherapy (eight sessions, 1 hour each) or were placed on a wait-list (i.e., control group). ...
... However, the evidence remains mixed (Green & Lynn, 2000). Therefore, more innovative interventions for smoking cessation are needed (Elkins et al., 2006). ...
... First, many of the reviewed or mentioned studies referred to the influence of an individual's motivation to cease smoking (Barber, 2001;Carmody et al., 2008;Kinnunen, 2001;Riegel, 2013). Second, the reviewed and mentioned studies emphasized the importance of lessening ambivalence or increasing the positive aspects of smoking cessation while decreasing the negative aspects of smoking cessation (Barber, 2001;Elkins et al., 2006;Elkins & Rajab, 2004). ...
Article
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On the basis of the transtheoretical model of change, we hypothesized that hypnosis would facilitate significantly greater movement through the stages of change toward smoking cessation in contrast to psychoeducation. Thirty participants were pretested for hypnotizability using the Elkins Hypnotizability Scale (EHS). Participants’ readiness for change was assessed using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale (URICA). The EHS relaxation induction was used to induce hypnosis. Hypnotic suggestions addressed motivation and ambivalence. The URICA was administered following the intervention and at a 10-day follow-up. Two-factor split-plot ANOVAs showed significant changes within groups on the contemplation subscale (p = .002), action subscale (p = .00007), and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .003).
... 7 Hasil penelitian tersebut menyatakan perokok yang mengikuti hypnoterapi secara intensif dengan 8 kali kunjungan selama kurang lebih 2 bulan mengalami penurunan konsentrasi karbon monoksida (CO) mencapai 8 ppm atau kurang dengan p<0,08. 9 Berdasarkan latar belakang tersebut penulis tertarik untuk meneliti pengaruh hipnoterapi terhadap tingkat ketergantungan merokok pada perokok aktif. ...
... Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa hipnoterapi efektif menurunkan tingkat ketergantungan rokok pada perokok aktif. Hasil ini sesuai dengan temuan Gary Elkins bahwa pemberian hipnoterapi secara intensive selama 8 kali dapat membantu perokok menurunkan tingkat ketergantungannya dengan titik penghentian rokok mencapai 60% pada minggu pertama dan bertahan sampai minggu ke 12. 9 Hasil evaluasi peneliti terdapat 16 responden (80%) telah bebas dari ketergantungan rokok dengan skor=0 pada pengukuran FTCD setelah menjalani hipnoterapi. Keberhasilan ini terkait dengan riwayat awal responden yang memiliki tingkat ketergantungan ringan. ...
Article
Latar belakang: Bahaya merokok bagi kesehatan telah diteliti dan dibuktikan, namun kebiasaan merokok tetap sulit dihilangkan. Zat nikotin pada rokok mengakibatkan perokok mengalami ketergantungan karena munculnya gejala putus nikotin ketika berhenti merokok. Hipnoterapi merupakan salah satu metode untuk mengubah perilaku merokok dengan pemberian sugesti berhenti merokok melalui pikiran bawah sadar sehingga perokok memiliki kendali terhadap ketergantungannya pada rokok. Tujuan : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh terhadap tingkat ketergantungan rokok pada perokok aktif. Metode: Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah quasi experimental pretest posttest control group design. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 40 mahasiswa yang diambil dengan teknik purposive sampling dan dibagi ke kelompok intervensi (n=20) dan kontrol (n=20). Bentuk intervensi berupa pemberian hipnoterapi sebanyak 8 kali selama 2 bulan. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah Fagerstorm Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD). Data dianalisa dengan uji Mann-Whitney. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penurunan skor tingkat ketergantungan rokok pada kelompok intervensi sebanyak 1,25 setelah perlakuan dengan nilai mean pretest 1,45 (SD=1,132). Hasil uji Mann-Whitney menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna tingkat ketergantungan rokok antara kelompok intervensi dan kontrol dengan p=0,028. Hasil penelitian membuktikan hipnoterapi berpengaruh terhadap tingkat ketergantungan rokok pada perokok aktif. Saran : Hipnoterapi direkomendasikan sebagai intervensi keperawatan dalam program berhenti merokok
... These results are consistent with the findings of Gary Elkins stating that intensive treatment of hypnotherapy for 8 sessions to help smokers reduce cigarette dependence with cigarette cessation point reaching 60% in the first week and last until the 12 th week. 25 HOLISTIK NURSING AND HEALTH SIENCE 1, (1), 2018 12-23 ...
