The methylation of the C-terminal region of hnRNPQ (NSAP1) is important for its nuclear localization
Protein arginine methylation is an irreversible post-translational protein modification catalyzed by a family of at least nine different enzymes entitled PRMTs (protein arginine methyl transferases). Although PRMT1 is responsible for 85% of the protein methylation in human cells, its substrate spectrum has not yet been fully characterized nor are the functional consequences of methylation for the protein substrates well understood. Therefore, we set out to employ the yeast two-hybrid system in order to identify new substrate proteins for human PRMT1. We were able to identify nine different PRMT1 interacting proteins involved in different aspects of RNA metabolism, five of which had been previously described either as substrates for PRMT1 or as functionally associated with PRMT1. Among the four new identified possible protein substrates was hnRNPQ3 (NSAP1), a protein whose function has been implicated in diverse steps of mRNA maturation, including splicing, editing, and degradation. By in vitro methylation assays we were able to show that hnRNPQ3 is a substrate for PRMT1 and that its C-terminal RGG box domain is the sole target for methylation. By further studies with the inhibitor of methylation Adox we provide evidence that hnRNPQ1-3 are methylated in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate by immunofluorescence analysis of HeLa cells that the methylation of hnRNPQ is important for its nuclear localization, since Adox treatment causes its re-distribution from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PRMT6 is a protein arginine methyltransferase that has been implicated in transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, and human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis. Only few substrates of this enzyme are known and therefore its cellular role is not well understood. To identify in an unbiased manner substrates and potential regulators of PRMT6 we have used a yeast two-hybrid approach. We identified 36 new putative partners for PRMT6 and we validated the interaction in vivo for 7 of them. In addition, using in vitro methylation assay we identified 4 new substrates for PRMT6, extending the involvement of this enzyme to other cellular processes beyond its well-established role in gene expression regulation. Holistic approaches create molecular connections that allow to test functional hypotheses. The assembly of PRMT6 protein network allowed us to formulate functional hypotheses which led to the discovery of new molecular partners for the architectural transcription factor HMGA1a, a known substrate for PRMT6, and to provide evidences for a modulatory role of HMGA1a on the methyltransferase activity of PRMT6.
- "hnRNP Q has been previously shown to be methylated in vitro by PRMT1 and its in vivo methylation is important for its nuclear localization  and for insulin receptor trafficking and insulin signalling . The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein B and B1 (snRNPB), which is involved in several steps of the biogenesis of the snRNPs, has also been found methylated on arginine residues but the PRMT responsible for this modification has not been identified yet . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary The regulation of mRNA translation and stability is of paramount importance for almost every cellular function. In eukaryotes, the poly(A) binding protein (PABP) is a central regulator of both global and mRNA-specific translation. PABP simultaneously interacts with the 3′ poly(A) tail of the mRNA and the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G). These interactions circularize the mRNA and stimulate translation. PABP also regulates specific mRNAs by promoting miRNA-dependent deadenylation and translational repression. A key step in understanding PABP's functions is to identify factors that affect its association with the poly(A) tail. Here we show that the cytoplasmic isoform of the mouse heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein Q (hnRNP-Q2/SYNCRIP), which exhibits binding preference to poly(A), interacts with the poly(A) tail by default when PABP binding is inhibited. In addition, hnRNP-Q2 competes with PABP for binding to the poly(A) tail. Depleting hnRNP-Q2 stimulates translation in cell-free extracts and in cultured cells, in agreement with its function as translational repressor. In addition, hnRNP-Q2 impeded miRNA-mediated deadenylation and repression of target mRNAs, which requires PABP. Thus, competition from hnRNP-Q2 provides a novel mechanism by which multiple functions of PABP are regulated. This regulation could play important roles in various biological processes, such as development, viral infection, and human disease.
- "Multiple hnRNP-Q isoforms (seven in humans and two in mouse) are derived from alternative splicing of a single gene . Posttranslational modifications of hnRNP-Q, which include phosphorylation and methylation, may determine its subcellular localization and RNAbinding properties [46,47]. In mouse, the small (562 amino acid long) splicing variant of hnRNP-Q, referred to as SYNaptotagminbinding Cytoplasmic RNA-Interacting Protein (SYNCRIP) or hnRNP-Q isoform 2 (hnRNP-Q2; accession number NP_062770.1), "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In eukaryotes, messenger RNA biogenesis depends on the ordered and precise assembly of a nuclear messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP) during transcription. This process requires a well-orchestrated and dynamic sequence of molecular recognition events by specific RNA-binding proteins. Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification found in a plethora of RNA-binding proteins responsible for mRNP biogenesis. These RNA-binding proteins include both heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) and serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins. In this paper, I discuss the mechanisms of action by which arginine methylation modulates various facets of mRNP biogenesis, and how the collective consequences of this modification impart the specificity required to generate a mature, translational- and export-competent mRNP.
- "In mammalian cells, arginine methylation facilitates nuclear import or slowing of nuclear export of these hnRNPs. This role is supported by the observation that the suppression, in the cases of hnRNP A2 and Q, of arginine methylation leads to a shift from predominately nuclear localization to predominately cytoplasmic localization   . Treatment with the methyltransferase inhibitor adenosine dialdehyde (AdOx) resulted in increased cytoplasmic localization of Src substrate-associated during mitosis (Sam68), an RNA-binding protein that belongs to the hnRNP K homology (KH) domain family . "