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How does Exercise Affect Bone Development during Growth?

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Abstract

It is increasingly accepted that osteoporosis is a paediatric issue. The prepubertal human skeleton is quite sensitive to the mechanical stimulation elicited by physical activity. To achieve the benefits for bone deriving from physical activity, it is not necessary to perform high volumes of exercise, since a notable osteogenic effect may be achieved with just 3 hours of participation in sports. Physical activity or participation in sport should start at prepubertal ages and should be maintained through the pubertal development to obtain the maximal peak bone mass potentially achievable. Starting physical activity prior to the pubertal growth spurt stimulates both bone and skeletal muscle hypertrophy to a greater degree than observed with normal growth in non-physically active children. High strain-eliciting sport like gymnastics, or participation in sports or weight-bearing physical activities like football or handball, are strongly recommended to increase the peak bone mass. Moreover, the increase in lean mass is the most important predictor for bone mineral mass accrual during prepubertal growth throughout the population. Since skeletal muscle is the primary component of lean mass, participation in sport could have not only a direct osteogenic effect, but also an indirect effect by increasing muscle mass and hence the tensions generated on bones during prepubertal years.
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Sports Med 2006; 36 (7): 561-569
R
EVIEW
A
RTICLE
0112-1642/06/0007-0561/$39.95/0
2006 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.
How does Exercise Affect Bone
Development during Growth?
German Vicente-Rodr
´
iguez
1,2
1 Department of Physical Education, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary
Island, Spain
2 Faculty of Health and Sport Science, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain
Contents
Abstract ....................................................................................561
1. Definitions and Context ...................................................................562
2. Biological Maturation, Exercise and Bone Mass..............................................563
3. Type and Duration of Sport Participation and Bone Development ............................564
4. Soft Tissue Development and Bone Mass ...................................................565
4.1 Muscle-Bone-Exercise Relationship .....................................................565
4.2 Fat-Bone-Exercise Relationship ........................................................566
5. Conclusion ..............................................................................566
It is increasingly accepted that osteoporosis is a paediatric issue. The prepuber-
Abstract
tal human skeleton is quite sensitive to the mechanical stimulation elicited by
physical activity. To achieve the benefits for bone deriving from physical activity,
it is not necessary to perform high volumes of exercise, since a notable osteogenic
effect may be achieved with just 3 hours of participation in sports. Physical
activity or participation in sport should start at prepubertal ages and should be
maintained through the pubertal development to obtain the maximal peak bone
mass potentially achievable. Starting physical activity prior to the pubertal growth
spurt stimulates both bone and skeletal muscle hypertrophy to a greater degree
than observed with normal growth in non-physically active children. High strain-
eliciting sport like gymnastics, or participation in sports or weight-bearing physi-
cal activities like football or handball, are strongly recommended to increase the
peak bone mass. Moreover, the increase in lean mass is the most important
predictor for bone mineral mass accrual during prepubertal growth throughout the
population. Since skeletal muscle is the primary component of lean mass, partici-
pation in sport could have not only a direct osteogenic effect, but also an indirect
effect by increasing muscle mass and hence the tensions generated on bones
during prepubertal years.
This material is
the copyright of the
original publisher.
Unauthorised copying
and distribution
is prohibited.
562 Vicente-Rodr
´
iguez
Osteoporosis and related fractures are a consider- mass.
[20-26]
Skeletal muscle development precedes
able health concern worldwide.
[1]
However, the idea bone mass development
[27]
in such a way that it has
that ‘senile osteoporosis is a paediatric disease’
[2]
is been suggested that the increase of muscle strength
increasingly accepted.
[3-5]
In fact, the WHO pro- accompanying muscle development allows for a
posed that prevention is the most powerful way to greater generation of forces on bone attachment,
fight against the non-communicable diseases, i.e. which stimulate bone growth.
[27,28]
Although it was
osteoporosis.
[6]
reported that sport participation hardly elicits mus-
cle hypertrophy at a prepubertal age,
[29]
more recent
Physical activity, specifically sporting participa-
studies have provided evidence of the opposite, i.e.
tion during growth, seems to be effective in reducing
intensive sport participation is associated with in-
the prevalence of osteoporosis-related fractures.
[4,7]
creased acquisition of muscle mass during
However, an increased sedentarism in children
[8,9]
growth.
[30,31]
Then, apart from the direct effect of
has also been described, which is even more alarm-
exercise on bone accrual, exercise could also in-
ing in girls because they are usually less active than
crease bone acquisition indirectly by increasing
boys.
