Literature Review

Protein carbonylation, cellular dysfunction, and disease progression

Article· Literature ReviewinJournal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 10(2):389-406 · April 2006with 331 Reads
Cite this publication
Abstract
Carbonylation of proteins is an irreversible oxidative damage, often leading to a loss of protein function, which is considered a widespread indicator of severe oxidative damage and disease-derived protein dysfunction. Whereas moderately carbonylated proteins are degraded by the proteasomal system, heavily carbonylated proteins tend to form high-molecular-weight aggregates that are resistant to degradation and accumulate as damaged or unfolded proteins. Such aggregates of carbonylated proteins can inhibit proteasome activity. Alarge number of neurodegenerative diseases are directly associated with the accumulation of proteolysis-resistant aggregates of carbonylated proteins in tissues. Identification of specific carbonylated protein(s) functionally impaired and development of selective carbonyl blockers should lead to the definitive assessment of the causative, correlative or consequential role of protein carbonylation in disease onset and/or progression, possibly providing new therapeutic approaches.

Do you want to read the rest of this article?

Request full-text
Request Full-text Paper PDF
  • Article
    Our study aimed to analyze the effect of ouabain (OUA) administration on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced changes in hippocampus of rats. Oxidative parameters were analyzed in Wistar rats after intraperitoneal injection of OUA (1.8 µg/kg), LPS (200 µg/kg), or OUA plus LPS or saline. To reach our goal, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), in addition to levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), protein carbonyl (PCO) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated. We also analyzed the membrane lipid profile and some important lipids for the nervous system, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphati-dylinositol (PI), phosphatidic acid and sphingomyelin. The group that received only LPS showed increased oxidative stress, as evidenced by an increase in LPO (about twice), PCO (about three times) levels, and CAT activity (80%). Conversely, administration of LPS decreased GSH levels (55%), and GPx activity (30%), besides a reduction in the amount of PI (60%) and PC (45%). By other side, OUA alone increased the amount of PI (45%), PE (85%), and PC (70%). All harmful effects recorded were attenuated by OUA, suggesting a protective effect against LPS-induced oxidative stress. The relevance of our results extends beyond changes in oxidative parameters induced by LPS, because nanomolar doses of OUA may be useful in neurodegenerative models. Other studies on other cardenolides and substances related issues, as well as the development of new molecules derived from OUA, could also be useful in general oxidative and/or cellular stress, a condition favoring the appearance of neuronal pathologies. K E Y W O R D S hippocampus, lipopolysaccharide, membrane lipids, ouabain, oxidative stress J Cell Biochem. 2018;1-11. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jcb
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Objective: This study aims at evaluating the degree of protein carbonyl (PC) levels in serum, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva in patients who suffer from chronic periodontitis (CP) and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP). Materials and methods: A total of 110 individuals took part in the study. Of this number, 35 were CP patients, 43 GAP patients, and the remaining 32 were healthy controls. Measurements regarding the serum, saliva and GCF PC levels were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in serum PC levels between the groups (P > 0.05). In terms of salivary levels, the CP group demonstrated a significantly higher level (P < 0.05) of PC level compared to the GAP group. However, the difference was not found statistically significant when the comparison was drawn with the control group (p > 0.05). The GCF PC level in the CP group had a significantly higher level of concentration compared to the other groups (P < 0.05), whereas the relevant values in the control group were higher than the values in the GAP group (P < 0.05). GCF PC total values (/30 s) were higher in the CP group than the remaining groups (P < 0.05), whereas the relevant values in the GAP group were higher than the values in the control group (P < 0.05). It could be stated that GCF PC levels were significantly correlated, either positively or negatively, with all clinical periodontal parameters (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that PC levels of serum and salivary in periodontitis, when compared to periodontal health, do not seem to change considerably. However, in the CP group, a statistically significant increase in PC levels of GCF was observed. This finding suggests the salient role of local protein carbonylation in the periodontal area in CP. That the CP group
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Our study aimed to analyze the effect of ouabain (OUA) administration on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced changes in hippocampus of rats. Oxidative parameters were analyzed in Wistar rats after intraperitoneal injection of OUA (1.8 µg/kg), LPS (200 µg/kg), or OUA plus LPS or saline. To reach our goal, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), in addition to levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), protein carbonyl (PCO) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated. We also analyzed the membrane lipid profile and some important lipids for the nervous system, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidic acid and sphingomyelin. The group that received only LPS showed increased oxidative stress, as evidenced by an increase in LPO (about twice), PCO (about three times) levels, and CAT activity (80%). Conversely, administration of LPS decreased GSH levels (55%), and GPx activity (30%), besides a reduction in the amount of PI (60%) and PC (45%). By other side, OUA alone increased the amount of PI (45%), PE (85%), and PC (70%). All harmful effects recorded were attenuated by OUA, suggesting a protective effect against LPS‐induced oxidative stress. The relevance of our results extends beyond changes in oxidative parameters induced by LPS, because nanomolar doses of OUA may be useful in neurodegenerative models. Other studies on other cardenolides and substances related issues, as well as the development of new molecules derived from OUA, could also be useful in general oxidative and/or cellular stress, a condition favoring the appearance of neuronal pathologies.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Non-enzymatic protein modifications occur inevitably in all living systems. Products of such modifications accumulate during aging of cells and organisms and may contribute to their age-related functional deterioration. This review presents the formation of irreversible protein modifications such as carbonylation, nitration and chlorination, modifications by 4-hydroxynonenal, removal of modified proteins and accumulation of these protein modifications during aging of humans and model organisms, and their enhanced accumulation in age-related brain diseases.
  • Article
    The exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an inevitable consequence of living in an aerobic world. The species contribute to the occurrence of oxidative stress in humans in which an uncontrolled production of ROS exceeds the endogenous antioxidant defences leading to the oxidative damage to essential cellular components, such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. The influence of diet on the modulation of the systemic redox status is recognized and, while some dietary components are found to be protective (that is, fruits and vegetables), others are recognized as pro‐oxidants (that is, processed meat and other animal‐source protein foods). Oxidized proteins and amino acids are potential promoters of luminal and postprandial oxidative stress; preliminary studies have actually reported noxious effects of these species in cultured cells and in experimental animals. However, the underlying pathological mechanisms remain poorly understood. The application of advanced methodological approaches based on mass spectrometric technologies and OMICS disciplines has enabled the elucidation of the molecular basis of the pathological effects of dietary oxidized proteins and amino acids. The present review collects the most recent evidences of the health risks of dietary protein oxidation and proposes reasonable hypotheses and future perspectives on the field.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the age-correlation of oxidative stress (OS, assessed by the accumulative OS damage marker protein carbonyls) in aqueous humour (AH; together with protein concentration) and lens epithelial cells plus capsule (LECs/capsule) in patients with cataract (CAT), and also suffering from pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG). Methods: AH samples from 78 male/female patients (21, 20, 19 and 18 with CAT, PEX, PXG, and POAG, respectively), and LECs/capsule samples from 104 male/female patients (34, 32, 18, and 20 with CAT, PEX, PXG and POAG, respectively) were collected during phacoemulsification CAT surgery. Average protein carbonyl concentrations were measured in patients grouped in 5-year age intervals (ranging from 56-60 to 86-90). The non-overlapping age ranges and numbers of the tested subjects did not allow comparative follow up studies for the tested diseases. Results: There is an age-dependent increase of protein carbonyls in AH (nmol mg-1 protein and ml-1), and in the order CAT<PXG=~POAG<PEX and CAT<PEX=~POAG<PXG respectively. Moreover, protein concentration in AH accumulates in the order CAT<PEX<POAG<PXG but is not age-related. An age-dependent increase of protein carbonyls (nmol mg-1 protein) is also observed in LECs/capsule, and in the order CAT<PEX=~POAG<PXG. Conclusions: The present study shows for the first time an age-increased OS-induced protein damage (protein carbonyl formation) in the AH and LECs/capsule of CAT patients with PEX, POAG or PXG. The slow rate of change of protein carbonyls strongly suggests a long-term implication of OS in ocular disease pathogenesis. Additionally, protein concentration levels in the AH of CAT patients increase independently of age, and in same as with protein carbonyls increasing order levels for CAT<POAG<PXG in AH and LECs/capsule. This may suggest a protein cross-diffusion taking place between AH and LECs/capsule, most likely originating from PEX deposition and/or necrotic/apoptotic LECs/capsule. Moreover, the findings of the present study establish the use of protein carbonyls (together with a methodology for their more accurate quantification, which overcomes serious unreliability problems of past methods) as an age accumulative marker of OS damage, for future studies that investigate long-term OS involvement in pseudoexfoliative ocular disorders.