... These results are consistent with Gary Elkins's findings stating that intensive hypnotherapy can help smokers reach cessation points by up to 60% with measurements of CO in exhaled breath ≤ 8 ppm. 25 Evaluation result at the termination stage shows that 16 respondents (80%) had reached the cessation point of cigarette with level of CO in exhaled breath ≤ 7 ppm after attending therapy 4 times. The 5 th and 6 th meetings were for maintenance and supervision during the respondents doing their daily activities as the early stage of exsmokers. ...
Article
Background: Smoking is a habit that causes many health problems. Nicotine substances in cigarettes cause addiction and carbon monoxide inhaled is poisonous. Hypnotherapy using induction hanung technique is an alternative which can be used to change someone’s smoking behaviors. This therapy is performed by giving hypnotic suggestions combined with a massage at acupuncture points of neguan, yintang, and taiyang. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the effects of hypnotherapy using induction hanung technique on the level of cigarette dependence and carbon monoxide in exhaled breath among active smokers in Kesdam IV/ Diponegoro College of Nursing, Semarang.Methods: The present study employed a true-experimental pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 40 students were recruited as samples and randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=20) and control group (n=20). The intervention in the form of hypnotherapy using induction hanung technique was given for six times in two weeks. The instruments used were Fagerstorm Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD) and smokerlyzer. Data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test and independent t-test.Results: The results showed a decrease in the score of cigarette dependence level in the intervention group by 1.25 after the intervention was given with pretest mean value of 1.45 (SD=1.132). The result of Mann-Whitney test showed a significant difference in the cigarette dependence score between the intervention and control groups with a pvalue of 0.028. The level of carbon monoxide in the exhaled breath also decreased by 8.80 ppm after the intervention from the pretest mean values of 12.55 (SD=6.669). The independent sample t-test result also showed a significant difference in the carbon monoxide level between the two groups with a p-value of 0.000.Conclusion: The present findings showed that hypnotherapy using induction hanung technique affected the level of cigarette dependence and carbon monoxide in exhaled breath among the active smokers. Based on the findings, this therapy is recommended as an alternative to nursing intervention for the smoking cessation programs.
... This study also found support for the potential role of BCTs in increasing smoking cessation rates, particularly when personalised and delivered by a person, and did not find evidence that the effect of these BCTs on cessation declines over time (Appendix B). This adds to existing literature, which has shown stronger intervention effects when interventions are delivered, at least in part, by a person (compared to self-help alone) and when interventions are tailored to the participant [5,[37][38][39]. This study also adds to the mixed, broader health behaviour change literature, which has found some positive relationships between the number of BCTs used and smoking cessation [40] and other behaviours [e.g., 41,42,43], but which, overall, typically finds non-significant relationships with smoking cessation [44] and other outcomes [e.g., 37,[45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: To examine variability and effectiveness of interventions provided to comparator (control) groups in smoking cessation trials. Methods: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioral interventions for smoking cessation, with or without stop-smoking medication. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register for RCTs with objective outcomes measured at ≥ 6 months. Study authors were contacted to obtain comprehensive descriptions of their comparator interventions. Meta-regression analyses examined the relationships of smoking cessation rates with stop-smoking medication and behavior change techniques. Results: One hundred and four of 142 eligible comparator groups (n = 23 706) had complete data and were included in analyses. There was considerable variability in the number of behavior change techniques delivered [mean = 15.97, standard deviation (SD) = 13.54, range = 0-45] and the provision of smoking cessation medication (43% of groups received medication) throughout and within categories of comparator groups (e.g. usual care, brief advice). Higher smoking cessation rates were predicted by provision of medication [B = 0.334, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.030-0.638, P = 0.031] and number of behavior change techniques included (B = 0.020, 95% CI = 0.008-0.032, P < 0.001). Modelled cessation rates in comparator groups that received the most intensive support were 15 percentage points higher than those that received the least (23 versus 8%). Conclusions: Interventions delivered to comparator groups in smoking cessation randomized controlled trials vary considerably in content, and cessation rates are strongly predicted by stop-smoking medication and number of behavior change techniques delivered.