[10]
For that reason, it is important to know how
muscle mass and, hence, the forces generated on the
sport activities specifically affect bone develop-
bones where the hypertrophied muscles attach.
ment, what are the mechanisms involved in the
The aim of this article is to summarise current
exercise-bone relationship, what is the optimal kind
knowledge on the interplay between biological mat-
and duration of exercise to stimulate osteogenesis,
uration, body composition and exercise on bone
and when should the participation in sports start to
mass development during growth.
maximise the bone mineral peak attained during
growth. All this information could help to design
1. Definitions and Context
effective, simple, economical and safe physical ac-
tivity programmes against osteoporosis and its relat-
Many terms are often used when discussing chil-
ed social and economic costs.
[4]
dren and adolescents. ‘Growth’ refers to the domi-
Sport participation during growth seems to in-
nant biological activity for approximately the first
crease the peak bone mineral density (BMD) in the
20 years of human life, through changes in size
weight-loaded bones of the active subjects by be-
underlying three cellular processes: (i) increase in
tween 10% and 20% compared with non-physically
cell number (hyperplasia); (ii) increase in cell size
active counterparts.
[11]
This effect could be greater
(hypertrophy); and (iii) increase in intercellular sub-
when exercise starts before the pubertal growth
stances (accretion). All these processes occur during
spurt.
[12-17]
In addition, it is clear that at least 25% of
growth; however, the predominance of one or anoth-
the adult total bone mineral content (BMC) is at-
er varies with age and the tissue involved. Bone
tained in just a 2-year period of fast bone mineral
growth is brought about by hyperplasia, hypertrophy
accrual during growth (11–13 years in girls and
and accretion.
12–14 years in boys).
[18]
It is also likely that sport
These cellular processes are also involved in
participation during this period acts synergistically
maturation. ‘Maturation’ is the progress toward the
with the growth-related bone mass accumulation
mature stage, referring to the timing and tempo of
leading to a higher bone mass at the pubertal peri-
the progress. Maturity thus varies with the biologi-
od.
[18,19]
cal system considered. Skeletal maturity is then a
The body’s soft tissue components (lean and fat fully ossified adult skeleton. ‘Timing’ refers to
masses) have been shown to be related to bone when specific maturation event appears, e.g. age at
2006 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Sports Med 2006; 36 (7)
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Influence of Exercise on Bone Development 563
maximum growth during growth spurt; and ‘tempo’ The question we would like to approach is wheth-
refers to the rate at which maturation progresses. er sport participation could affect the normal devel-
Timing and tempo vary largely among individuals; opment of bone during growth. The highest body of
this is why sexual development is more consistent knowledge on bone development and exercise has
than, for example, chronological age. been acquired using dual energy x-ray absorptiome-
try (DXA) techniques. DXA is a suitable method to
Finally, pubertal growth spurt can be defined as a
study children because of its low irradiation and
2- to 3-year period of rapid increase in height and
time needed to perform the scans.
[42]
However, data
weight related to the change in the activity of the
from DXA must be interpreted carefully because the
hypothalamus with a gradual increase in the secre-
areal density measured is the amount of BMC per
tion of pulses of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone.
cm
2
, so bigger bones have higher areal BMD with a
An increase in gonadotrophin secretion stimulates
similar real volumetric BMD (g/cm
3
).
[36]
This limi-
gonadal growth and sex steroid secretion, and sec-
tation may be circumvented if areal BMD data are
ondary sexual characteristics appear as the concen-
combined with bone- and body size-adjusted
trations of sex steroids rise.
[32]
For more details, the
BMC.
[37]
excellent book by Malina et al.
[33]
is recommended.
Weight-bearing sport activities generate com-
2. Biological Maturation, Exercise and
pressive forces that have been generally proposed as
Bone Mass
essential stimuli for bone formation and growth.
[42]
Thus, the intermittent compression of the growth
The male has a longer prepubertal period of
plates elicited by the weight-bearing physical activi-
growth,
[34]
as their pubertal growth spurt occurs 1–2
ty or exercise is apparently essential for bone
years later than in girls,
[35,36]
contributing to the sex
growth.
[33]
Additionally, the strains generated on
differences in skeleton proportions,
[34]
e.g. longer
bones before puberty may produce higher cortical
lower extremities in males than females. BMC in-
bone expansion,
[15,43]
increasing bone strength.
[41]
creases linearly, with no sex differences until the
Correlational studies suggest a positive relation-
onset of the pubertal growth spurt.
[37]
Additionally,
ship between habitual physical activity or sport par-
boys BMC continues to increase through late ado-
ticipation and bone mineralisation, the amount of
lescence,
[37]
while the girls BMC barely increases
BMC being higher with higher amounts of physical
after the onset of puberty.
[37]
Specifically, sex differ-
activity.