  • Article
    Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are cytotoxic molecules that originate from lipid peroxidation and sugar oxidation. Natural derivatives can be an attractive source of potential RCS scavenger. However, the lack of analytical methods to screen and identify bioactive compounds contained in complex matrices has hindered their identification. The sequestering actions of various rice extracts on RCS have been determined using ubiquitin and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) as a protein and RCS model, respectively. Black rice with giant embryo extract was found to be the most effective among various rice varieties. The identification of bioactive compounds was then carried out by an isotopic signature profile method using the characteristic isotopic ion cluster generated by the mixture of HNE: ²H5-HNE mixed at a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio. An in-house database was used to obtain the structures of the possible bioactive components. The identified compounds were further confirmed as HNE sequestering agents through HPLC-UV analysis.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by excessive accumulation of fat within the liver, leading to further severe conditions such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Progression of healthy liver to steatosis and NASH is not yet fully understood in terms of process and response. Hepatic oxidative stress is believed to be one of the factors driving steatosis to NASH. Oxidative protein modification is the major cause of protein functional impairment in which alteration of key hepatic enzymes is likely to be a crucial factor for NAFLD biology. In the present study, we aimed to discover carbonylated protein profiles involving in NAFLD biology in vitro. Methods Hepatocyte cell line was used to induce steatosis with fatty acids (FA) in the presence and absence of menadione (oxidative stress inducer). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomics and dinitrophenyl hydrazine derivatization technique were used to identify carbonylated proteins. Sequentially, in order to view changes in protein carbonylation pathway, enrichment using Funrich algorithm was performed. The selected carbonylated proteins were validated with western blot and carbonylated sites were further identified by high-resolution LC-MS/MS. Results Proteomic results and pathway analysis revealed that carbonylated proteins are involved in NASH pathogenesis pathways in which most of them play important roles in energy metabolisms. Particularly, carbonylation level of ATP synthase subunit α (ATP5A), a key protein in cellular respiration, was reduced after FA and FA with oxidative stress treatment, whereas its expression was not altered. Carbonylated sites on this protein were identified and it was revealed that these sites are located in nucleotide binding region. Modification of these sites may, therefore, disturb ATP5A activity. As a consequence, the lower carbonylation level on ATP5A after FA treatment solely or with oxidative stress can increase ATP production. Conclusions The reduction in carbonylated level of ATP5A might occur to generate more energy in response to pathological conditions, in our case, fat accumulation and oxidative stress in hepatocytes. This would imply the association between protein carbonylation and molecular response to development of steatosis and NASH. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12953-019-0149-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
  • Article
    Aim To clarify the effects of selenium, parameters related to oxidative issues, as well as the antioxidant response were investigated on an autochthonous wine yeast strain. Methods and Results Antioxidant enzyme activity, Gel electrophoresis, Western Blot and MDA level were used to investigate the effects of different concentration of selenium in wine yeast. We found that selenium is able to affect the enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). An increase of lipid peroxidation was observed in a dose dependent manner of (Se), thus, indicating the occurrence of cell membrane damage. Additionally, Selenium induced post‐translational oxidative modifications of proteins, especially oxidation of thiol groups (both reversible and irreversible) and protein carbonylation (irreversible oxidation). Conclusion These results obtained could further the understanding the effect of different concentration of selenium in wine yeast strain with which Selenium affect the enzymatic activities and induces some Post‐translational Modifications of Proteins. Significance and Impact of the Study The understanding of mechanisms regulating the response of wine yeast to selenium is important for future work using of selenized yeast as enriched selenium supplements in human nutrition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been implicated in oxidative stress (OxS) and inflammation as underlying mechanisms of lung damage and cardiovascular alterations. PM is a chemical mixture that can be subdivided according to their aerodynamic size into coarse (CP), fine (FP), and ultrafine (UFP) particulates. We investigated, in a rat model, the induction of OxS (protein oxidation and antioxidant response), carcinogen-DNA adduct formation, and inflammatory mediators in lung in response to different airborne particulate fractions, CP, FP, and UFP, after an acute and subchronic exposure. In addition, OxS was evaluated in the aorta to assess the effects beyond the lungs. Exposure to CP, FP, and UFP induced time- and size-dependent lung protein oxidation and DNA adduct formation. After acute and subchronic exposure, nuclear factor erythroid-2 (Nrf2) activation was observed in the lung, by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and the induction of mRNA antioxidant enzymes in the FP and UFP groups, but not in the CP. Cytokine concentration of interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 was significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after acute exposure to FP and UFP. Activation of Nrf2 and expression of mRNA antioxidant enzymes were observed only after the subchronic exposure to FP and UFP in the aorta. Our results indicate that FP and UFP were mainly accountable for the oxidant toxic effects in the lung; OxS is spread from the lung to the cardiovascular system. We conclude that the biological mechanisms associated with transient OxS and inflammation are particle size and time-dependent exposure resulting in acute lung injury, which later reaches the vascular system.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The present study addressed the ability of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA), i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), to ameliorate liver protein damage derived from oxidative stress and induced by consumption of high-caloric diets, typical of Westernized countries. The experimental design included an animal model of Sprague-Dawley rats fed high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet supplemented with ω-3 EPA and DHA for a complete hepatic proteome analysis to map carbonylated proteins involved in specific metabolic pathways. Results showed that the intake of marine ω-3 PUFA through diet significantly decreased liver protein carbonylation caused by long-term HFHS consumption and increased antioxidant system. Fish oil modulated the carbonylation level of more than twenty liver proteins involved in critical metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism (e.g., albumin), carbohydrate metabolism (e.g., pyruvate carboxylase), detoxification process (e.g., aldehyde dehydrogenase 2), urea cycle (e.g., carbamoyl-phosphate synthase), cytoskeleton dynamics (e.g., actin), or response to oxidative stress (e.g., catalase) among others, which might be under the control of diet marine ω-3 PUFA. In parallel, fish oil significantly changed the liver fatty acid profile given by the HFHS diet, resulting in a more anti-inflammatory phenotype. In conclusion, the present study highlights the significance of marine ω-3 PUFA intake for the health of rats fed a Westernized diet by describing several key metabolic pathways which are protected in liver.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Pteridium aquilinum, Osmunda cinnamomea Linn, and Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching are three fern species widely consumed as potherbs and traditional medicinal herbs in China. Nevertheless, no detailed comparative assessments of their nutrient values and bioactivities have been reported. In this paper, we examined the nutrient content of these ferns and the bioactivities of their extracts with a comparative method. The results indicated that they were nutrient dense for proteins, carbohydrates, fat and minerals. Compared with Pteridium aquilinum and Osmunda cinnamomea Linn, the extract from Athy-rium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching was found to possess the strongest antioxidant activity, protective effects on biomolecules, cellular antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative effects owing to its highest total phenolic (476.52 ± 11.26 mg GAE per g extract) and total flavonoid (924.81 ± 4.25 mg RNE per g extract) contents. Further, Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching can lead to caspase-3 activation, poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction and inhibition of wound-healing in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrate the remarkable potential of Pteridium aquilinum, Osmunda cinnamomea Linn, and Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching as valuable sources of nutrients and natural antioxidants, and among which Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching has potential anticancer properties.
  • Article
    It has been recognized that oxidative stress is implicated in the initiation and progression of diseases due to the excessive formation of free radicals and impairment of the antioxidant defense system, contributing to the mortality of affected animals. The occurrence of a disequilibrium between the antioxidant/oxidant status in serum and liver of freshwater fish fed with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) remains poorly understood and limited to only a few oxidant variables. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether an AFB1-contaminated diet causes disturbance on the antioxidant and oxidant status in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) of freshwater. Serum and hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS), metabolites of nitric oxide (NOx), and lipid hydroperoxide increased on days 14 and 21 post-feeding in animals that received AFB1 contaminated diet compared to the control group (basal diet), while protein carbonylation levels increased on day 21 post-feeding. On the other hand, serum and hepatic antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radical and vitamin C levels, as well as glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were lower on days 14 and 21 post-feeding in animals that received AFB1 contaminated diet compared to the control group. No difference was observed between groups regarding the superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels. Based on these evidences, an AFB1-contaminated diet causes a disturbance on serum and hepatic antioxidant/oxidant system due to lipid and protein damage elicited by excessive ROS and NOx production. Also, the antioxidant defense system was unable to avoid or minimize ROS and NOx deleterious effects, and consequently, the oxidative damage. In summary, this disturbance can contribute to understand the pathophysiology and mortality of fish after the consumption of AFB1-contaminated diets.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Viruses may have a dramatic impact on the health of their animal hosts. The patho-physiological mechanisms underlying viral infections in animals are, however, not well understood. It is increasingly recognized that oxidative stress may be a major physiological cost of viral infections. Here we compare three blood-based markers of oxidative status in herpes positive and negative individuals of the domestic horse (Equus ferus caballus) and of both captive and free-ranging Mongolian khulan (Equus hemionus hemionus) and plains zebra (Equus quagga). Herpes positive free-ranging animals had significantly more protein oxidative damage and lower glutathione peroxidase (antioxidant enzyme) than negative ones, providing correlative support for a link between oxidative stress and herpesvirus infection in free-living equids. Conversely, we found weak evidence for oxidative stress in herpes positive captive animals. Hence our work indicates that environment (captive versus free living) might affect the physiological response of equids to herpesvirus infection. The Mongolian khulan and the plains zebra are currently classified as near threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Thus, understanding health impacts of pathogens on these species is critical to maintaining viable captive and wild populations.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    These authors contributed equally to this work. Glyceryl trinitrate is administered as a provocative test for migraine pain. Glyceryl trinitrate causes prolonged mechanical allodynia in rodents, which temporally correlates with delayed glyceryl trinitrate-evoked migraine attacks in patients. However, the underlying mechanism of the allodynia evoked by glyceryl trinitrate is unknown. The proalgesic transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, expressed by trigeminal nociceptors, is sensitive to oxidative stress and is targeted by nitric oxide or its by-products. Herein, we explored the role of TRPA1 in glyceryl trinitrate-evoked allodynia. Systemic administration of glyceryl trinitrate elicited in the mouse periorbital area an early and transient vasodilatation and a delayed and prolonged mechanical allodynia. The systemic, intrathecal or local administration of selective enzyme inhibitors revealed that nitric oxide, liberated from the parent drug by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), initiates but does not maintain allodynia. The central and the final phases of allodynia were respectively associated with generation of reactive oxygen and carbonyl species within the trigeminal ganglion. Allodynia was absent in TRPA1-deficient mice and was reversed by TRPA1 antagonists. Knockdown of neuronal TRPA1 by intrathecally administered antisense oligonucleotide and selective deletion of TRPA1 from sensory neurons in Advillin-Cre; Trpa1 fl/fl mice revealed that nitric oxide-dependent oxidative and carbonylic stress generation is due to TRPA1 stimulation, and resultant NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) and NOX2 activation in the soma of trigeminal ganglion neurons. Early periorbital vasodilatation evoked by glyceryl trinitrate was attenuated by ALDH2 inhibition but was unaffected by TRPA1 blockade. Antagonists of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor did not affect the vasodilatation but partially inhibited allodynia. Thus, although both periorbital allodynia and vasodilatation evoked by glyceryl trinitrate are initiated by nitric oxide, they are temporally and mech-anistically distinct. While vasodilatation is due to a direct nitric oxide action in the vascular smooth muscle, allodynia is a neuronal phenomenon mediated by TRPA1 activation and ensuing oxidative stress. The autocrine pathway, sustained by TRPA1 and NOX1/ 2 within neuronal cell bodies of trigeminal ganglia, may sensitize meningeal nociceptors and second order trigeminal neurons to elicit periorbital allodynia, and could be of relevance for migraine-like headaches evoked by glyceryl trinitrate in humans.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common hormonal disorders, occurring in 5–10% women in reproductive ages. Despite a long history of studies on PCOS, its etiology is still unknown. Oxidative stress is now recognized to play a central role in the pathophysiology of many different disorders, including PCOS. Although intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and propagation are controlled by highly complex antioxidant enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, understanding of mechanisms that oxidative stress is important to develop strategies for prevention and therapy of PCOS. This article reviews the literature data related to the mechanisms of oxidative stress in PCOS.
