Eating Behaviors and Indexes of Body Composition in Men and Women from the Québec Family Study

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
Obesity research (Impact Factor: 4.95). 07/2003; 11(6):783-92. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2003.109
Source: PubMed


To put into relationship the dietary and anthropometric profile of men and women with their eating behaviors (cognitive dietary restraint, disinhibition, and susceptibility to hunger) and to assess whether gender and obesity status influence these associations.
Anthropometric measurements (including visceral adipose tissue accumulation), dietary profile (3-day food record), and eating behaviors (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were determined in a sample of 244 men and 352 women.
Women had significantly higher cognitive dietary restraint and disinhibition scores than men (p < 0.0001). In both genders, scores for disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger, but not for cognitive dietary restraint, were higher in obese subjects than in overweight and nonobese subjects (p < 0.05). Positive correlations were observed between rigid restraint and most of the anthropometric variables studied (0.12 <or= r <or= 0.16). Moreover, in women, flexible restraint was negatively associated with body fat and waist circumference (r = -0.11). Cognitive dietary restraint and rigid restraint were positively related to BMI among nonobese women (0.19 <or= r <or= 0.20), whereas in obese men, cognitive dietary restraint and flexible restraint tended to be negatively correlated with BMI (-0.20 <or= r <or= -0.22; p = 0.10).
Gender could mediate associations observed between eating behaviors and anthropometric profile. It was also found that disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger are positively associated with the level of obesity. On the other hand, cognitive dietary restraint is not consistently related to body weight and adiposity, whereas rigid and flexible restraint are oppositely associated to obesity status, which suggests that it is important to differentiate the subscales of cognitive dietary restraint. Finally, counseling aimed at coping with disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger could be of benefit for the long-term treatment of obesity.

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Available from: Vicky Drapeau, Nov 30, 2014
    • "Future studies on this protocol should aim at recruiting a larger sample to account for sufficient statistical power. As women are more prone than men to dysfunctional eating and overeating episodes (Provencher et al., 2003), we tested the new method on an exclusively female sub-clinical sample. To assess general effectiveness in terms of overeating symptoms, the method should also be tested in a male sample reporting overeating episodes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Overeating episodes, despite of intentions to control weight, are a common problem among women. Recurring episodes of overeating and dietary failure have been reported to result in higher Body Mass Indexes and to induce severe distress even in non-clinical groups. Based on findings from physiological research on eating behavior and craving, as well as previous biofeedback studies, we derived a cue exposure based EEG neurofeedback protocol to target overeating episodes. The treatment was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial, comparing a neurofeedback group (NFG; n = 14) with a waiting list control group (WLG; n = 13) in a sub-clinical sample of female restrained eaters. At post-treatment, the number of weekly overeating episodes and subsequent distress were significantly reduced in the NFG compared to the WLG (p < .01; r > .50). In a 3 month follow-up, effects in the NFG remained stable. As secondary outcomes, perceived dieting success was enhanced after the treatment. At follow-up, additional beneficial effects on trait food craving were observed. Altogether, we found preliminary evidence for the cue exposure neurofeedback against overeating episodes in female restrained eaters, although specific effects and underlying mechanisms still have to be explored in future research.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
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    • "waist circumference) in Canadian adult men (Provencher et al., 2003). Yet other studies have 103 found positive associations between flexible control and psychological distress; for instance, "
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    ABSTRACT: Researchers have found that rigid dietary control is connected to higher psychological distress, including disordered and disinhibited eating. Two approaches have been touted by certain scholars and/or health organizations as healthier alternatives: intuitive eating and flexible control-yet these approaches have not been compared in terms of their shared variance with one another and psychological well-being (adjustment and distress). The present study explored these connections among 382 community women and men. Findings revealed that intuitive eating and flexible control are inversely related constructs. Intuitive eating was related to lower rigid control, lower psychological distress, higher psychological adjustment, and lower BMI. In contrast, flexible control was strongly related in a positive direction to rigid control, and was unrelated to distress, adjustment, and BMI. Further, intuitive eating incrementally contributed unique variance to the well-being measures after controlling for both flexible and rigid control. Flexible control was positively associated with psychological adjustment and inversely associated with distress and BMI only when its shared variance with rigid control was extracted. Collectively, these results suggest that intuitive eating is not the same phenomenon as flexible control, and that flexible control demonstrated substantial overlap and entanglement with rigid control, precluding the clarity, validity, and utility of flexible control as a construct. Discussion addresses the implications of this distinction between intuitive eating and flexible control for the promotion of healthy eating attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Appetite
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    • "The current study did not find any independent effect of change in disinhibition on weight loss. This finding is surprising, given the number of previous studies that have shown disinhibition to be a significant predictor of resistance to weight loss and a faster BW regain (Bellisle et al., 2004; Butryn, Thomas, & Lowe, 2009; Hays et al., 2002; Hays & Roberts, 2008; McGuire, Jeffery, French, & Hannan, 2001; Provencher et al., 2003). Conversely, the significance of the interaction between change in CER score and change in disinhibition score demonstrated that disinhibition attenuates the beneficial effect of restraint on weight loss, which is in line with previous research (Hays et al., 2002; Lawson et al., 1995; Savage et al., 2009; Williamson et al., 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: In modern societies characterized by food abundance, dietary restraint may serve as a factor in the successful control of weight or facilitation of weight loss. This secondary analysis of data examined whether changes in cognitive eating restraint (CER) and disinhibition predicted weight loss in a sample of 60 overweight/obese premenopausal women [mean±SD, age=35.9±5.8 y; weight=84.4±13.1 kg; body mass index (BMI)=31.0±4.3 kg/m2]. Changes in weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body fat percentage (BF%) were examined in relation to changes in CER, disinhibition and hunger as measured by the Eating Inventory questionnaire at baseline and week 18 of an 18-week dietary intervention. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors of weight loss and changes in other anthropometric variables from baseline to study completion. Increase in CER was found to be the most robust predictor of reduction in weight (P<0.0001), BMI (P<0.0001), waist circumference (P<0.001), hip circumference (P<0.0001) and BF% (P<0.0001). Effect of increase in CER on change in BMI, hip circumference and BF% was moderated by increase in disihibition (all P<0.05). Results suggest that strategies that target CER and disinhibition should be emphasized in programs proposed to treat and prevent obesity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Appetite
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