[5,17,44,45]
A few years ago, it became clear
ences in bone size and strength are established in
that the peak of bone mass accumulation velocity
puberty as a result of the greater endocortical and
occurs around the age of 12–14 years, and that BMC
periosteal expansion during prepubertal years and
accumulation is greater in more active chil-
the minimal endocortical contraction in males com-
dren.
[5,44-46]
Other studies also indicated that adult
pared with the high endocortical contraction and the
athletes who started their sport careers before puber-
inhibition of periosteal apposition in females after
ty benefit not only from enhanced BMD but also
the pubertal growth spurt.
[36,38]
As a result, while
from enlarged bones,
[12-16]
which are more resistant
volumetric density remains constant during growth
to fractures.
[41]
and similar in both sexes,
[39,40]
BMC is around 20%
higher in males compared with females at the age of Evidence was lacking, however, on whether sport
16–17 years, simply because their bones are big- participation at prepubertal age may elicit a physio-
ger.
[41]
Thus, sex differences in bone strength are the logically relevant effect on bone accrual. Additional
result of the differences in shape and geometry.
[41]
studies have shown that prepubescent physically
2006 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Sports Med 2006; 36 (7)
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564 Vicente-Rodr
´
iguez
active boys
[12,17,47]
and girls
[48-50]
have higher lumbar ble to elicit a greater enhancement in BMC and
BMD if the exercise period extends over a longer
spine and/or femoral BMD than their non-physically
period than just the 2-year period of fast bone miner-
active peers. Later, controlled trials and longitudinal
al accrual (11–13 years in girls and 12–14 years in
studies confirmed the prior cross-sectional studies
boys).
[5,16,17,19,31]
showing that, during the prepubertal years, sport
An important question is how long the benefits
helps bones to accumulate more mineral.
[30,31,51-54]
achieved will last if children stop exercising. Some
Moreover, the participation in sport elicits structur-
authors have suggested that the gains in bone mass
al, shape and size changes in prepubertal chil-
are retained after an equivalent period of de-
dren.
[17,55]
Vicente-Rodriguez et al.
[17]
reported that
training
[61]
and even longer.
[11,62]
In contrast, it has
prepubertal footballers have 10% larger osseous
also been reported that there is a fast BMD loss at
area at the trochanteric zone than their age-matched
the femoral neck after a reduction of sport activity in
non-active controls. Likewise, prepubertal boys in-
young men.
[57]
However, we lack conclusive data to
volved in a school-based, high-impact circuit inter-
provide a definitive answer to this question, which
vention (12 minutes, three times a week) for 20
will remain pending until longer longitudinal data
months had greater bone expansion on both the
are available.
periosteal (+2.6%, p = 0.1) and endosteal (+2.7%, p
= 0.2) surfaces.
[55]
This resulted in a 7.5% increase
3. Type and Duration of Sport
in bone bending strength, after adjusting for change
Participation and Bone Development
of height and Tanner Stage (an indicator of sexual
development degree regarding to the pubic hair and
The skeleton adapts just to the prevalent level of
gonads size as secondary sex characteristics) at the
exercise intensity required and no further,
[63]
de-
end of the study, and baseline bone values.
[55]
Simi-
pending on the mechanical stress that bone must
lar results have also been recently observed in
support (for a specific review see Heinonen
[64]
).
prepubertal girls.
[56]
These changes in shape and
Previous knowledge suggests that the intensity rath-
structure are very positive for bone health because
er than the duration of the sport activity is the main
they may endure throughout life, in contrast to BMC
determinant of BMD.
[65,66]
Karlsson et al.
[63]
studied
or BMD changes that may be lost over time with
adult male football (soccer) players with different
reduced physical activity.
[57]
levels and duration (6 vs 8 vs 12 hours/week) of
Thus, there is enough scientific evidence to sug-
participation in football, and sedentary controls. The
gest that sport participation should start before the
footballers, as a group, showed enhanced BMD
pubertal growth spurt, given the fact that immature
compared with the controls. However, differences in
bones are more responsive to mechanical
the amount of participation in football were not
stress.
[12,17,31,47,51-55,58]
Testosterone, growth hor-
paralleled by corresponding difference in bone ad-
mone and insulin-like growth factor-1 increase dur-
aptation.
[63]
In fact, exercising for >6 hours/week
ing the pubertal period,
[42]
enhancing bone growth
does not appear to add extra BMD increase in
and turnover through osteoblastic stimulation.
[59]
men.
[63]
Most of the investigations communicating
Estrogen production is low in premenarcheal girls,
great sport benefits on bone density have been per-
which makes their bones more responsive to exer-
formed with gymnasts who usually train for many
cise loading
[60]
and increases their size.