  • Article
    As yet European strains of Raphidiopsis raciborskii (previously Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii) have not been found to produce known cyanotoxins although their extracts have caused adverse effects in mammals, as shown using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. The present study investigated whether R. raciborskii isolated from Western Poland and Ukraine can affect fish cells using in vitro exposures of hepatocytes and red blood cells (RBC), and brain homogenates obtained from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to 1.0% and 0.1% extracts of 7 strains. The studied extracts evoked different responses of catalase activity in hepatocytes with both increase and decrease observed under low and high concentrations. The cellular thiol pool was also altered with most extracts inducing a decrease in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase, and Ukrainian strains leading to an increase in glutathione level and a decrease in metallothionein content. All the studied extracts induced comparable reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and DNA fragmentation in hepatocytes, and all but one increased the activity of caspase-3. Only one extract caused lysosomal membrane destabilization as measured by neutral red retention in RBC. In contrast to extracts of Ukrainian isolates, exposure of brain homogenates to extracts of Polish strains induced an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity suggesting the neurotoxic action of their exudates. The results indicate that both Polish and Ukrainian strains of R. raciborskii may pose a toxicological risk to freshwater fish, and further, that Polish strains may produce compound(s) evoking neurotoxic effects.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Intense exercise generates an imbalance in the redox system. However, chronic exercise can yield antioxidant adaptations. A few studies with humans have investigated the effects of antioxidant diets on athletes. Therefore we compared the effects of two dietary interventions on oxidative stress in competitive triathletes. Thirteen male triathletes were selected and divided into 2 groups: one that had a regular antioxidant diet (RE-diet) and the other that had a high antioxidant diet (AO-diet). The diet period was 14 days and blood samples were collected before and after this period. The AO-diet provided twice the dietary reference intake (DRI) of α-tocopherol (30 mg), five times the DRI of ascorbic acid (450 mg), and twice the DRI of vitamin A (1800 g), while the RE-diet provided the DRI of α-tocopherol (15 mg), twice the DRI of ascorbic acid (180 mg) and the DRI of vitamin A (900 μg). The oxidative stress parameters evaluated were: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), total sulfhydryl, carbonyl, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, hydrogen peroxide consumption and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. We observed, after the diet period, an increase in sulfhydryl, TRAP, TBARS and SOD activity, and a decrease in carbonyl levels. However, no changes were found in hydrogen peroxide consumption or GPx activity. We concluded that antioxidant-enriched diets can improve the redox status of triathletes.
  • Article
    Silent information regulator proteins (SIRT), or sirtuins, are evolutionarily conserved NAD⁺-dependent deacetylases and ADP-mono-ribosyltransferases. In mammalian, seven sirtuins have been identified, namely SIRT1–7, with different subcellular localization. Nuclear sirtuins, including SIRT1, SIRT6 and SIRT7, localize predominantly in the nucleus and are implicated in many vital biological processes, including stress response, transcription, genome maintenance, tumorigenesis and aging. Dysregulation of nuclear sirtuins is associated with the development of many diseases, including cancer and metabolic disorders. Therefore, the activities of nuclear sirtuins must be properly regulated. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the post-translational modifications of nuclear sirtuins and discuss how these modifications modulate their functions.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major age-related disease, which may be caused by the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Excessive degradation of type II collagen and aggrecan by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif (ADAMTS) induced by AGEs is a pivotal event in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. In addition, activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway induces the expression of a cascade of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In the present study, we investigated the effects of salicin, one of the main constituents of aspirin and a derivative of Alangium chinense, on AGE-induced degradation of the articular extracellular matrix in SW1353 human chondrocytes. Our findings reveal a novel beneficial role of salicin in rescuing degradation of type II collagen and aggrecan, reducing oxidative stress, attenuating expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and inhibiting activation of the NF-κB proinflammatory signaling pathway in chondrocytes stimulated with AGEs. Salicin may thus have potential as a safe and effective therapy against the development and progression of OA.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The rationale of the current study was to assess the suitability of BF-2 cell line as a model to assess nanotoxicity in the caudal fin cells of bluegill sunfish in vitro. The current study investigates the potential toxicity, morphological changes and oxidative stress of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) in bluegill sunfish cells (BF-2) using mitochondrial, neutral red uptake and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Results indicated a concentration dependent cytotoxic effect after 24 h in mitochondrial, lysosomal and lactate dehydrogenase activities. BF-2 cells morphology was altered when exposed to 30 μg ml −1 concentrations of Ni NPs for 24 h. Dose dependent increase of oxidative stress was evidenced in BF-2 cells when exposed to Ni NPs, showed significant escalation in per-oxidation of lipids (LPO), protein carbonyl (PC), glutathione sulfo-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) as compared to their experimental controls. However, the catalase (CAT) and total glutathione content (TGSH) was found to decrease dose dependently in BF-2 cells exposed to Ni NPs. The current study demonstrated that BF-2 cells may serve as a sensitive indicator for aquatic contaminant evaluations in toxicological research.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Aging is associated with the accumulation of cellular damage over the course of a lifetime. This process is promoted in large part by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated via cellular metabolic and respiratory pathways. Pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and genetic interventions have been used to target cellular and mitochondrial networks in an effort to decipher aging and age-related disorders. While ROS historically have been viewed as a detrimental byproduct of normal metabolism and associated with several pathologies, recent research has revealed a more complex and beneficial role of ROS in regulating metabolism, development, and lifespan. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in ROS research, focusing on both the beneficial and harmful roles of ROS, many of which are conserved across species from bacteria to humans, in various aspects of cellular physiology. These studies provide a new context for our understanding of the parts ROS play in health and disease. Moreover, we highlight the utility of bacterial models to elucidate the molecular pathways by which ROS mediate aging and aging-related diseases.
  • Article
    Ge-132 is a synthetic organic germanium that is used as a dietary supplement. The antioxidant activity of Ge-132 on cultured mammalian cells was investigated in this study. First, Ge-132 cytotoxicity on mammalian cultured cells was determined by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Ge-132 had no cytotoxic effect on three different cell lines. Second, the cell proliferative effect of Ge-132 was determined by measuring ATP content of whole cells and counting them. Ge-132 treatment of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and SH-SY5Y cells promoted cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, antioxidant activity of Ge-132 against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress was determined by measuring the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and carbonylated proteins. Pre-incubation of CHO-K1 and SH-SY5Y cells with Ge-132 suppressed intracellular ROS production and carbonylated protein levels induced by hydrogen peroxide. Our results suggest that Ge-132 has antioxidant activity against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Background/aims: To investigate the mechanism that enables oxidative stress and cytoskeleton protein carbonylation to contribute to axonal dysfunction in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: We created an in vitro model of neuronal oxidative damage by exposing a neuron-like cell line (PC-12) to different concentrations (100 μM, 200 μM, and 300 μM) of H2O2 for 24 h or 48 h. Carbonyl modification of cytoskeletal proteins (β-actin and β-tubulin) and its impact on β-actin/β-tubulin filament dynamics were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunostaining, and western blotting. Depolymerization of β-actin/β-tubulin filaments was evaluated using the monomer/polymer ratio of each protein via western blotting. Phosphorylation of the neurofilament heavy chain (P-NFH) was used as an axonal injury marker and detected by immunostaining. Results: Our results showed that H2O2 treatment led to increased oxidative stress in PC-12 cells, as indicated by the increased generation of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and decreased intracellular glutathione levels. H2O2 treatment also increased carbonyl modification of total proteins and cytoskeleton proteins β-actin/β-tubulin, which occurred concurrently with the suppression of proteasome activity. Moreover, H2O2 treatment increased the generation of the axonal injury marker P-NFH, and depolymerization of the β-actin/β-tubulin filaments was indicated by increased monomer/polymer ratios of each protein. Lastly, overexpression of the proteasome β5 subunit in PC-12 cells significantly reduced the H2O2-induced accumulation of carbonylated β-actin/ β-tubulin, P-NFH, and β-actin/β-tubulin depolymerization. Conclusions: We concluded that carbonylation of cytoskeleton proteins could lead to depolymerization of their filaments and axonal injury, and proteasome suppression contributes to the accumulation of carbonylated proteins under oxidative conditions.
  • Article
    Protein carbonylation is a post-translational modification referring to the occurrence of aldehydes and ketones in proteins. The current understanding of how carbonylation, in particular, metal-catalyzed carbonylation, occurs in recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) during production and storage is very limited. To facilitate investigations into mAb carbonylation, we developed a protein carbonylation assay with improved assay robustness and precision over the conventional assays. We applied this assay to investigate mAb carbonylation under production, storage, and stress conditions, and showed that iron, hydrogen peroxide, and polysorbate 20 at pharmaceutically relevant levels critically influence the extent of mAb carbonylation. In addition, we found that while carbonylation correlates with mAb aggregation in several cases, carbonylation cannot be used as a general indicator for aggregation. Furthermore, we observed that mAb carbonylation level can decrease during storage, which indicates that carbonylation products may not be stable. Finally, we report for the first time a positive correlation between carbonylation and acidic charge heterogeneity of mAbs that underwent metal-catalyzed oxidation. This finding shows that the impact of protein carbonylation on product quality for mAbs is not limited to aggregation, but also extends to charge heterogeneity.