... Siguiendo la revisión de Mendoza y Capafons (2009), sobre la evidencia empírica de la eficacia de la hipnosis clínica, afirman que los procedimientos hipnóticos parecen incrementar la eficacia de algunas intervenciones psicológicas y médicas, especialmente en el caso del dolor, donde es un tratamiento eficaz y bien establecido (Lynn, Kirsch, Barabasz, Cardeña y Patterson, 2000;Montgomery, Duhammel y Redd, 2000;Patterson y Jensen, 2003;Elkins, Jensen y Patterson, 2007;Hammond, 2007;Castel, Pérez, Sala, Padrol y Rull, 2007) así como en el manejo de la dimensión emocional en el asma (Pinnell y Covino, 2000;Brown, 2007). Probablemente eficaz en el tratamiento de la ansiedad (Schoenberger, Kirsch, Gearan, Montgomery y Parstynak, 1997; Van Dyck y Spinhoven, 1997; Schoenberger, 2000) y depresión (Alladin y Alibhai, 2007;Shih, Yang, y Koo, 2009), en el sobrepeso (Schoenber- ger, 2000), en la deshabituación tabáquica (Lynn, Neufeld, Rhue, y Matorin, 1993;Green, 1996;Mendoza, 2000;Elkins y Rajab, 2004;Elkins et al., 2006), en la preparación a la cirugía (Blankfield, 1991;Pinnel y Covino, 2000;Lang et al., 2000;Montgomery, David, Winkel, Silverstein y Bovbjerg, 2002;Huth, Broome y Good, 2004;Schnur, Kafer, Marcus y Montgomery, 2008) y la enuresis en niños (Edwards y Van Der Spuy, 1985). En el campo de la pediatría la investigación sobre la hipnosis está en pleno desarrollo (Gold, Kant, Belmont y Butler, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the history of the development of medical and psychological procedures, hypnosis has played a prominent role, being a valuable clinical intervention in the treatment of a wide variety of problems. However, it has not been spared controversy and myths about its nature. In the present work we review the historical development of hypnosis and the most relevant explanatory models from those who consider it an altered state of consciousness to those who argue that hypnotic phenomena can be explained by the same variables as behavior and experience Not hypnotic. We also review some of the definitions that have emerged from the different paradigms, as well as the empirical evidence of their effectiveness, proving that when used as an adjunct to medical and psychological treatments increases their effectiveness, being of special relevance the relationship Of communication between clinician and patient. It ends with a review of its application in the field of sport and the presentation of a case study (3 athletes and 1 player) in which hypnosis is used adjuvant with other techniques. In all cases optimal results are achieved.
Chapter
Das vorliegende Kapitel bietet die Behandlungsempfehlungen der Tabakleitlinie mit ihren Hintergrundtexten. Es ist untergliedert in die Abschnitte Motivationsbehandlung und Kurzinterventionen, Harm Reduction, Psychotherapeutische Interventionen, Arzneimittel zur Entzugsbehandlung und Rückfallprophylaxe, Somatische Therapieverfahren, Gender- und Altersaspekte, Somatische Komorbidität, Psychische Komorbidität sowie Setting, Versorgungsorganisation und Aspekte der Finanzierung.
Research
Full-text available
Addiction is the situation when individuals do not control a certain behavior or involuntarily, although they do harm to them physically and psychologically. Contains non-addictive nicotine substance. Therefore, although individuals want to quit smoking, they cannot achieve this because they are dependent on the effects of nicotine. There are various treatment methods such as hypnosis, pharmacological treatments, nicotine inhaler, nasal spray, nicotine bands, nicotine gums, nicotine replacement therapy to reduce nicotine addiction causing smoking addiction. Hypnosis or hypnotherapy is the process of using mental relaxation techniques and is effective in the treatment of substance use disorders related to behavioral problems. In this study, the effects of hypnotherapy AUCH technique (Awareness under Conscious Hypnosis) applications on reducing and eliminating cigarette addiction were investigated. AUCH is a state of consciousness that aims to change the patient' s attention, perception, memory, emotions and senses in order to regulate, maintain and improve the patient' s psychological, physiological and social well-being. In this technique, a three-step treatment step is applied: maya (acceptance), induction and autohypnosis. Participants were given detailed information about hypnosis practices and voluntarily participated in the study. Hypnotherapy with the participants continued for 2 sessions and each session lasted approximately 45 minutes. As a result of the research, while the cigarette consumption of the participants disappeared in one application in some participants, it was eliminated in two applications in others. In the first application, cigarette consumption rates decreased considerably and even disappeared completely in 7 participants. Therefore, it can be