[36,38]
But, for
hours per week (>15).
[11,48-50,67-71]
However, in con-
how long should children be active? Cross-sectional
trast to what has been seen in adults,
[63]
it has recent-
and longitudinal data suggest that it should be possi-
ly been observed that recreational premenarcheal
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Influence of Exercise on Bone Development 565
gymnasts, having noticeably higher values of BMD dominant arm in the tennis players compared with
the golf players.
[75]
It also seems that high loads
than controls, did not reach the percentage differ-
have a critical roll in bone mass acquisition during
ences communicated by other authors in gymnasts
and before puberty.
[30,48-50,67-71]
During growth, after
with higher volumes of exercise.
[30]
The latter sug-
the first mineralisation, the bone matrix remains in a
gest that the higher the exercise volume the higher
dynamic state to allow the bone tissue to reorganise
the BMD accumulation. Where is the limit? It is not
and grow to withstand the new mechanical tensions
yet known.
and load conditions.
[42,76]
The mechanostat theory
Although the most suitable sporting activity for
proposes that bone strength is regulated by model-
maximal bone growth remains unknown, compel-
ling and remodelling processes depending on forces
ling evidence has accumulated to suggest that partic-
acting on bones.
[21,27,77,78]
Bone modelling is a re-
ipation in weight-bearing sports is fairly efficient in
gional response to a loading condition, which in-
promoting bone acquisition even in prepubertal chil-
creases mechanical bone resistance through the os-
dren. For example, similar osteogenic benefits have
teoblastic deposit and mineralisation of bone, as
been reported with just 3 hours/week of foot-
well as improving the cortical and the trabecular
ball
[17,31]
or handball.
[31]
Controlled trial jumping
(internal) architecture with a net gain of bone
interventions have also shown significant increases
mass.
[42,76,79]
Thus, actions in sport that involve ten-
in bone mass,
[51-55,58]
even with a really low time
sile, compressive, shear, bending and torsion stress-
intervention such as 12 minutes, three times a
es on bones that can elicit mechanostat-related
week.
[55]
Gymnastics elicits huge strains but the
mechanisms during growth have an osteogenic po-
number of impacts is lower than in other sports.
tential.
[64]
Thus, a beneficial effect for bone may be achieved
with two different strategies: (i) enrolling children in
4. Soft Tissue Development and
a high strain-eliciting sport such as gymnastics; or
Bone Mass
(ii) promoting participation in sports such as football
Total body mass has for a long time been identi-
or handball, or weight-bearing physical activities,
fied as the best predictor for bone mass in chil-
where the growing skeleton is submitted to frequent
dren.
[47,80]
The appearance of DXA has facilitated
strains in different directions, without the need for a
the analysis of the separate influence that fat and
volume of exercise >3 hours/week.
lean masses may have on bone mass and density.
[24]
Mechanical loads need certain strain magnitude,
rate and frequency to be effective to stimulate oste-
4.1 Muscle-Bone-Exercise Relationship
ogenesis.
[64,72]
For example, Dorado et al.
[73]
ob-
served that professional golfers have enhanced mus-
Previous studies documented cross-sectional as-
cle mass in the playing arm compared with the non-
sociations between lean mass (equivalent to muscle
playing arm, as previously reported in tennis play-
mass in the extremities
[81]
and a surrogate measure
ers.
[74]
Despite the fact that both sports elicit muscle
of muscle force
[27]
) and BMC and areal densi-
hypertrophy in the dominant arm, only the tennis
ty.
[17,30,47,82-84]
Longitudinal studies have confirmed
players show an increase of BMD in the dominant
a close relationship between the change in lean mass
compared with the non-dominant arm.
[74,75]
Despite
and bone mass during growth.
[27,31,85-87]
In 1990,
similar muscular effects of golf and tennis, the ef-
Young et al.
[86]
started an 8-year longitudinal study
fects on bone are remarkably different, probably due
of 286 female twins aged 8–26 years at baseline.
to the greater number of impacts sustained by the They concluded that the change in BMC was strong-
2006 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Sports Med 2006; 36 (7)
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is prohibited.
566 Vicente-Rodr
´
iguez
ly correlated with the change in lean mass during mechanical loadings exerted by exercise stimulate
both muscle and bone development. Therefore, ex-
linear growth (at least 4 years before the onset of
ercise could drive a direct osteogenic effect and
menarche).
[86]
More recently, Forwood et al.
[87]
ob-
following the mechanostat theory, an indirect oste-
served that the greater increase in lean body mass
ogenic effect by increasing muscle size and strength
and the consequent related mechanical loadings that
and hence tensions generated on bones.
lean mass imposes, accounted for the sexual dimor-
phism in bone structure. Additionally, Rauch et
al.