  • Article
    In primary bovine fibroblasts with an hspa1b/luciferase transgene, we examined the intensity of heat-shock response (HSR) following four types of oxidative stress or heat stress (HS), and its putative relationship with changes to different cell parameters, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), the redox status of the key molecules glutathione (GSH), NADP(H) NAD(H), and the post-translational protein modifications carbonylation, S-glutathionylation, and ubiquitination. We determined the sub-lethal condition generating the maximal luciferase activity and inducible HSPA protein level for treatments with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), UVA-induced oxygen photo-activation, the superoxide-generating agent menadione (MN), and diamide (DA), an electrophilic and sulfhydryl reagent. The level of HSR induced by oxidative stress was the highest after DA and MN, followed by UVA and H2O2 treatments, and was not correlated to the level of ROS production nor to the extent of protein S-glutathionylation or carbonylation observed immediately after stress. We found a correlation following oxidative treatments between HSR and the level of GSH/GSSG immediately after stress, and the increase in protein ubiquitination during the recovery period. Conversely, HS treatment, which led to the highest HSR level, did not generate ROS nor modified or depended on GSH redox state. Furthermore, the level of protein ubiquitination was maximum immediately after HS and lower than after MN and DA treatments thereafter. In these cells, heat-induced HSR was therefore clearly different from oxidative stress-induced HSR, in which conversely early redox changes of the major cellular thiol predicted the level of HSR and polyubiquinated proteins.
  • Chapter
    Retinal degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa, are characterized by night blindness and peripheral vision loss caused by the slowly progressive loss of photoreceptor cells. A comprehensive molecular mechanism of the photoreceptor cell death remains unclear. We previously reported that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), which has a protective effect on neuronal cells, was cleaved by a calcium-dependent protease, calpain, in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-treated mice retina. Carbonylated HSP70 is much more vulnerable than noncarbonylated HSP70 to calpain cleavage. However, it was not known whether protein carbonylation occurs in MNU-treated mice retina. In this study, we clearly show protein carbonylation-dependent photoreceptor cell death induced by MNU in mice. Therefore, protein carbonylation and subsequent calpain-dependent cleavage of HSP70 are key events in MNU-mediated photoreceptor cell death. Our data provide a comprehensive molecular mechanism of the photoreceptor cell death.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    A new 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-based photometric assay is developed for the quantification of carbonyls in protein samples from any biological source by protein carbonyl-DNPH hydrazone formation at acidic pH in the presence of denaturing urea, and subsequent hydrazone solubilization in the presence of SDS and stabilization from acid hydrolysis at pH 7.0. At this neutral (ntr) pH, interfering unreacted DNPH is uncharged and its thus increased hydrophobicity permits its 100% effective removal from the solubilizate with ethyl acetate/hexane wash. The ntrDNPH assay is more reliable and sensitive than the standard (std) DNPH photometric assay because it eliminates its main limitations: (i) interfering unreacted DNPH (pKa 1.55) that is nonspecifically bound to the TCA (pKa 0.7)-protein pellet is not effectively removed after wash with EtOH: ethyl acetate because it is positively charged, (ii) acid (TCA-induced) hydrolysis of the protein carbonyl-DNPH hydrazone, (iii) sample protein concentration re-determination, (iv) loss of sample acid (TCA)-soluble proteins, (v) DNA interference, and (vi) requires high protein quantity samples (≥ 1 mg). Considering ntrDNPH assay's very low protein limit (1 µg), its cumulative and functional sensitivities are 2600- and 2000-fold higher than those of the stdDNPH assay, respectively. The present study elucidates the DNA interference mechanism on the stdDNPH assay, and also develops a standardized protocol for sample protein treatment and fractionation (into cytoplasmic/aqueous, membrane/lipid-bound, and histone/DNA-bound proteins; see Supplement section V) in order to ensure reproducible carbonyl determination on defined cell protein fractions, and to eliminate assay interference from protein samples containing (i) Cys sulfenic acid groups (via their neutralization with dithiothreitol), and (ii) DNA (via its removal by streptomycin sulfate precipitation). Lastly, the ntrDNPH assay determines carbonyl groups on cell wall polysaccharides, thus paving the way on studies to investigate cell walls acting as antioxidant defense in plants, fungi, bacteria and lichens.
  • Article
    Purpose: During development, various life stages of Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) show different levels of resistance to gamma irradiation, with the early pupal stage being the most radiation sensitive. This provides us an opportunity to explore the biochemical basis of such variations. The present study was carried out to understand the mechanisms underlying radiation resistance during life stages of D. melanogaster. Materials and methods: Homogenates from all the life stages of D. melanogaster were prepared at stipulated age. These homogenates were used for the determination of 1. Enzymatic antioxidants: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, D. melanogaster Glutathione peroxidase (DmGPx) and Glutathione S-transferase (GST), 2. Reducing non-enzymatic antioxidants: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reduced glutathione (GSH) and Non-reducing non-enzymatic antioxidant trehalose and 3. Levels of protein carbonyl (PC) content. Age dependant changes in radiation resistance and associated biochemical changes were also studied in young (2 days) and old (20 and 30 days) flies. Results: TAC and GSH were found high in the early pupal stage, whereas catalase and DmGPx were found to increase in the early pupal stage. The non-feeding third instar (NFTI) larvae were found to have high levels of SOD and GST, besides NFTI larvae showed high levels of trehalose. A remarkable decrease was observed in radiation resistance and trehalose levels during the early pupal stage. The PC level was highest during early pupal stage and was lowest in NFTI larvae. Older flies showed high level of PC compared to young flies. Conclusion: In vitro increments in trehalose concentration corresponds to reduced formation of PCs, suggesting a protective role of trehalose against free radicals. A strong correlation between levels of trehalose and PC formation suggests amelioration of proteome damage due to ionizing radiation (IR). Stages with high trehalose levels showed protected proteome and high radiation resistance, suggesting a significant role for this disaccharide in radiation resistance.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Introduction: It has been shown that mobile radiations (MRs) have detrimental effects on brain histoarchitecture and vitamin E as a powerful antioxidant can exhibit neuroprotective effects. This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effects of vitamin E against MRs-induced histological changes in rat brain. Methods: Adult female Wistar rats were randomly categorized into 4 groups (n₌6), including untreated control, experimental group1 (14 days exposure to mobile calls, 12 times every day and each time for 10 minutes by Huawei H30–U10 cell phone and then, sampling on day 15), experimental group2 (14 days treatment and then, sampling after 40 days) and experimental group3 (radiation + vitamin E 100 mg/kg intramuscularly before MRs exposure). Results: MRS-treatedrats showed significant reduction in body weight with an increase in brain relative weight. Moreover, MRS resulted in oxidative stress in brain tissue as well as increase in numbers of neurons with pyknotic nuclei in rats hippocampus. Interestingly, vitamin E co-administration led to oxidative stress suppression in brain tissue and nuclear pyknosis reduction in rats hippocampus. Conclusion: Vitamin E can attenuate MRs- induced histological alterations and oxidative stress in rat hippocampus probably due to antioxidant activities.
  • Article
    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is common neurodenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the mid brain. Dopamine agonists help PD patients by reversing the dopamine depletion and related motor deficits. Cabergoline, a potent ergot dopamine agonist was given in the form of cabergoline alginate nanocomposite (CANC) to the Parkinson’s disease (PD) model flies to study its effects on climbing ability, activity pattern, life span, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, dopamine content, protein carbonyl content (PCC), mean gray scale values, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities. CANC was synthesized by adding the cabergoline solution in the warm aqueous solution of sodium alginate, the synthesized CANC was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques. The synthesized CANC having the final doses of 1, 2 and 3 µM of cabergoline was supplemented with diet and the flies were allowed to feed on it for 24 days. CANC significantly increase climbing ability, reduces lipid peroxidation, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, protein carbonyl content, caspase 3/9 activity, mean gray scale values and increase the glutathione (GSH) as well as dopamine content in a dose dependent manner. The results of the present study suggest that CANC is potent in delaying and reducing the symptoms of PD.
  • Article
    Copper (Cu) is widely used in various industries, and human exposure to this metal results in severe multi-organ toxicity, which is thought to be due to the generation of free radicals by Fenton-like reaction. The generation of reactive oxygen as well as nitrogen species and free radicals results in induction of oxidative stress in the cell. We have studied the effect of different concentrations of Cu(II) on human erythrocytes and lymphocytes. Incubation of erythrocytes with copper chloride, a Cu(II) compound, enhanced the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, decreased glutathione and total sulphydryl content and increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. All changes were in a Cu(II) concentration-dependent manner. This strongly suggests that Cu(II) causes oxidative damage in erythrocytes. The activities of major antioxidant enzymes were altered, and antioxidant power was lowered. Cu(II) treatment also resulted in membrane damage in erythrocytes as seen by electron microscopy and lowered activities of plasma membrane-bound enzymes. Incubation of human lymphocytes with Cu(II) resulted in DNA damage when studied by the sensitive comet assay. These results show that Cu(II) exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on human blood cells probably by enhancing the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.