said that hypnotherapy practices have a therapeutic effect in treatment of smoking addiction. Hypnotherapy practices performed with the participants in the research have emerged as an effective method in reducing smoking. ÖZET Bağımlılık, bireylerin kendilerine fiziksel ve psikolojik zararlar vermesine rağmen belirli bir davranışı kontrol edememe ya da istemsizce gerçekleşmesi durumudur. Sigara bağımlılık yapan nikotin maddesini içermektedir. Bu nedenle bireyler sigarayı bırakmak istese de nikotinin etkilerine bağımlı oldukları için bunu başaramazlar. Sigara bağımlılığına neden olan nikotin bağımlılığını azaltmada farmakolojik tedaviler, nikotin inhaler, burun spreyi, nikotin bantları, nikotin sakızları, nikotin yerine koyma tedavisi gibi çeşitli tedavi yöntemlerinin yanında hipnoz hipnoz uygulaması da tedavi seçenekleri arasındadır. Hipnoz veya hipnoterapi, zihinle ilgili gevşeme tekniklerini kullanma süreci olup, davranışsal problemlerle ilgili madde kullanım bozukluklarının tedavisinde etkilidir. Bu araştırmada hipnoterapi AUCH (Awareness under Conscious Hypnosis-Bilinçli Hipnoz Farkındalığı) tekniği uygulamalarının, sigara bağımlılığının azaltılması ve ortadan kaldırılmasına etkisi incelenmiştir. AUCH, hastanın psikolojik, fizyolojik ve sosyal refahını düzenlemek, sürdürmek ve iyileştirmek için hastanın dikkat, algı, hafıza, duygu ve duyularında değişiklik yapmayı amaçlayan bir bilinç durumudur. Bu teknikte maya (Making Acceptance with Your Awareness-Farkındalık içinde kabul), indüksiyon ve otohipnoz olarak üç adımdan oluşan bir tedavi aşaması uygulanır. Katılımcılara hipnoz uygulamaları hakkında ayrıntılı bilgi verilmiş ve gönüllü olarak araştırmaya dahil olmuşlardır. Katılımcılarla gerçekleştirilen hipnoterapi uygulamaları 2 oturum süreyle devam etmiş ve her bir oturum yaklaşık 45 dakika sürmüştür. Araştırma sonucunda bazı katılımcıların tek uygulama sonrasında, bazılarının ise iki oturum süren hipnoterapi uygulamaları sonrasında sigara tüketimi ortadan kaldırılmıştır. İlk uygulamada, sigara tüketim oranları oldukça azalmış hatta 7 katılımcıda tamamen ortadan kalkmıştır. Dolayısıyla hipnoterapi uygulamalarının sigara bağımlılığını tedavi edici etkisinin bulunduğu söylenebilir. Araştırmada katılımcılarla gerçekleştirilen hipnoterapi uygulamaları sigara bağımlılığının azaltılmasında etkili bir yöntem olarak ortaya çıkmıştır.
Article
Background: Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is intended to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke, or strengthen the will to stop. Objectives: To evaluate the effect and safety of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Search methods: For this update we searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, and trial registries (ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform), using the terms "smoking cessation" and "hypnotherapy" or "hypnosis", with no restrictions on language or publication date. The most recent search was performed on 18 July 2018. Selection criteria: We considered randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked and implemented a hypnotherapy intervention for smoking cessation compared with no treatment, or with any other therapeutic interventions. Trials were required to report smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Study eligibility was determined by at least two review authors, independently. Data collection and analysis: At least two review authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up. These authors also independently assessed the quality of the included studies. In undertaking this work, we used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months' follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated abstinence rates where available. Those lost to follow-up were considered to still be smoking. We summarized effects as risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Main results: We included three new trials in this update, which brings the total to 14 included studies that compared hypnotherapy with 22 different control interventions. The studies included a total of 1926 participants. Studies were diverse and a single meta-analysis was not possible. We judged only one study to be at low risk of bias overall; we judged 10 studies to be at high risk of bias and three at unclear risk. Studies did not provide reliable evidence of a greater benefit from hypnotherapy compared with other interventions or no treatment for smoking cessation. Most individual studies did not find statistically significant differences in quit rates after six months or longer, and studies that did detect differences typically had methodological limitations.Pooling small groups of relatively comparable studies did not provide reliable evidence for a specific effect of hypnotherapy relative to controls. There was low certainty evidence, limited by imprecision and risk of bias, that