Spontaneous development of a de novo suprasellar arachnoid cyst - Case report
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States Journal of Neurosurgery
(Impact Factor: 3.74).
07/2006; 104(6 Suppl):426-8. DOI: 10.3171/ped.2006.104.6.426
Arachnoid cysts are commonly thought to arise from either congenital defects or trauma. In this article the authors report the spontaneous development of a suprasellar third ventricular arachnoid cyst whose origin was not clearly congenital or traumatic. At the age of 4 months, the patient presented with hypertonia, and a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study showed no abnormalities. At the age of 2 years, the boy presented with headaches and projectile emesis, symptoms that prompted further imaging studies. An MR image of the brain revealed a suprasellar cyst and obstructive hydrocephalus. The cyst was endoscopically fenestrated, which led to long-term symptom resolution.
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ABSTRACT: The infratentorial compartment represents the second most common location of arachnoid malformations. Ten arachnoid cysts of the posterior fossa, operated on between 1970 and 1983, are reviewed. These lesions, although congenital and developmental in nature, may present at any age, and males are more frequently affected. A high rate of birth-related trauma (50% in this series) is conceivably due to fetal macrocranium, and the enlarged head and psychomotor retardation prevail in infancy and childhood. In arachnoid cysts occurring during adulthood, symptoms and signs more clearly indicate a dysfunction of the posterior fossa. Besides computerized tomography, pneumoencephalography and metrizamide techniques are recommended to rule out a Dandy-Walker syndrome in doubtful cases, and to obtain information about the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. It is particularly important to establish the presence and type of communication of cysts with the CSF pathways. Although infratentorial cysts often communicate, they can be space-occupying masses because of increasing CSF retention, which may be due to a ball-valve mechanism or to inadequate communication. The frequently associated hydrocephalus (seven of the 10 cases in this series had hydrocephalus) seemed to be dependent mainly upon mechanical factors. The authors discuss the indications for intracranial surgery versus shunting procedures and report the results achieved by direct cyst excision.
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ABSTRACT: Arachnoid cysts constitute 1% of all intracranial mass lesions not resulting from trauma. Suprasellar arachnoid cysts (SACs) are uncommon. Obstructive hydrocephalus is the most common cause of initial symptoms and occurs in almost 90% of the patients with suprasellar arachnoid cyst. We report on 17 patients with suprasellar arachnoid cyst who were treated with neuroendoscopic intervention.
Seventeen patients with SAC had been operated on between 1999 and 2007 in our institution. Five patients had previously undergone shunting procedures or craniotomy. Nine boys and eight girls ranged in age from 4 months to 17 years (mean 53.2 months). All patients had hydrocephalus. A wide ventriculocystostomy (VC) or a ventriculo-cysto-cisternostomy (VCC) was done by using rigid neuroendoscopes. Psychometric evaluation was administered postoperatively, when possible. Follow-up of the patients ranged from 6 months to 7 years (mean 41.6 months).
Of the 17 patients, 12 underwent endoscopic procedure as the primary surgery. VC only was performed in the first patient. In the remaining 16 patients, VCC was done. A slit-valve mechanism was observed in 14 patients. Three patients needed a VP shunt, despite a successful VCC. Three of five patients, younger than 1 year of age became shunt dependent and none of the patients older than 1 year of age needed shunting. In four patients presented with shunt malfunction, the shunts were removed after endoscopic surgery. Only one subject's total score was under the normal IQ limits but her subtests scores were heterogeneous. However, there was marked discrepancy among her subtests scores.
Endoscopic surgery should be the first choice in the management of SACs. Neuroendoscopic VCC is successful in the majority of the cases.
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ABSTRACT: A female neonate was the first child of a 30-year-old mother, with unremarkable medical history. Prenatal ultrasonography performed at 36 weeks of gestation suggested intracranial mass lesion. The baby was delivered by cesarean section at 41 weeks of gestation because of bradycardia and asphyxia. The birth weight, height, and head circumference were within the normal ranges with soft fontanels. Congenital anomaly was not observed with normal neurological findings. She was referred to our department at age 5 months. Physical examination revealed normal developmental milestones and intact endocrinological function without macrocephaly. Cerebral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a unilocular huge cyst appearing as homogeneously hypointense on T(1)- and hyperintense on T(2)-weighted images, and extending into the basal, suprasellar, ambient, quadrigeminal, interpeduncular, prepontine, right cerebellopontine angle, and premedullary cisterns. The pituitary stalk was markedly stretched and displaced ventrally, and the brainstem was displaced dorsally by the cyst. No other brain anomalies, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, or ventriculomegaly were recognized. Neuroendoscopic cystocisternostomy was performed to form a communication between the cyst cavity and premedullary cistern. Pressurized watery fluid was released on puncturing the cyst wall which consisted of transparent membrane. Surveillance MR imaging at 2 and 9 months after the surgery revealed remarkable regression without regrowth of the cyst. She remained in good condition and showed normal development during the follow up for 1 year 9 months. Less invasive prophylactic surgery using the neuroendoscope may be beneficial for carefully selected cases of asymptomatic neonatal arachnoid cysts.
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