  • Article
    Soybean isoflavone-rich extracts have been considered as promising skin antiaging products due to their antioxidant activity. This study investigates the effect of soybean isoflavone forms on porcine ear skin permeation/retention from topical nanoemulsions and their potential in protecting skin against oxidative damage caused by UVA/UVB light. Soybean non-hydrolyzed (SNHE) and hydrolyzed (SHE) extracts, mainly composed of genistin and genistein, were produced. Nanoemulsions containing SNHE (NESNHE) and SHE (NESHE) were prepared by spontaneous emulsification procedure and yielded monodispersed nanoemulsions. A delay of isoflavone release was observed after extracts incorporation into nanoemulsions when compared to a propyleneglycol dispersion of pure compounds. An increase of isoflavone skin retention from nanoemulsions was also achieved. However, from extracts, a higher amount of genistin (NESNHE) and a lower amount of genistein (NESHE) were detected in the skin in comparison to pure isoflavones. Finally, the protection of porcine ear skin by formulations against UVA/UVB oxidative stress was evaluated. Extract-loaded nanoemulsions offered better skin protection than pure isoflavones. Skin lipids were similarly protected by NESHE and NESNHE, whereas skin proteins were more protected by NESNHE. Overall, nanoemulsions containing isoflavone-rich soybean extracts may be considered a better topical formulation aiming skin protection from UVA/UVB oxidative damage.
  • Chapter
    Photo-oxidative stress is the result of excess energy in the chloroplast due to a strong imbalance between light capture and its use in photosynthesis. Several stresses are responsible for this imbalance: from intense light itself, to other abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salinity, metal toxicity and biotic stresses. In ecophysiology studies, the use of photoprotection and photo-oxidative stress markers, such as plant pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence-related parameters (e.g. Fv/Fm ratio), the production of reactive oxygen species, the accumulation and redox state of antioxidants, and the extent of lipid peroxidation and/or protein carbonylation may be a very useful tool to evaluate plant physiological status and its stress tolerance. Photoprotection and photo-oxidative stress markers offer the possibility to fully understand the potential and strength of invasive species among native ones, being therefore essential for the study of invasion success. Here we will present the most common photoprotection and photo-oxidative stress markers used in invasion biology with a description of the different techniques to measure them, and the information that we obtain from them, considering their benefits but also some drawbacks. In particular, spatiotemporal and economic limitations to use these approaches will be considered.
  • Article
    In teleost fish, stress initiates a hormone cascade along the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis to provoke several physiological reactions in order to maintain homeostasis. In aquaculture, a number of factors induce stress in fish, such as handling and transport, and in order to reduce the consequences of this, the use of anesthetics has been an interesting alternative. Essential oil (EO) of Lippia alba is considered to be a good anesthetic; however, its distinct chemotypes have different side effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate, in detail, the expression of genes involved with the HPI axis and the effects of anesthesia with the EOs of two chemotypes of L. alba (citral EO-C and linalool EO-L) on this expression in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen. Anesthesia with the EO-C is stressful for silver catfish because there was an upregulation of the genes directly related to stress: slc6a2, crh, hsd20b, hspa12a, and hsp90. In this study, it was also possible to observe the importance of the hsd11b2 gene in the response to stress by handling. The use of EO-C as anesthetics for fish is not recommended, but, the use of OE-L is indicated for silver catfish as it does not cause major changes in the HPI axis.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Oxidative stress is a frequent condition in critically ill patients, especially if exposed to extracorporeal circulation, and it is associated with worse outcomes and increased mortality. The inflammation triggered by the contact of blood with a non-endogenous surface, the use of high volumes of packed red blood cells and platelets transfusion, the risk of hyperoxia and the impairment of antioxidation systems contribute to the increase of reactive oxygen species and the imbalance of the redox system. This is responsible for the increased production of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and peroxynitrite resulting in increased lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage. The understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to redox imbalance would pave the way for the future development of preventive approaches. This review provides an overview of the clinical impact of the oxidative stress during neonatal extracorporeal support and concludes with a brief perspective on the current antioxidant strategies, with the aim to focus on the potential oxidative stress-mediated cell damage that has been implicated in both short and long-term outcomes.
  • Article
    Atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular disease known widely in the world. Several hypothesizes are suggested to be involved in the narrowing of arteries during process of atherogenesis. The oxidative modification hypothesis is related to oxidative and anti-oxidative imbalance and is most investigated. The aim of this study was to review the role of oxidative stress in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, it describes the roles of oxidative/anti-oxidative enzymes and compounds in the macromolecular and lipoprotein modifications and triggering the inflammatory events. The reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen (RNS) species are the most important endogenous sources produced by non-enzymatic and enzymatic (MPO, NADH oxidase and LO) reactions that may be balanced with anti-oxidative compounds (GSH, Polyphenols and Vitamins) and enzymes (Gpx, Prdx, SOD and PON). However, the oxidative and anti-oxidative imbalance cause the involvement of cellular proliferation and migration signaling pathways and macrophage polarization led to the formation of atherogenic plaques. On the other hand, the immune occurrences and the changes in extra cellular matrix remodeling can develop atherosclerosis process.
  • Article
    Cigarette smoke is a well-established exogenous risk factor containing toxic reactive molecules able to induce oxidative stress, which in turn contributes to smoking-related diseases, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, and oral cavity diseases. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke extract on human bronchial epithelial cells. Cells were exposed to various concentrations (2.5–5–10–20%) of cigarette smoke extract for 1, 3, and 24 h. Carbonylation was assessed by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine using both immunocytochemical and Western immunoblotting assays. Cigarette smoke induced increasing protein carbonylation in a concentration-dependent manner. The main carbonylated proteins were identified by means of two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis and database search (redox proteomics). We demonstrated that exposure of bronchial cells to cigarette smoke extract induces carbonylation of a large number of proteins distributed throughout the cell. Proteins undergoing carbonylation are involved in primary metabolic processes, such as protein and lipid metabolism and metabolite and energy production as well as in fundamental cellular processes, such as cell cycle and chromosome segregation, thus confirming that reactive carbonyl species contained in cigarette smoke markedly alter cell homeostasis and functions.
  • Article
    Biocompatible nanoparticles having intrinsic ability to mimic the cellular antioxidant enzymes are potential candidates for the development of new therapeutics for various oxidative stress related disorders. However, the understanding of interaction and mechanistic crosstalk between the nanoparticles and the cellular biomolecules is limited. Here we show that the multienzyme mimic manganese (II, III) oxide, Mn3O4, in nanoform (Mp) rescues the cells from oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The nanoparticles provide remarkable protection to biomolecules against the ROS-mediated protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damages. Interestingly, the endogenous antioxidant machinery remains unaltered in the presence of these nanozymes indicating the small molecule targeting of these nanoparticles in the cellular redox modulation. This study delineates the possible mechanism by which the nanoparticles provide protection to the cells against the adverse effects of oxidative stress. Based on our observation, we suggest that the multienzyme mimic Mn3O4 nanoparticles possess great potential in suppressing oxidative stress-mediated pathophysiological conditions where the antioxidant system is overwhelmed.
  • Article
    The present study aimed to assess the antioxidant and oxidant status of goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus . Based upon the parasite burden, infection in goats was categorized as heavy (> 500 worms), mild (100–500 worms) or low (< 100 worms). Abomasal tissues from non-infected and infected goats were used for the determination of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases, acid (ACP) and alkaline (ALP) phosphatases, superoxide content (O 2⁻ ), protein carbonyl (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). A significantly higher level of CAT, GST and GR activity and a lower level of GPx activity were recorded in infected compared to non-infected tissue. A significant increase in the level of AST, ALT, ALP and ACP was found in the abomasal tissue of the infected animals, which was related to the worm burden. The oxidative stress markers were also altered, with a significant decline in GSH levels, whereas MDA, PC and O 2⁻ concentrations showed a marked increase. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that haemonchosis in goats resulted in considerable oxidative stress, which was directly related to the worm burden.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Introduction. Oxidative stress is a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defenses. It results in the oxidation of all cellular elements and, to a large extent, proteins, causing inter alia the formation of carbonyl groups in their structures. The study focused on assessment of changes in the plasma protein-bound carbonyls in police horses after combat training and after rest and the applicability of infrared spectroscopy with a Fourier transform, utilizing the attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) in detecting plasma protein oxidation. Methods. We evaluated the influence of both the different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and combat training on protein carbonylation in horse blood plasma. The oxidation of plasma proteins was assessed using a spectrophotometric method based on the carbonyl groups derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). The measured values were correlated with the carbonyl groups concentrations determined by means of the FTIR-ATR method. Results. The linear correlation between the DNPH and FTIR-ATR methods was shown. The concentration of plasma protein-bound carbonyls significantly deceased in police horses after one-day rest when compared to the values measured directly after the combat training (a drop by 23%, p<0.05 and 29%, p<0.01 measured by DNPH and FTIR-ATR methods, respectively). These results were consistent with the proteins phosphorylation analysis. Conclusion. The FTIR-ATR method may be applied to measure the level of plasma proteins peroxidation.
  • Article
    Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is a selenoenzyme that protects cells against oxidative damage. Although the formation of a seleninic acid (‐SeO2H) has been proposed for the enzyme and its mimetics in oxidative stress, such species has not been identified in the cells. Herein, we report, for the first time, that the formation of seleninic acid can be monitored in living cells by using a redox active ebselen analogue having a naphthalimide fluorophore. The probe reacts with H2O2 to generate a highly fluorescent seleninic acid. The electron withdrawing nature of the ‐SeO2H moiety and strong Se⋅⋅⋅O interactions, which prevent the photoinduced electron transfer, are responsible for the fluorescence.
  • Article
    Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is a selenoenzyme that protects cells against oxidative damage. Although the formation of a seleninic acid (‐SeO2H) has been proposed for the enzyme and its mimetics in oxidative stress, such species has not been identified in the cells. Herein, we report, for the first time, that the formation of seleninic acid can be monitored in living cells by using a redox active ebselen analogue having a naphthalimide fluorophore. The probe reacts with H2O2 to generate a highly fluorescent seleninic acid. The electron withdrawing nature of the ‐SeO2H moiety and strong Se⋅⋅⋅O interactions, which prevent the photoinduced electron transfer, are responsible for the fluorescence.