showed no statistically significant difference between hypnotherapy and attention-matched behavioural treatments (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.61; I2 = 36%; 6 studies, 957 participants). Results were similarly imprecise, and also limited by risk of bias, when comparing hypnotherapy to intensive behavioural interventions (not matched for contact time) (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.82; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 211 participants; very low certainty evidence). Results from one small study (40 participants) detected a statistically significant benefit of hypnotherapy compared to no intervention (RR 19.00, 95% CI 1.18 to 305.88), but this evidence was judged to be of very low certainty due to high risk of bias and imprecision. No significant differences were detected in comparisons of hypnotherapy with brief behavioural interventions (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.69; I² = 0%; 2 studies, 269 participants), rapid/focused smoking (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.43 to 2.33; I2 = 65%; 2 studies, 54 participants), and pharmacotherapies (RR 1.68, 95% CI 0.88 to 3.20; I2 = 5%; 2 studies, 197 participants). When hypnotherapy was evaluated as an adjunct to other treatments, the pooled result from five studies showed a statistically significant benefit in favour of hypnotherapy (RR 2.10, 95% CI 1.31 to 3.35; I² = 62%; 224 participants); however, this result should be interpreted with caution due to the high risk of bias across studies (four had a high risk or bias, one had an unclear risk), and substantial statistical heterogeneity.Most studies did not provide information on whether data specifically relating to adverse events were collected, and whether or not any adverse events occurred. One study that did collect such data did not find a statistically significant difference in the adverse event 'index' between hypnotherapy and relaxation. Authors' conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to determine whether hypnotherapy is more effective for smoking cessation than other forms of behavioural support or unassisted quitting. If a benefit is present, current evidence suggests the benefit is small at most. There is very little evidence on whether hypnotherapy causes adverse effects, but the existing data show no evidence that it does. Further large, high-quality randomized controlled trials, and more comprehensive assessments of safety, are needed on this topic.
Article
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Nach einem Überblick zur Wirksamkeit von Hypnose und Hypnotherapie mit Schwerpunkt auf psychischen Störungen anhand aktueller Meta-Analysen und Reviews wird die Interventionsforschung der letzten drei Jahre dargestellt. Der Fokus liegt auf randomisierten kontrollierten Studien, zu denen im Auftrag der Milton Erickson Gesellschaft für Klinische Hypnose eine systematische Literatursuche erfolgte. Für die Jahre 2010 bis 2012 wurden 20 randomisierte oder quasi-randomisierte Studien gefunden, die Hypnose allein oder als Adjunkt evaluierten. Wie schon in den Jahren davor überwogen Studien aus dem medizinischen und zahnmedizinischen Bereich. Die Relevanz der Ergebnisse war zum Teil aufgrund der unzureichenden Darstellung der Methodik schwer zu beurteilen. Nach heutigen Standards ist die Wirksamkeit von Hypnose zur Schmerzreduktion und Unterstützung bei medizinischen Eingriffen ausreichend belegt, nicht aber in der Behandlung von psychischen Störungen. Abschließend werden methodische Probleme bei der kontrollierten Forschung mit Bezug auf die Evaluation von Hypnose diskutiert, ferner werden Ansätze zur Verbesserung der Berichterstattung sowie methodische Alternativen erörtert.
Article
Two experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the roles played by hypnotic susceptibility and client motivation in determining successful therapeutic outcome with a number of stop-smoking techniques. In the initial investigation, 46 clients provided motivation data from questionnaires which were completed prior to their being taught either a hypnotic or rapid smoking procedure to control smoking. A multiple regression analysis isolated three motivation variables which were found to be significantly related to therapeutic outcome at a 3-month followup period. Results indicated further that these same three variables could discriminate those clients displaying complete abstinence at followup from those which failed to achieve this criterion of success with 67.40% accuracy. The data demonstrated no significant relationship between hypnotic susceptibility evaluated in a 3-month post-treatment session and percent reduction in smoking. A second study in which 29 clients received treatment through use of a combined hypnosis-rapid smoking technique, was found to replicate both findings of the first investigation.