[27]
have reported that the peak BMC accrual for
4.2 Fat-Bone-Exercise Relationship
the whole body, upper and lower extremities oc-
Fat mass has also been independently associated
curred between 0.36–0.66 and 0.22–0.71 years after
with bone mass, although to a lesser extent than lean
the maximal increase in total lean mass in boys and
mass in cross-sectional studies in children.
[26]
Lon-
girls, respectively. Recent longitudinal studies have
gitudinally, it has been shown that fat mass is also
found lean mass development to be the best predic-
related to bone mass 4 years after the menarche and
tor for BMC and areal density accrual during
thereafter, but it has a weaker predictive value than
prepubertal growth in children, independent of the
lean mass, suggesting a low effect on bone mass.
[86]
physical activity level.
[20,31]
Although the latter stud-
However, no relationship has been found between
ies do not exclude the fact that both bone and lean
the changes in fat mass on one side and bone masses
mass (muscle) development could be independently
on the other during prepubertal growth.
[20,31]
The
determined by genetic mechanisms,
[88]
the muscle-
results of these studies imply that the longitudinal
bone relationship during growth could presumably
changes in fat mass do not appear to contribute
be explained by the mechanostat theory,
[27,78]
as
significantly to the accumulation in bone mass with
bigger muscles exert higher tensile forces on the
growth.
bones they attach.
Despite these strong relationships between mus-
5. Conclusion
cle mass and bone mass, it has been remarked that
loading-related factors, i.e. sport, could have a
The prepubertal human skeleton is rather sensi-
greater influence on bone development
[31,85]
than
tive to mechanical stimulation elicited by physical
just the enhancement of muscle mass. In fact, in
activity, i.e. sport participation. To achieve the phys-
physically active boys, the increase of total and
ical activity benefits on bone, it is not necessary to
regional BMD per unit of lean mass is between 22%
perform high volumes of exercise, since a remarka-
and 42% higher than observed in age-, height- and
ble osteogenic effect may be achieved with just 3
body mass-matched sedentary controls.
[20,31]
The
hours of participation in sports. Physical activity or
latter combined with the fact that bone mass in-
sport should start at prepubertal ages and should be
creased more in the active boys than in the sedenta-
maintained through the pubertal development to ob-
ry, after accounting for changes in lean mass, further
tain the maximal peak bone mass potentially achiev-
emphasises the independent role of exercise (me-
able. Starting physical activity prior to the pubertal
chanical strain) in bone mass acquisition during
growth spurt stimulates both bone and skeletal mus-
growth.
[20,31]
cle hypertrophy to a greater degree than observed
Since active boys also increased their physical with normal growth in non-physically active chil-
fitness more than the sedentary controls,
[20,31]
the dren. Participation in high strain-eliciting sports
lean (muscle)-bone association may arise because such as gymnastics, or weight-bearing physical ac-
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Influence of Exercise on Bone Development 567
al Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 1998; 279
tivities, such as football or handball, is strongly
(12): 938-42
recommended to increase the peak bone mass.
9. Woodring BC. Relationship of physical activity and television
watching with body weight and level of fatness among chil-
The increase in lean mass is the most important
dren: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition
predictor for bone mineral mass accrual during
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prepubertal growth at a population level. Since skel-
10. Lindquist CH, Reynolds KD, Goran MI. Sociocultural determi-
nants of physical activity among children. Prev Med 1999; 29:
etal muscle is the primary component of lean mass,
305-12
sport participation could have not only a direct oste-
11. Bass S, Pearce G, Bradney M, et al. Exercise before puberty
may confer residual benefits in bone density in adulthood:
ogenic effect, but also an indirect effect by increas-
studies in active prepubertal and retired female gymnasts. J
ing muscle mass and hence the tensions generated
Bone Miner Res 1998; 13: 500-7
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Acknowledgements
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13. Kannus P, Haapasalo H, Sankelo M, et al. Effect of starting age
The study was supported by Ministerio de Educaci
´
on,
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and squash players. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123: 27-31
Cultura y Deportes (AP2000-3652), Universidad de Las Pal-
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mas de Gran Canaria, Gobierno de Canarias (PI2000/067),
unilateral activity on bone mineral density of female junior
Consejo Superior de Deportes (27/UNI10/00) and Ministerio
tennis players. J Bone Miner Res 1998; 13: 310-9
de Ciencia y Tecnolog
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ia (BFI2003-09638 and FEDER). The
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authors thank Jos
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e Navarro de Tuero for his excellent techni-
impact-loading on mass, size, and estimated strength of hume-
cal assistance. The author has no conflicts of interest that are
rus and radius of female racquet-sports players: a peripheral
quantitative computed tomography study between young and
directly relevant to the content of this review.
old starters and controls. J Bone Miner Res 2002; 17: 2281-9
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... Accordingly, resilience can be increased by influencing the bone structure at an early stage through regular strength training. Apart from classical strength training, any form of "high impact" loading, such as plyometrics, is recommended [61][62][63]67,75,91,92,[94][95][96][97][98]. Both the load intensity and the load volume are of great importance for the development of the bone structure [59][60][61][99][100][101][102][103][104]. ...