  • Article
    The effect of α2-adrenoblocker mesedin (2-(2-methylamino-4-thiazolyl)-1,4-benzodioxane hydrochloride) on the content of oxidative stress biomarkers in the brain tissue was well studied in ischemic disorders. The aim of this study is to reveal the possible mechanisms of the antihypoxic effect of mesedin. The quantitative changes of the final product of lipid peroxidation (LP)—malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl derivatives of proteins — aldehyde-dinitrophenylhydrazones of neutral character (ADNPuv), ketone-dinitro-phenylhydrazones of neutral character (KDNPuv), aldehyde-dinitrophenylhydrazones of basic character (ADNPvs) and ketone-dinitrophenylhydrazones of basic character (KDNPvs) were studied in the brain tissue of rats (n = 56) under the condition of experimental ischemia caused by the ligation of the right common carotid artery. The study showed that one of the possible mechanisms of antihypoxic action of mesedin is its ability to prevent the accumulation of malondialdehyde and to limit protein carbonylation in brain ischemia. The data received demonstrates that mesedin could serve as a potential medicine for the correction of cerebrovascular ischemic disorders, for the reason that along with improving cerebral blood flow and preventing the development of morphological shifts and neurobehavioral disturbances in brain local ischemia, the medicine also mitigates the aggressive action of oxidative stress while protecting the brain tissue from the consequences of hypoxia.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Metabolic syndrome (MS) represents worldwide public health issue characterized by a set of cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance. The link between the MS and the associated diseases is represented by oxidative stress (OS) and by the intracellular redox imbalance, both caused by the persistence of chronic inflammatory conditions that characterize MS. The increase in oxidizing species formation in MS has been accepted as a major underlying mechanism for mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of protein and lipid oxidation products, and impairment of the antioxidant systems. These oxidative modifications are recognized as relevant OS biomarkers potentially able to (i) clarify the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the etiology of the MS, (ii) contribute to the diagnosis/evaluation of the disease’s severity, and (iii) evaluate the utility of possible therapeutic strategies based on natural antioxidants. The antioxidant therapies indeed could be able to (i) counteract systemic as well as mitochondrial-derived OS, (ii) enhance the endogenous antioxidant defenses, (iii) alleviate MS symptoms, and (iv) prevent the complications linked to MS-derived cardiovascular diseases. The focus of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the role of OS in the development of metabolic alterations characterizing MS, with particular regard to the occurrence of OS-correlated biomarkers, as well as to the use of therapeutic strategies based on natural antioxidants.
  • Article
    Non-enzymatic post-translational modifications of proteins can occur when a nucleophilic or redox-sensitive amino acid side chain encounters a reactive metabolite. In many cases, the biological function of these modifications is limited by their irreversibility, and consequently these non-enzymatic modifications are often considered as indicators of stress and disease. Certain non-enzymatic post-translational modifications, however, can be reversed, which provides an additional layer of regulation and renders these modifications suitable for controlling a diverse set of cellular processes ranging from signaling to metabolism. Here we summarize recent examples of irreversible and reversible non-enzymatic modifications, with an emphasis on the latter category. We use two examples, lysine glutarylation and pyrophosphorylation, to highlight principles of the regulation of reversible non-enzymatic post-translational modifications in more detail. Overall, a picture emerges that goes well beyond nonspecific chemical reactions and cellular damage, and instead portrays multifaceted functions of non-enzymatic post-translational modifications.
Literature Review
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The oxidation of amino acids by Fenton reagent (H2O2 + Fe(II] leads mainly to the formation of NH+4, alpha-ketoacids, CO2, oximes, and aldehydes or carboxylic acids containing one less carbon atom. Oxidation is almost completely dependent on the presence of bicarbonate ion and is stimulated by iron chelators at levels which are substoichiometric with respect to the iron concentration but is inhibited at higher concentrations. The stimulatory effect of chelators is not due merely to solubilization of catalytically inactive polymeric forms of Fe(OH)3 nor to the conversion of Fe(II) to complexes incapable of scavenging hydroxyl radicals. The results suggest that an iron chelate and another as yet unidentified form of iron are both required for maximal rates of amino acid oxidation. The metal ion-catalyzed oxidation of amino acids is likely a "caged" process, since the oxidation is not inhibited by hydroxyl radical scavengers, and the relative rates of oxidation of various amino acids by the Fenton system as well as the distribution of products formed (especially products of aromatic amino acids) are significantly different from those reported for amino acid oxidation by ionizing radiation. Several iron-binding proteins, peptides, and hemoglobin degradation products can replace Fe(II) or Fe(III) in the bicarbonate-dependent oxidation of amino acids. In view of their ability to sequester metal ions and their susceptibility to oxidation by H2O2 in the presence of physiological concentrations of bicarbonate, amino acids may serve an important role in antioxidant defense against tissue damage.
  • Article
    Nonenzymatic reactions between sugars and the free amino groups on proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids result in molecular dysfunction through the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE). AGE have a wide range of chemical, cellular, and tissue effects through changes in charge, solubility, and conformation that characterize molecular senescence. AGE also interact with specific receptors and binding proteins to influence the expression of growth factors and cytokines, including TGF-β1 and CTGF, thereby regulating the growth and proliferation of the various renal cell types. It seems that many of the pathogenic changes that occur in diabetic nephropathy may be induced by AGE. Drugs that either inhibit the formation of AGE or break AGE-induced cross-links have been shown to be renoprotective in experimental models of diabetic nephropathy. AGE are able to stimulate directly the production of extracellular matrix and inhibit its degradation. AGE modification of matrix proteins is also able to disrupt matrix–matrix and matrix–cell interactions, contributing to their profibrotic action. In addition, AGE significantly interact with the renin-angiotensin system. Recent studies have suggested that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are able to reduce the accumulation of AGE in diabetes, possibly via the inhibition of oxidative stress. This interaction may be a particularly important pathway for the development of AGE-induced damage, as it also can be attenuated by antioxidant therapy. In addition to being a consequence of oxidative stress, it is now clear that AGE can promote the generation of reactive oxygen species. It is likely that therapies that inhibit the formation of AGE will form an important part of future therapy in patients with diabetes, acting synergistically with conventional approaches to prevent diabetic renal injury. E-mail: merlin.thomas@baker.edu.au
  • Article
    The cause of nigral cell degeneration and Lewy body formation in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown but may involve impaired proteolysis. Evidence from both sporadic and familial forms of PD suggest the involvement of alterations in the ubiquitin–proteasomal system. In postmortem tissues from PD cases, there is a loss of 26S proteasomal enzyme activity coupled to a decrease in the expression of α-subunits in substantia nigra while β-subunit expression remains unchanged. The expression of PA700 is up-regulated in a number of brain regions in PD but not in substantia nigra. Interestingly, there was little or no expression of PA28 in the nigra in both aged control tissue or in PD. These data suggest that alterations in protein handling may be key to the formation of Lewy bodies in PD. Indeed, in vitro and in vivo inhibition of proteasomal activity causes the death of dopaminergic neurones. Recent evidence suggests that the formation of Lewy bodies may be linked to impaired proteasomal function in centrosomes leading to aggresome formation.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The ability of iron to catalyze formation of reactive oxygen species significantly contributes to its toxicity in cells and animals. Iron uptake and distribution is regulated tightly in mammalian cells, in part by iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2), a protein that is degraded efficiently by the proteasome in iron-replete cells. Here, we demonstrate that IRP2 is oxidized and ubiquitinated in cells before degradation. Moreover, iron-dependent oxidation converts IRP2 into a substrate for ubiquitination in vitro. A regulatory pathway is described in which excess iron is sensed by its ability to catalyze site-specific oxidations in IRP2, oxidized IRP2 is ubiquitinated, and ubiquitinated IRP2 subsequently is degraded by the proteasome. Selective targeting and removal of oxidatively modified proteins may contribute to the turnover of many proteins that are degraded by the proteasome.
  • Article
    The manner in which a newly synthesized chain of amino acids transforms itself into a perfectly folded protein depends both on the intrinsic properties of the amino-acid sequence and on multiple contributing influences from the crowded cellular milieu. Folding and unfolding are crucial ways of regulating biological activity and targeting proteins to different cellular locations. Aggregation of misfolded proteins that escape the cellular quality-control mechanisms is a common feature of a wide range of highly debilitating and increasingly prevalent diseases.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Restoration of blood flow to ischemic myocardial tissue results in an increase in the production of oxygen radicals. Highly reactive, free radical species have the potential to damage cellular components. Clearly, maintenance of cellular viability is dependent, in part, on the removal of altered protein. The proteasome is a major intracellular proteolytic system which degrades oxidized and ubiquitinated forms of protein. Utilizing an in vivo rat model, we demonstrate that coronary occlusion/reperfusion resulted in declines in chymotrypsin-like, peptidylglutamyl-peptide hydrolase, and trypsin-like activities of the proteasome as assayed in cytosolic extracts. Analysis of purified 20 S proteasome revealed that declines in peptidase activities were accompanied by oxidative modification of the protein. We provide conclusive evidence that, upon coronary occlusion/reperfusion, the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal selectively modifies 20 S proteasome α-like subunits iota, C3, and an isoform of XAPC7. Occlusion/reperfusion-induced declines in trypsin-like activity were largely preserved upon proteasome purification. In contrast, loss in chymotrypsin-like and peptidylglutamyl-peptide hydrolase activities observed in cytosolic extracts were not evident upon purification. Thus, decreases in proteasome activity are likely due to both direct oxidative modification of the enzyme and inhibition of fluorogenic peptide hydrolysis by endogenous cytosolic inhibitory protein(s) and/or substrate(s). Along with inhibition of the proteasome, increases in cytosolic levels of oxidized and ubiquitinated protein(s) were observed. Taken together, our findings provide insight into potential mechanisms of coronary occlusion/reperfusion-induced proteasome inactivation and cellular consequences of these events.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    We have analyzed the proteins that are oxidatively damaged when Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are exposed to stressing conditions. Carbonyl groups generated by hydrogen peroxide or menadione on proteins of aerobically respiring cells were detected by Western blotting, purified, and identified. Mitochondrial proteins such as E2 subunits of both pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, aconitase, heat-shock protein 60, and the cytosolic fatty acid synthase (α subunit) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were the major targets. In addition we also report the in vivomodification of lipoamide present in the above-mentioned E2 subunits under the stressing conditions tested and that this also occurs with the homologous enzymes present in Escherichia coli cells that were used for comparative analysis. Under fermentative conditions, the main protein targets in S. cerevisiae cells treated with hydrogen peroxide or menadione were pyruvate decarboxylase, enolase, fatty acid synthase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Under the stress conditions tested, fermenting cells exhibit a lower viability than aerobically respiring cells and, consistently, increased peroxide generation as well as higher content of protein carbonyls and lipid peroxides. Our results strongly suggest that the oxidative stress in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells shares common features.