Article
Three experiments administered variants of Spiegel's (1970) smoking cessation procedure to smokers in hypnotic and nonhypnotic treatments. Followup periods were from twelve to twenty-four weeks depending on the experiment. Complete abstinence was an infrequent outcome in all three experiments. Greater-than-control reductions in smoking for treated subjects were obtained in two of the experiments but, in both cases treatment and control subjects failed to differ significantly before the end of the followup period. Hypnotic and nonhypnotic treatments produced equivalent smoking reductions in all studies, and neither hypnotizability nor questionnaire assessments of motivation to quit correlated significantly with treatment outcome. Implications are discussed.
Article
Three hundred fifteen smokers who attended a family practice clinic and wished to quit smoking were assigned in a random, double-blind manner to receive either nicotine (2 mg) or placebo gum. Smokers initially received brief advice from a physician and nurse, a slide presentation and written materials (29 to 35 minutes), and a single follow-up visit (12 to 20 minutes) one week after cessation. After corrections for marital status and income, 10% of those who received nicotine gum and 7% of those who received placebo gum reported continuous abstinence for 11 months and passed observer and biochemical verification (this difference was not statistically significant). We conclude that, when used in a nonselected group of smokers along with a brief intervention in a general medical practice, the pharmacologic effects of nicotine gum to increase cessation are either small or nonexistent. (JAMA 1989;261:1300-1305)
Article
Objective. —To determine the efficacy of a 22-mg nicotine patch combined with the National Cancer Institute program for physician advice and nurse follow-up in providing withdrawal symptom relief, 1-year smoking cessation outcome, and percentage of nicotine replacement. Design. —Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects. —Two-hundred forty healthy volunteers who were smoking at least 20 cigarettes per day. Interventions. —Based on the National Cancer Institute program, subjects received smoking cessation advice from a physician. Follow-up and relapse prevention were provided by a study nurse during individual counseling sessions. Subjects were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of a 22-mg nicotine or placebo patch. Main Outcome Measures. —Abstinence from smoking was verified by expired air carbon monoxide levels. Withdrawal symptoms were recorded during patch therapy, and the percentage of nicotine replacement was calculated by dividing serum nicotine and cotinine levels at week 8 of patch therapy by levels obtained while smoking. Results. —Higher smoking cessation rates were observed in the active nicotine patch group at 8 weeks (46.7% vs 20%) (P<.001) and at 1 year (27.5% vs 14.2%) (P=.011). Higher smoking cessation rates were also observed in subjects assigned to the active patch who had lower serum levels of nicotine and cotinine at baseline, and withdrawal symptom relief was better in the active patch group compared with placebo. Conclusions. —Clinically significant smoking cessation can be achieved using nicotine patch therapy combined with physician intervention, nurse counseling, follow-up, and relapse prevention. Smokers with lower baseline nicotine and cotinine levels had better cessation rates, which provides indirect evidence that they had more adequate nicotine replacement with this fixed dose of transdermal nicotine than those smokers with higher baseline levels.(JAMA. 1994;271:595-600)
Article
54 cigarette smokers (aged 19–62 yrs) who volunteered to participate in a free smoking session program were administered a 2 session multicomponent hypnotic or nonhypnotic treatment, a 2 session psychological placebo treatment, or no treatment at all (controls). All Ss monitored the number of cigarettes they smoked during a 3-mo period. Among Ss who remained in the study (i.e., nondropouts), the hypnotic and nonhypnotic treatments produced a significant but only temporary reduction in smoking. Before the end of the follow-up period these Ss had returned to baseline levels of smoking. Placebo and control Ss did not report significant changes in smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this chapter, we describe a two-session, cognitive-behavioral smoking-cessation hypnosis intervention that can serve as a model for the use of hypnosis in the multidimensional treatment of smoking. After presenting the program in detail, we examine the outcome data not only for this particular treatment program, but for hypnotic smoking cessation treatments in general. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Compared the effectiveness of single and multiple sessions of hypnosis to treat 20 23–64 yr old smokers against a 10-S control group. Results show the following: (1) 80% of Ss in the multiple session group were able to reduce their cigarette consumption significantly from baseline (Smoking History Questionnaire) at a 2-mo follow-up. (2) 40% of Ss on the single session group significantly reduced their cigarette consumption from baseline at a 2-mo follow-up; 30% were totally abstinent. (3) Ss in the control group were unable to reduce their cigarette consumption. (4) The plasma thiocyanate test was a useful objective measure of cigarette consumption. (5) There was no correlation between S's hypnotizability (the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale) and outcome of treatment. Implications for smoker-treatment programs are discussed. (2 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)