The Farnesoid X Receptor Promotes Adipocyte Differentiation and Regulates Adipose Cell Function in Vivo

ArticleinMolecular Pharmacology 70(4):1164-73 · November 2006with14 Reads
DOI: 10.1124/mol.106.023820 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The differentiation of a preadipocyte into a mature adipocyte is a highly regulated process that requires a scripted program of transcriptional events leading to changes in gene expression. Several genes are associated with adipogenesis, including the CAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) families of transcription factors. In this study, we have investigated the role of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid-activated nuclear receptor, in regulating adipogenesis in a preadipocyte cell line (3T3-L1 cells). Our results show that FXR is expressed in the white adipose tissue of adult mice and in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells but not in undifferentiated preadipocytes. Exposure of 3T3-L1 cells to INT-747 (6-ethyl cheno-deoxycholic acid), a potent and selective FXR ligand, increases preadipocyte differentiation induced by a differentiating mixture containing insulin. Augmentation of differentiating mixture-induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by INT-747 associated with induction of aP2, C/EBPalpha, and PPARgamma2 mRNAs along with other adipocyte-related genes. This effect was reversed by guggulsterone, an FXR antagonist, and partially reverted by GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide), a selective PPARgamma antagonist, indicating that FXR modulates adipocyte-related genes by PPARgamma-dependent and -independent pathways. Regulation of adipocyte-related genes by INT-747 was lost in FXR-/- mice, indicating that modulation of these genes by INT-747 requires an intact FXR. In addition, INT-747 enhances both insulin-induced serine phosphorylation of Akt and glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of FXR plays a critical role in regulating adipogenesis and insulin signaling.
    • "FXR is expressed throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus to the rectum, and in the liver, the gallbladder, the kidneys and the adrenal glands [6, 7] . FXR expression has also been reported in the vascular endothelium, in the mammary gland, in macrophages and in adipose tissue, although these findings have not been widely confirmed [8][9][10][11][12]. The relevance of BAs as the natural ligands for FXR is corroborated by the observation that intestinal FXR activation with attendant FGF15/19 induction, together with hepatic FXR activation, synergistically controls the conversion of cholesterol into BAs in the liver and their export into the bile [13, 14]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) has recently moved into the spotlight through the release of clinical data using Obeticholic Acid, an FXR agonist, that demonstrated effectiveness of this bile acid-like drug in patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH). FXR holds the promise to become an attractive drug target for various conditions, from Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), NASH, liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension and a variety of cholestatic disorders to intestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease and bile acid diarrhea. Despite the wide therapeutic potential, surprisingly little is known about the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of drugs targeting FXR. Are tissue specific FXR agonists preferable for different indications, or might one type of ligand fit all purposes? This review aims to summarize the sparse data which are available on this clinically and pharmacologically relevant topic and provides a mechanistic model for understanding tissue-specific effects in vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2016
    • "CDCA treatment improved insulin stimulated glucose uptake in palmitate treated cells. FXR activation to improve adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity has been reported earlier (Cariou et al., 2006; Rizzo et al., 2006). HFD fed rats continuously gained more weight and adiposity compared to the rats that received normal pellet diet. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue secretes adipokines that regulate insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and other peripheral tissues critical to glucose metabolism. Insulin resistance is associated with severe alterations in adipokines characterized by release of increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased anti-inflammatory cytokines from adipose tissue. The role of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation on adipokines in relation to adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance is not completely explored. For the first time, we have evaluated the ability of Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), an endogenous FXR ligand, in restoring the disturbance in adipokine secretion and insulin resistance in palmitate treated 3T3-L1 cells and adipose tissues of High fat diet (HFD) rats. CDCA suppressed several of the tested pro-inflammatory adipokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, Chemerin, PAI, RBP4, resistin, vaspin), and enhanced the major anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing adipokines (adiponectin, leptin). CDCA suppressed the activation of critical inflammatory regulators such as NF-κB and IKKβ which are activated by palmitate treatment in differentiated cells and HFD in rats. We show the altered adipokines in insulin resistance, its association with inflammatory regulators, and the role of CDCA in amelioration of insulin resistance by modulation of adipokines.
    Dataset · Jul 2015 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
    • "CDCA treatment improved insulin stimulated glucose uptake in palmitate treated cells. FXR activation to improve adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity has been reported earlier (Cariou et al., 2006; Rizzo et al., 2006). HFD fed rats continuously gained more weight and adiposity compared to the rats that received normal pellet diet. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue secretes adipokines that regulate insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and other peripheral tissues critical to glucose metabolism. Insulin resistance is associated with severe alterations in adipokines characterized by release of increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased anti-inflammatory cytokines from adipose tissue. The role of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation on adipokines in relation to adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance is not completely explored. For the first time, we have evaluated the ability of Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), an endogenous FXR ligand, in restoring the disturbance in adipokine secretion and insulin resistance in palmitate treated 3T3-L1 cells and adipose tissues of High fat diet (HFD) rats. CDCA suppressed several of the tested pro-inflammatory adipokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, Chemerin, PAI, RBP4, resistin, vaspin), and enhanced the major anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing adipokines (adiponectin, leptin). CDCA suppressed the activation of critical inflammatory regulators such as NF-κB and IKKβ which are activated by palmitate treatment in differentiated cells and HFD in rats. We show the altered adipokines in insulin resistance, its association with inflammatory regulators, and the role of CDCA in amelioration of insulin resistance by modulation of adipokines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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