  • Article
    Pyridoxamine (PM), originally described as a post-Amadori inhibitor of formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), also inhibits the formation of advanced lipoxidation end-products (ALEs) on protein during lipid peroxidation reactions. In addition to inhibition of AGE/ALE formation, PM has a strong lipid-lowering effect in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and Zucker obese rats, and protects against the development of nephropathy in both animal models. PM also inhibits the development of retinopathy and neuropathy in the STZ-diabetic rat. Several products of reaction of PM with intermediates in lipid autoxidation have been identified in model reactions in vitro and in the urine of diabetic and obese rats, confirming the action of PM as an AGE/ALE inhibitor. PM appears to act by a mechanism analogous to that of AGE-breakers, by reaction with dicarbonyl intermediates in AGE/ALE formation. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanism of formation of AGE/ALEs, proposes a mechanism of action of PM, and summarizes the results of animal model studies on the use of PM for inhibiting AGE/ALE formation and development of complications of diabetes and hyperlipidemia.
  • Article
    Aminoguanidine (AG) is a prototype therapeutic agent for the prevention of formation of advanced glycation endproducts. It reacts rapidly with alpha,beta-dicarbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone to prevent the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). The adducts formed are substituted 3-amino-1,2,4-triazine derivatives. Inhibition of disease mechanisms, particularly vascular complications in experimental diabetes, by AG has provided evidence that accumulation of AGEs is a risk factor for disease progression. AG has other pharmacological activities, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), at pharmacological concentrations achieved in vivo for which controls are required in anti-glycation studies. AG is a highly reactive nucleophilic reagent that reacts with many biological molecules (pyridoxal phosphate, pyruvate, glucose, malondialdehyde, and others). Use of high concentrations of AG in vitro brings these reactions and related effects into play. It is unadvisable to use concentrations of AG in excess of 500 microM if selective prevention of AGE formation is desired. The peak plasma concentration of AG in clinical therapy was ca. 50 microM. Clinical trial of AG to prevent progression of diabetic nephropathy was terminated early due to safety concerns and apparent lack of efficacy. Pharmacological scavenging of alpha-oxoaldehydes or stimulation of host alpha-oxoaldehyde detoxification remains a worthy therapeutic strategy to prevent diabetic complications and other AGE-related disorders.
  • Chapter
    Introduction Glycolysis Pyruvate Metabolism Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation Antioxidant Defenses Molecular Chaperones Cytoskeleton Conclusions
  • Chapter
    Oxidative Modifications of Amino Acids and Protein Damage Degradation and Accumulation of Oxidatively Modified Proteins Oxidized Proteins in Age-Related Diseases Summary
  • Chapter
    Introduction Types of Oxidative Modifications and Choice of Marker Methodological Considerations Selected Studies Carbonylation during Aging
  • Chapter
    Introduction Peptide Bond Cleavage β-Scission Oxidation of Amino Acid Residue Side Chains
  • Article
    Glutamate transporters are involved in the maintenance of synaptic glutamate concentrations. Because of its potential neurotoxicity, clearance of glutamate from the synaptic cleft may be critical for neuronal survival. Inhibition of glutamate uptake from the synapse has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. In particular, glutamate uptake is inhibited in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the mechanism of decreased transporter activity is unknown. Oxidative damage in brain is implicated in models of neurodegeneration, as well as in AD. Glutamate transporters are inhibited by oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). Therefore, we have investigated a possible connection between the oxidative damage and the decreased glutamate uptake known to occur in AD brain. Western blots of immunoprecipitated HNE-immunoreactive proteins from the inferior parietal lobule of AD and control brains suggest that HNE is conjugated to GLT-1 to a greater extent in the AD brain. A similar analysis of beta amyloid (Aβ)-treated synaptosomes shows for the first time that Aβ1–42 also increases HNE conjugation to the glutamate transporter. Together, our data provide a possible link between the oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in AD, and supports the role of excitotoxicity in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Furthermore, our data suggests that Aβ may be a possible causative agent in this cascade.
  • Article
    Accumulation of triosephosphates arising from high cytosolic glucose concentrations in hyperglycemia is the trigger for biochemical dysfunction leading to the development of diabetic nephropathy-a common complication of diabetes associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Here we report that stimulation of the reductive pentosephosphate pathway by high-dose therapy with thiamine and the thiamine monophosphate derivative benfotiamine countered the accumulation of triosephosphates in experimental diabetes and inhibited the development of incipient nephropathy. High-dose thiamine and benfotiamine therapy increased transketolase expression in renal glomeruli, increased the conversion of triosephosphates to ribose-5-phosphate, and strongly inhibited the development of microalbuminuria. This was associated with decreased activation of protein kinase C and decreased protein glycation and oxidative stress-three major pathways of biochemical dysfunction in hyperglycemia. Benfotiamine also inhibited diabetes-induced hyperfiltration. This was achieved without change in elevated plasma glucose concentration and glycated hemoglobin in the diabetic state. High-dose thiamine and benfotiamine therapy is a potential novel strategy for the prevention of clinical diabetic nephropathy.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Lipid peroxidation often occurs in response to oxidative stress, and a great diversity of aldehydes are formed when lipid hydroperoxides break down in biological systems. Some of these aldehydes are highly reactive and may be considered as second toxic messengers which disseminate and augment initial free radical events. The aldehydes most intensively studied so far are 4-hydroxynonenal, 4-hydroxyhexenal, and malonaldehyde. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary on the chemical properties of these aldehydes, the mechanisms of their formation and their occurrence in biological systems and methods for their determination. We will also review the reactions of 4-hydroxyalkenals and malonaldehyde with biomolecules (amino acids, proteins, nucleic acid bases), their metabolism in isolated cells and excretion in whole animals, as well as the many types of biological activities described so far, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, chemotactic, and effects on cell proliferation and gene expression. Structurally related compounds, such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and other 2-alkenals are also briefly discussed, since they have some properties in common with 4-hydroxyalkenals.
  • Article
    The autoxidation and enzymatic catabolism of dopamine results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may possibly contribute to oxidative stress in multiple neurodegenerative disorders. Recent studies indicate that proteasome inhibition occurs in numerous neurodegenerative conditions, possibly as the result of oxidative stress, although the effects of dopamine on proteasome activity have not been determined. In the present study we examined the effects of dopamine on proteasome activity in the neural PC12 cell line. Application of dopamine induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in proteasome activity, which occurred prior to cell death. Application of an antioxidant (gluthathione monoethyl ester), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (deprenyl, clogyline, paragyline), or an inhibitor of dopamine uptake (nomifensine) attenuated dopamine toxicity and dopamine-induced proteasome impairment. Application of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin increased the toxicity of dopamine and the levels of protein oxidation following administration of dopamine. Together, these data indicate that dopamine induces proteasome inhibition that is dependent, in part, on ROS and dopamine uptake, and suggest a possible role for proteasome inhibition in dopamine toxicity.
  • Article
    Submitted to the Department of Biological Sciences. Copyright by the author. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Stanford University, 2003.
  • Article
    A number of systems that generate oxygen free radicals catalyze the oxidative modification of proteins. Such modifications mark enzymes for degradation by cytosolic neutral alkaline proteases. Protein oxidation contributes to the pool of damaged enzymes, which increases in size during aging and in various pathological states. The age-related increase in amounts of oxidized protein may reflect the age-dependent accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage that, in a random manner, affects the concentrations or activities of numerous factors that govern the rates of protein oxidation and the degradation of oxidized protein.
  • Article
    We find that histidine residues in proteins are major targets for reaction with the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynon-2-enal (HNE). Reaction of insulin (which contains no sulfhydryl groups) with HNE leads to the generation of HNE-protein adducts, which are converted to radioactive derivatives upon subsequent treatment with NaB[3H]H4. Amino acid analysis of the modified protein showed that the HNE treatment leads to the selective loss of histidine residues and the stiochiometric formation of 3H-labeled amino acid derivatives. The same labeled products were detected in acid hydrolysates of polyhistidine and N-acetylhistidine after their reactions with HNE and NaB[3H]H4. The reaction of N-acetylhistidine with HNE led to the production of two compounds. Upon acid hydrolysis, both derivatives yielded stoichiometric amounts of histidine. However, after reduction with NaBH4, acid hydrolysis led to a mixture of amino acid derivatives [presumably, isomeric forms of N pi (N tau)-1,4-dihydroxynonanylhistidine] that were indistinguishable from those obtained from insulin and polyhistidine after similar treatment. Although other possibilities are not excluded, it is suggested that the modification of histidine residues in proteins by HNE involves a Michael-type addition of the imidazole nitrogen atom of histidine to the alpha, beta-unsaturated bond of HNE, followed by secondary reaction involving the aldehyde group with the C-4 hydroxyl group of HNE. The reaction of histidine residues with HNE provides the basis for methods by which the contributions of HNE in the modification of proteins can be determined.
