The Rad51/RadA N-Terminal Domain Activates Nucleoprotein Filament ATPase Activity

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, Box 800733, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.
Structure (Impact Factor: 5.62). 07/2006; 14(6):983-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.str.2006.04.001
Source: PubMed


Proteins in the RecA/RadA/Rad51 family form helical filaments on DNA that function in homologous recombination. While these proteins all have the same highly conserved ATP binding core, the RadA/Rad51 proteins have an N-terminal domain that shows no homology with the C-terminal domain found in RecA. Both the Rad51 N-terminal and RecA C-terminal domains have been shown to bind DNA, but no role for these domains has been established. We show that RadA filaments can be trapped in either an inactive or active conformation with respect to the ATPase and that activation involves a large rotation of the subunit aided by the N-terminal domain. The G103E mutation within the yeast Rad51 N-terminal domain inactivates the filament by failing to make proper contacts between the N-terminal domain and the core. These results show that the N-terminal domains play a regulatory role in filament activation and highlight the modular architecture of the recombination proteins.

Download full-text


Available from: Xiao-Ping Zhang
  • Source
    • "We incubated KaiC1mer (20 μM) in reaction buffer containing 6 mM ADP, 30 mM MgCl2, 2.5 mM NaF, and 2.5 mM AlCl3 at 25 °C for 2 h to form KaiC6mer (ADP-AlFX) [31]. We then mixed the reacion mixtures with an equal volume of 0 or 60 μM KaiB1-94 in the same buffer and incubated them further at 25 °C for 6 h. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cyanobacterial circadian clock oscillator is composed of three clock proteins-KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, and interactions among the three Kai proteins generate clock oscillation in vitro. However, the regulation of these interactions remains to be solved. Here, we demonstrated that ATP regulates formation of the KaiB-KaiC complex. In the absence of ATP, KaiC was monomeric (KaiC(1mer)) and formed a complex with KaiB. The addition of ATP plus Mg(2+) (Mg-ATP), but not that of ATP only, to the KaiB-KaiC(1mer) complex induced the hexamerization of KaiC and the concomitant release of KaiB from the KaiB-KaiC(1mer) complex, indicating that Mg-ATP and KaiB compete each other for KaiC. In the presence of ATP and Mg(2+) (Mg-ATP), KaiC became a homohexameric ATPase (KaiC(6mer)) with bound Mg-ATP and formed a complex with KaiB, but KaiC hexamerized by unhydrolyzable substrates such as ATP and Mg-ATP analogs, did not. A KaiC N-terminal domain protein, but not its C-terminal one, formed a complex with KaiB, indicating that KaiC associates with KaiB via its N-terminal domain. A mutant KaiC(6mer) lacking N-terminal ATPase activity did not form a complex with KaiB whereas a mutant lacking C-terminal ATPase activity did. Thus, the N-terminal domain of KaiC is responsible for formation of the KaiB-KaiC complex, and the hydrolysis of the ATP bound to N-terminal ATPase motifs on KaiC(6mer) is required for formation of the KaiB-KaiC(6mer) complex. KaiC(6mer) that had been hexamerized with ADP plus aluminum fluoride, which are considered to mimic ADP-Pi state, formed a complex with KaiB, suggesting that KaiB is able to associate with KaiC(6mer) with bound ADP-Pi.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "Besides, the RPA interaction region is located in the N terminal part of the protein (Residues 16 to 20) (Stauffer and Chazin, 2004), indicating possible species-specificity of this interaction region as well. The DNA binding domain is also located in the N terminal region; despite its variability, it is characterized by a G 103 (Galkin, 2006) that is conserved, as shown in the alignment (Fig. 2). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tardigrades are known for being resistant to extreme conditions, including tolerance to ionising and UV radiation in both the hydrated and the dehydrated state. It is known that these factors may cause damage to DNA. It has recently been shown that single and double DNA strand breaks occur when tardigrades are maintained for a long time in the anhydrobiotic state. This may suggest that perhaps tardigrades rely on efficient DNA repair mechanisms. Among all proteins that comprise the DNA repair system, recombinases such as RecA or Rad51 have a very important function: DNA exchange activity. This enzyme is used in the homologous recombination and allows repair of the damaged strand using homologous non-damaged strands as a template. In this study, Rad51 induction was evaluated by western blot in Milnesium cf. tardigradum, after exposure to gamma radiation. The Rad51 protein was highly induced by radiation, when compared to the control. The rad51 genes were searched in three tardigrades: Milnesium cf. tardigradum, Hypsibius dujardini and Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi. The gene sequences were obtained by preparing and sequencing transcriptome libraries for H. dujardini and M. cf. harmsworthi and designing rad51 degenerate primers specific for M. cf. tardigradum. Comparison of Rad51 putative proteins from tardigrades with other organisms showed that they are highly similar to the corresponding sequence from the nematode Trichinella spiralis. A structure-based sequence alignment from tardigrades and other organisms revealed that putative Rad51 predicted proteins from tardigrades contain the expected motifs for these important recombinases. In a cladogram tree based on this alignment, tardigrades tend to cluster together suggesting that they have selective differences in these genes that make them diverge between species. Predicted Rad51 structures from tardigrades were also compared with crystalline structure of Rad51 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results reveal that S. cerevisiae Rad51 structure is very similar to that of the three analysed tardigrades. On the other hand the predicted structure of Rad51 from M. cf. harmsworthi and H. dujardini are closer related to each other, than each of them to that of M. cf. tardigradum.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of limnology
  • Source
    • "Rad51 (RecA homolog, E. coli; NC_000015.9) has 10 exons that code for a 339 amino acid protein which forms a helical nucleoprotein filament on DNA [27]. Several studies of Rad51 among BRCA1 mutation carriers have found positive associations with cancer risk [28-32]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity is thought to modulate breast cancer risk. The phenotypic mutagen sensitivity assay (MSA) measures DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes; women with familial and sporadic breast cancers have a higher mean number of breaks per cell (MBPC) than women without breast cancer. Here, we explore the relationships between the MSA and the Rad51 gene, which encodes a DNA repair enzyme that interacts with BRCA1 and BRCA2, in BRCA1 mutation carriers and women with sporadic breast cancer. Peripheral blood lymphoblasts from women with known BRCA1 mutations underwent the MSA (n = 138 among 20 families). BRCA1 and Rad51 genotyping and sequencing were performed to identify SNPs and haplotypes associated with the MSA. Positive associations from the study in high-risk families were subsequently examined in a population-based case-control study of breast cancer (n = 1170 cases and 2115 controls). Breast cancer diagnosis was significantly associated with the MSA among women from BRCA1 families (OR = 3.2 95%CI: 1.5-6.7; p = 0.004). The Rad51 5'UTR 135 C>G genotype (OR = 3.64; 95% CI: 1.38, 9.54; p = 0.02), one BRCA1 haplotype (p = 0.03) and in a polygenic model, the E1038G and Q356R BRCA1 SNPs were significantly associated with MBPC (p = 0.009 and 0.002, respectively). The Rad51 5'UTR 135C genotype was not associated with breast cancer risk in the population-based study. Mutagen sensitivity might be a useful biomarker of penetrance among women with BRCA1 mutations because the MSA phenotype is partially explained by genetic variants in BRCA1 and Rad51.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · BMC Cancer
Show more