Candida pseudohaemulonii Sp. Nov., an Amphotericin B‐ and Azole‐Resistant Yeast Species, Isolated from the Blood of a Patient from Thailand

Department of Microbiology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo, Japan.
Microbiology and Immunology (Impact Factor: 1.24). 02/2006; 50(6):469-73. DOI: 10.1111/j.1348-0421.2006.tb03816.x
Source: PubMed


Candida haemulonii(types I and II) is rarely isolated from clinical specimens. We isolated a strain that is phylogenetically close to C. haemulonii from the blood of a Thai patient, and named it C. pseudohaemulonii sp. nov. (CBS 10099T = JCM 12453T = DMST 17134T). The new species and C. haemulonii types I and II were resistant to amphotericin B and azole agents but were susceptible to a 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthetase inhibitor, micafungin, and 5-flucytosine. The species were easily distinguished using an ID32 yeast identification kit. The taxonomic description of C. pseudohaemulonii sp. nov. is presented.

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    • "The API 32C system also failed to identify C. haemulonii and reported the isolates as Candida sake or other Candida spp. For the API 32C system, the three C. haemulonii isolates yielded two biocodes that were different from a previous report [13]. Because of the rarity of the species, the efficacy of commonly used yeast identification systems to identify C. haemulonii has not been well evaluated. "
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    ABSTRACT: Here we report the clinical features and treatment outcomes of three patients with Candida haemulonii infection. Candida haemulonii was confirmed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rRNA genes and the 18S rRNA genes. Two of the three isolates were associated with fungaemia and reduced susceptibility to fluconazole [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16 mg/L] and amphotericin B (MICs of 2 mg/L). However, one of these two patients responded to fluconazole therapy. Echinocandins, voriconazole and posaconazole demonstrated excellent in vitro potency against the isolates.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · International journal of antimicrobial agents
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    • "mg/mL, respectively , suggesting that these 2 echinocandins are active against not only C. haemulonii isolates, but also against isolates of the 2 Candida species that are closely related to C. haemulonii. Fungemia due to C. pseudohaemulonii is extremely rare; to our knowledge, there has been only 1 documented case [5]. In this article, we report 7 cases of C. pseudohaemulonii fungemia and 1 case of C. haemulonii fungemia identified at 2 hospitals in Korea. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Candida haemulonii, a yeast species that often exhibits antifungal resistance, rarely causes human infection. During 2004-2006, unusual yeast isolates with phenotypic similarity to C. haemulonii were recovered from 23 patients (8 patients with fungemia and 15 patients with chronic otitis media) in 5 hospitals in Korea. Methods. Isolates were characterized using D1/D2 domain and ITS gene sequencing, and the susceptibility of the isolates to 6 antifungal agents was tested in vitro. Results. Gene sequencing of the blood isolates confirmed C. haemulonii group I (in 1 patient) and Candida pseudohaemulonii (in 7 patients), whereas all isolates recovered from the ear were a novel species of which C. haemulonii is its closest relative. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole for all isolates were 0.5-32 microg/mL (MIC(50), 1 microg/mL), 2-128 microg/mL (MIC(50), 4 microg/mL), 0.125-4 microg/mL (MIC(50), 0.25 microg/mL), and 0.03-2 microg/mL (MIC(50), 0.06 microg/mL), respectively. All isolates were susceptible to caspofungin (MIC, 0.125-0.25 microg/mL) and micafungin (MIC, 0.03-0.06 microg/mL). All cases of fungemia occurred in patients with severe underlying diseases who had central venous catheters. Three patients developed breakthrough fungemia while receiving antifungal therapy, and amphotericin B therapeutic failure, which was associated with a high MIC of amphotericin B (32 microg/mL), was observed in 2 patients. Conclusions. Candida species that are closely related to C. haemulonii are emerging sources of infection in Korea. These species show variable patterns of susceptibility to amphotericin B and azole antifungal agents.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    • "Candida haemulonii has been isolated from clinical sources and has been proved to be an opportunistic pathogen (Lavarde et al. 1984; Gargeya et al. 1991; Khan et al. 2007). Candida pseudohaemulonii was described recently based on a strain isolated from the blood of a patient in Thailand (Sugita et al. 2006). YJ2E T differed from any of C. haemulonii CBS 5149 T , C. haemulonii type II CBS 6915 and C. pseudohaemulonii DMST 17134 T by more than 10% mismatches in the D1/D2 domain. "
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    ABSTRACT: In a taxonomic study on the ascomycetous yeasts isolated from plant materials collected in tropical forests in Yunnan and Hainan Provinces, southern China, four strains isolated from tree sap (YJ2E(T)) and flowers (YF9E(T), YWZH3C(T) and YYF2A(T)) were revealed to represent four undescribed yeast species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene D1/D2 domain sequences showed that strain YJ2E(T) was located in a clade together with Candida haemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii. Strain YF9E(T) was most closely related to C. azyma and strain YWZH3C(T) to C. sorbophila and C. spandovensis. Strain YYF2A(T) was clustered in a clade containing small-spored Metschnikowia species and related anamorphic Candida species. The new strains differed from their closely related described species by more than 10% mismatches in the D1/D2 domain. No sexual states were observed for the four strains on various sporulation media. The new species are therefore assigned to the genus Candida and described as Candida alocasiicola sp. nov. (type strain, YF9E(T) = AS 2.3484(T) = CBS 10702(T)), Candida hainanensis sp. nov. (type strain, YYF2A(T) = AS 2.3478(T) = CBS 10696(T)), Candida heveicola sp. nov. (type strain, YJ2E(T) = AS 2.3483(T) = CBS 10701(T)) and Candida musiphila sp. nov. (type strain, YWZH3C(T) = AS 2.3479(T) = CBS 10697(T)).
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
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