... If strength training is incorporated into the swimmer's training plan, it is important that the remaining swim training volume must be adapted (significantly reduced) to account for the new training content. It is important to note that, from a preventive point of view, strength training should be started early in the athlete's long-term development plan as starting strength training before puberty can ensure the athlete establish good bone structures [62,82,98,[105][106][107]. In the case of shoulder problems, training must be critically analyzed, especially where work is carried out against increased resistance from joint angles that are difficult to stabilize, which is often the case with so-called "specific" strength training exercises on cable traction devices (e.g., biokinetic swim bench). ...
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This narrative review deals with the topic of strength training in swimming, which has been a controversial issue for decades. It is not only about the importance for the performance at start, turn and swim speed, but also about the question of how to design a strength training program. Different approaches are discussed in the literature, with two aspects in the foreground. On the one hand is the discussion about the optimal intensity in strength training and, on the other hand, is the question of how specific strength training should be designed. In addition to a summary of the current state of research regarding the importance of strength training for swimming, the article shows which physiological adaptations should be achieved in order to be able to increase performance in the long term. Furthermore, an attempt is made to explain why some training contents seem to be rather unsuitable when it comes to increasing strength as a basis for higher performance in the start, turn and clean swimming. Practical training consequences are then derived from this. Regardless of the athlete’s performance development, preventive aspects should also be onsidered in the discussion. The article provides a critical overview of the abovementioned key issues. The most important points when designing a strength training program for swimming are a sufficiently high-load intensity to increase maximum strength, which in turn is the basis for power, year-round trength training, parallel to swim training and working on the transfer of acquired strength skills in swim training, and not through supposedly specific strength training exercises on land or in the water.
... Passive football players who practice recreational futsal have higher bone mass than passive football players who are not involved in recreational physical activity. For this reason, many authors suggest that physical activity with an intensity of 75% -85% and a duration of more than 30 minutes is a key factor in strengthening and developing healthy bones at all stages of development (Vicente-Rodriguez, 2006;Khan et al., 2001;Gracia-Marco et al., 2011). Passive football players who practice recreational futsal have a higher percentage of water by 1.2%, (although statistically insignificant) compared with passive football players who are not involved in recreational physical activity ...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of recreational futsal on passive middle-aged footballers in body composition. Materials and methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 58 men aged from 30 to 40, average age 35.88 ± 2.39. The sample was divided into two groups. The first group included 29 passive football players (average age 35.58 ± 2.36) who were engaged in recreational futsal 2-3 times a week, and the second group included 29 passive football players (average age 36.17 ± 2.42) who weren’t engaged in recreational physical activity. The body composition was assessed by TANITA BC-601, the method of bioelectrical impedance, which became a reference method in research studies in the body composition analysis. The variables obtained were: body height (cm), body weight (kg), fat mass (%), muscle mass (kg), bone mass (kg), body mass index (kg/m2), calorie consumption – daily calorie intake (kcal), vitality of the body, quantity of water in the body (%), visceral fat (%). Results. Groups are not distinguished in the variables body height (HBH), calorie consumption – daily calorie intake (DCI), vitality of the body (BMR), and quantity of water in the body (TBV) because p > 0.05. In the variables where body mass, body fat tissue and muscle mass were assed, namely body weight (BWT), fat mass (BFP), muscle mass (TBM), bone mass (BMD), body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat (AVF), a statistically significant difference was gained p < 0.05 in favor of the group of passive football players who were involved in recreational futsal. Conclusions. It can be said that the recreational futsal as physical activity is an effective tool to improve body composition not only in passive football players but in all persons of all ages regardless of gender. Intensity and duration in recreational futsal is an effective way to reduce body fat in the population of passive middle-aged football players.
... Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are positively associated in children during growth and maturation (Kristensen et al., 2010). As critical physiological changes take place during childhood and preadolescence, engagement in various types of PA has numerous health benefits including the increase in CRF (Vicente-Rodríguez, 2006). Recent study shows that higher level of pubertal CRF, and not PA was associated with lower body fatness indices in late adolescence (Remmel et al., 2021). ...
... Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are positively associated in children during growth and maturation (Kristensen et al., 2010). As critical physiological changes take place during childhood and preadolescence, engagement in various types of PA has numerous health benefits including the increase in CRF (Vicente-Rodríguez, 2006). Recent study shows that higher level of pubertal CRF, and not PA was associated with lower body fatness indices in late adolescence (Remmel et al., 2021). ...
... The skeleton in childhood and adolescence is sensitive to the mechanical stimulation elicited by physical activity so that regular physical activity during childhood and adolescence can optimize skeletal health that persists through adulthood. Factors other than mechanical stimulation also influence bone development and include genotype and adequate levels of vitamin D and calcium [4][5][6]. Although BMD among athletes systematically training in different sports has received considerable attention [7][8][9], variations in total body BMD and BMD of body segments among athletes training in different sports merits attention. ...
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In an earlier report, bone mineral reference values for young athletes were developed. This study addressed variations in bone mineral parameters of young athletes participating in sports with different mechanical loads. The bone mineral status of 1793 male and female athletes, 11 to 20 years of age, in several sports was measured with DEXA. Specific bone mineral parameters were converted to z-scores relative to age- and sex-specific reference values specified by the DEXA software. Z-score profiles and principal components analyses were used to identify body structural components in the young athletes and to evaluate the associations between the identified component and type of sport defined by mechanical load. A unique skeletomuscular robusticity of male wrestlers, pentathletes, and cyclists was noted: wrestlers had significantly more developed skeletomuscular robusticity and bone mineral density compared to the age-group average among elite athletes, while pentathletes and cyclists had lower bone mineral parameters than the age-group references among elite athletes. Among female athletes, bone mineral parameters of both the trunk and extremities of rhythmic gymnasts and pentathletes were significantly lower compared to the age-group means for elite athletes. The bone mineral development of elite young athletes varies with the impact forces associated with their respective sports. The skeletal development of cyclists, pentathletes, and rhythmic gymnasts should be monitored regularly as their bone development lags behind that of their athlete peers and the reference for the general population.
... The osteogenic effects of high impact and intense physical activities during childhood and adolescence has been considered an important determinant of bone mineral density (BMD) [1][2][3][4][5]. More recently, higher time spent in sedentary behavior (activities with an energy expenditure ≤1.5 metabolic equivalent of task in seated, reclined, or lying position [6]) has been associated with lower BMD in youth population [7][8][9]. ...
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The development of bone is a complex process that involves cellular, extracellular, and physicochemical events. This chapter reviews the overall process of bone formation from a biologic and chemical viewpoint. The factors regulating the initial mineralization of ostoid, and those regulating the entire process of mineralization, are the main subjects of this chapter. Attention is paid to new data on the role of matrix proteins in these processes and to the interaction between collagen and matrix proteins, and matrix proteins and cells in regulating bone mineralization. Bones are dynamic tissues, replaced as they age or are damaged with newly deposited bone. These dynamic tissues serve numerous essential functions in humans and other vertebrates. Bone provides mechanical protection for internal organs, allows the animal to direct motion, and facilitates the locomotion process. In addition to these mechanical functions, bone provides a protective housing for blood-forming marrow, and serves as a reservoir for mineral ions.
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In a study on 14 healthy children aged from 6 to 13 years, the volumetric spongiosa bone density (SBD), cortical bone density (CBD), bone cross-sectional area (BCSA), cortical area (CA), and bone strength index (BSI) at the distal radius were analyzed using peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT Bone Scanner XCT-900, Stratec, Pforzheim, Germany). BSI values were calculated on the basis of the moment of resistance and cortical density using system integrated software. These parameters were correlated with grip strength measurements obtained using a grip dynamometer. There were age-dependent increases in BCSA (r = 0.68), CA (r = 0.78), BSI (r = 0.79). SBD and CBD, however, did not show an increase with age. Grip strength correlates strongly with the parameters of bone geometry BCSA (r = 0.8), CA (r = 0.86), and BSI (r = 0.9) at p
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The second edition of "Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity" has been expanded with almost 300 new pages of material, making it the most comprehensive text on the biological growth, maturation, physical performance, and physical activity of children and adolescents. The new edition retains all the best features of the original text, including the helpful outlines at the beginning of each chapter that allow students to review major concepts. This edition features updates on basic content, expanded and modified chapters, and the latest research findings to meet the needs of upper undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers and professionals working with children and young adults. The second edition also includes these new features: -10 lab activities that encourage students to investigate subject matter outside of class and save teachers time-A complete reference list at the end of each chapter -Chapter-ending summaries to make the review process easy for students-New chapters that contain updates on thermoregulation, methods for the assessment of physical activity, undernutrition, obesity, children with clinical conditions, and trends in growth and performance-Discussions that span current problems in public health, such as the quantification of physical activity and energy expenditure, persistent undernutrition in developing countries, and the obesity epidemic in developed countriesThe authors are three of the world's foremost authorities on children's growth and development. In 29 chapters, they address introductory concepts and prenatal growth, postnatal growth, functional development, biological maturation, influencing factors in growth, maturation and development, and specific applications to public health and sport. In addition, secular trends in growth, maturation, and performance over the past 150 years are considered. You'll be able to recognize risk factors that may affect young athletes; you'll also be able to make informed decisions about appropriate physical activities, program delivery, and performance expectations. "Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity, Second Edition, " covers many additional topics, including new techniques for the assessment of body composition, the latest advances in the study of skeletal muscle, the human genome, the hormonal regulation of growth and maturation, clarification of dietary reference intakes, and the study of risk factors for several adult diseases. This is the only text to focus on the biological growth and maturation process of children and adolescents as it relates to physical activity and performance. With over 300 new pages of material, this text expertly builds on the successful first edition.
Article
This study was designed to assess the effects of 18 months of resistance exercise on regional and total bone mineral density (BMD) and soft tissue lean mass (STL) in premenopausal women aged 28–39 randomly assigned to an exercise or control group. Twenty-two exercise and 34 control subjects completed the 18-month training study. All subjects were previously inactive and untrained women. Initial, 5-, 12- and 18-month assessments were made of total and regional BMD and total and regional STL using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. All subjects consumed a 500 mg/day elemental calcium supplement throughout the study. Initial Ca intake without supplement averaged 1,023 mg/day in total sample. Serum levels of bone osteocalcin and dietary assessments using 12 randomly assigned days of diet records were also completed. Muscular strength was assessed from both 1 repetition maximum (RM) testing of 10 weightlifting exercises and by peak torque for hip abduction/adduction and knee extension/flexion. Training increased strength by 58.1% based on 1 RM testing and by 33.8% based on isokinetic testing at 18 months versus baseline. BMD increased significantly above baseline at the lumbar spine for the exercise group at 5 months (2.8%), 12 months (2.3%), and 18 months (1.9%) as compared with controls. Femur trochanter BMD increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the exercise group at 12 months (1.8%) and 18 months (2.0%) but not at 5 months (0.7%) as compared with controls. No changes in total BMD, arm BMD, or leg BMD were found. There was a 20% increase in BGP in the exercise group as compared with controls at 5 months and this difference was maintained throughout the study. For STL, significant increases for total, arm, and leg were found at 5, 12, and 18 months for the exercise group versus control ranging from 1–6% over baseline. These results support the use of strength training for increasing STL and muscular strength with smaller but significant regional increases in BMD in the premenopausal population.
Article
We examined the effects of a 7-month jumping intervention (10 minutes, 3 times per week) on bone mineral gain in prepubertal Asian and white boys (10.3 ± 0.6 years, 36.0 ± 9.2 kg) at 14 schools randomized to control (n = 60) and intervention (n = 61) groups. Intervention and control groups had similar mean baseline and change in height, weight, lean mass and fat mass, baseline areal bone mineral density (aBMD; g/cm2), bone mineral content (BMC; g; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA], QDR 4500W), and similar average physical activity and calcium intakes. Over 7 months, the intervention group gained more total body (TB) BMC (1.6%, p < 0.01) and proximal femur (PF) aBMD (1%, p < 0.05) than the control group after adjusting for age, baseline weight, change in height, and loaded physical activity. We also investigated the 41 Asian and 50 white boys (10.2 ± 0.6 years and 31.9 ± 4.4 kg) who were below the 75th percentile (19.4 kg/m2) of the cohort mean for baseline body mass index (BMI). Boys in the intervention group gained significantly more TB and lumbar spine (LS) BMC, PF aBMD, and trochanteric (TR) aBMD (+ ∼2%) than boys in the control group (adjusted for baseline weight, final Tanner stage, change in height, and loaded physical activity). Bone changes were similar between Asians and whites. Finally, we compared the boys in the control group (n = 16) and the boys in the intervention group (n = 14) whose baseline BMI fell in the highest quartile (10.5 ± 0.6 years and 49.1 ± 8.2 kg). Seven-month bone changes (adjusted as aforementioned) were similar in the control and intervention groups. In summary, jumping exercise augmented bone mineral accrual at several regions equally in prepubertal Asian and white boys of average or low BMI, and intervention effects on bone mineral were undetectable in high BMI prepubertal boys.