  • Book
    Methodology and applications of redox proteomics The relatively new and rapidly changing field of redox proteomics has the potential to revolutionize how we diagnose disease, assess risks, determine prognoses, and target therapeutic strategies for people with inflammatory and aging-associated diseases. This collection brings together, in one comprehensive volume, a broad array of information and insights into normal and altered physiology, molecular mechanisms of disease states, and new applications of the rapidly evolving techniques of proteomics. Written by some of the finest investigators in this area, Redox Proteomics: From Protein Modifications to Cellular Dysfunction and Diseases examines the key topics of redox proteomics and redox control of cellular function, including: * The role of oxidized proteins in various disorders * Pioneering studies on the development of redox proteomics * Analytical methodologies for identification and structural characterization of proteins affected by oxidative/nitrosative modifications * The response and regulation of protein oxidation in different cell types * The pathological implications of protein oxidation for conditions, including asthma, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, preeclampsia, and Alzheimer's disease Distinguished by its in-depth discussions, balanced methodological approach, and emphasis on medical applications and diagnosis development, Redox Proteomics is a rich resource for all professionals with an interest in proteomics, cellular physiology and its alterations in disease states, and related fields.
  • Article
    N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)hydroxylysine, and the fluorescent cross-link pentosidine are formed by sequential glycation and oxidation reactions between reducing sugars and proteins. These compounds, termed glycoxidation products, accumulate in tissue collagen with age and at an accelerated rate in diabetes. Although glycoxidation products are present in only trace concentrations, even in diabetic collagen, studies on glycation and oxidation of model proteins in vitro suggest that these products are biomarkers of more extensive underlying glycative and oxidative damage to the protein. Possible sources of oxidative stress and damage to proteins in diabetes include free radicals generated by autoxidation reactions of sugars and sugar adducts to protein and by autoxidation of unsaturated lipids in plasma and membrane proteins. The oxidative stress may be amplified by a continuing cycle of metabolic stress, tissue damage, and cell death, leading to increased free radical production and compromised free radical inhibitory and scavenger systems, which further exacerbate the oxidative stress. Structural characterization of the cross-links and other products accumulating in collagen in diabetes is needed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between oxidative stress and the development of complications in diabetes. Such studies may lead to therapeutic approaches for limiting the damage from glycation and oxidation reactions and for complementing existing therapy for treatment of the complications of diabetes.
  • Article
    In the presence of O2, Fe(III) or Cu(II), and an appropriate electron donor, a number of enzymic and nonenzymic oxygen free radical-generating systems are able to catalyze the oxidative modification of proteins. Whereas random, global modification of many different amino acid residues and extensive fragmentation occurs when proteins are exposed to oxygen radicals produced by high energy radiation, only one or a few amino acid residues are modified and relatively little peptide bond cleavage occurs when proteins are exposed to metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) systems. The available evidence indicates that the MCO systems catalyze the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) and of O2 to H2O2 and that these products react at metal-binding sites on the protein to produce active oxygen (free radical?) species (viz; OH, ferryl ion) which attack the side chains of amino acid residues at the metal-binding site. Among other modifications, carbonyl derivatives of some amino acid residues are formed; prolyl and arginyl residues are converted to glutamylsemialdehyde residues, lysyl residues are likely converted to 2-amino-adipylsemialdehyde residues; histidyl residues are converted to asparagine and/or aspartyl residues; prolyl residues are converted to glutamyl or pyroglutamyl residues; methionyl residues are converted to methionylsulfoxide residues; and cysteinyl residues to mixed-disulfide derivatives.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Many mixed-function oxidation (MFO) systems catalyze the O2/Fe(II)-dependent oxidative inactivation of enzymes.1–5 Such oxidation is likely implicated in the regulation of enzyme degradation2,5–7 in the accumulation of altered forms of enzymes during aging8,9 in neutrophil function.10 Results of mechanistic studies indicate that MFO systems generate H2O2 and Fe(II) which interact at metal-binding sites on the protein to generate active oxygen species (•OH, perferryl ion, singlet oxygen); the activated oxygen reacts in situ with the side chains of proximal amino acid residues (especially with histidine, arginine, proline, and lysine residues) and converts them to carbonyl derivatives.1,3,11 Protein oxidation by MFO systems is thus attributable to Fenton chemistry that occurs at Fe(II) binding sites on the protein.
  • Article
    Iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) regulate the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism whose transcripts contain RNA stem-loop motifs known as iron-responsive elements (IREs). When iron concentrations are low, IRPs bind to IREs in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of transcripts where they repress translation, or the 3' UTR of transcripts where they inhibit degradation. The RNA binding activities of the homologous proteins IRP1 and IRP2 are both regulated post-translationally. The binding activity of IRP2 is regulated by the degradation of the protein when cells are iron-replete. Here, we demonstrate that a 73 amino acid sequence that corresponds to a unique exon in IRP2 contains a sequence required for rapid degradation in iron-replete cells. The deletion of this sequence eliminates the rapid turnover of IRP2, whereas the transfer of this sequence to the corresponding position in the homologous protein IRP1 confers the capacity for iron-dependent degradation upon IRP1. Site-directed mutagenesis has demonstrated that specific cysteines within the IRP2 exon are required for iron-dependent degradation. The degradation of IRP2 appears to be mediated by the proteasome in iron-replete cells. When degradation is prevented, the RNA binding activity of IRP2 is not regulated by iron concentration. Thus, degradation is required for the regulation of the RNA binding activity of IRP2.
  • Article
    Iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) are RNA-binding proteins that bind to specific structures, termed iron-responsive elements (IREs), that are located in the 5′- or 3′-untranslated regions of mRNAs that encode proteins involved in iron homeostasis. IRP1 and IRP2 RNA binding activities are regulated by iron; IRP1 and IRP2 bind IREs with high affinity in iron-depleted cells and with low affinity in iron-repleted cells. The decrease in IRP1 RNA binding activity occurs by a switch between apoprotein and 4Fe-4S forms, without changes in IRP1 levels, whereas the decrease in IRP2 RNA binding activity reflects a reduction in IRP2 levels. To determine the mechanism by which iron decreases IRP2 levels, we studied IRP2 regulation by iron in rat hepatoma and human HeLa cells. The iron-dependent decrease in IRP2 levels was not due to a decrease in the amount of IRP2 mRNA or to a decrease in the rate of IRP2 synthesis. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that iron resulted in a 3-fold increase in the degradation rate of IRP2. IRP2 degradation depends on protein synthesis, but not transcription, suggesting a requirement for a labile protein. IRP2 degradation is not prevented by lysosomal inhibitors or calpain II inhibitors, but is prevented by inhibitors that block proteasome function. These data suggest the involvement of the proteasome in iron-mediated IRP2 proteolysis.
  • Article
    Our previous data showed that aldehydic lipid peroxidation products, interacting with mitochondrial membrane lipids, could alter the physicochemical status of the membrane. This study was initiated to examine the interaction of these aldehydes with a major mitochondrial protein, the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). Our findings showed that the transporting activity of ANT in intact mitochondria was inhibited by two unsaturated aldehydes, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (HHE). To probe further into the underlying mechanism of this inhibition, a reconstituted ANT model was developed by incorporating isolated ANT into liposomes. Pretreatment of ANT with HNE prior to reconstitution resulted in decreased activity in the reconstituted ANT. Further investigation revealed that this decreased activity was probably due to loss of sulfhydryl groups, which are essential for ANT activity. Interestingly, pretreatment of the liposomes with HNE also caused a decrease in the reconstituted ANT activity by indirectly altering the physiochemical status of the lipid environment in which ANT was embedded. These results demonstrate that the reactive aldehydes derived from mitochondrial lipid peroxidation can impair the membrane function by interacting with both the protein and the lipid moieties in the membrane. Thus, the varied damaging effects associated with lipid peroxidation may be mediated by their secondary aldehydic byproducts.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    There is growing evidence that oxidative stress and mitochondrial respiratory failure with attendant decrease in energy output are implicated in nigral neuronal death in Parkinson disease (PD). It is not known, however, which cellular elements (neurons or glial cells) are major targets of oxygen-mediated damage. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) was shown earlier to react with proteins to form stable adducts that can be used as markers of oxidative stress-induced cellular damage. We report here results of immunochemical studies using polyclonal antibodies directed against HNE-protein conjugates to label the site of oxidative damage in control subjects (ages 18-99 years) and seven patients that died of PD (ages 57-78 years). All the nigral melanized neurons in one of the midbrain sections were counted and classified into three groups according to the intensity of immunostaining for HNE-modified proteins--i.e., no staining, weak staining, and intensely positive staining. On average, 58% of nigral neurons were positively stained for HNE-modified proteins in PD; in contrast only 9% of nigral neurons were positive in the control subjects; the difference was statistically significant (Mann-Whitney U test; P < 0.01). In contrast to the substantia nigra, the oculomotor neurons in the same midbrain sections showed no or only weak staining for HNE-modified proteins in both PD and control subjects; young control subjects did not show any immunostaining; however, aged control subjects showed weak staining in the oculomotor nucleus, suggesting age-related accumulation of HNE-modified proteins in the neuron. Our results indicate the presence of oxidative stress within nigral neurons in PD, and this oxidative stress may contribute to nigral cell death.
  • Article
    The underlying mechanism of cell death in substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients remains unknown. Biochemical changes occurring in substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease (increased iron levels, inhibition of complex I activity and decreased reduced glutathione levels; GSH) suggest that oxidative stress and free radical species may be involved. In particular, a decrease in GSH levels may be an early component of the process, since this also occurs in incidental Lewy body disease (presymptomatic Parkinson's disease). GSH is lost only from the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease and this does not occur in other neurodegenerative disorders of the basal ganglia. GSH loss appears to be global throughout the substantia nigra and not localized to either the glia or neuronal elements. The activity of enzymes involved in the glutathione cycle are normal with the exception of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, the activity of which is increased. This could result in increased removal and degradation of glutathione from cells. Depletion of GSH in rat using L-buthionine-[S, R]-sulfoxamine (BSO) potentiates 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxicity but does not in itself produce degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway. Oxidative stress may be a potentially important factor in the degeneration of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease and warrants further investigation into its role in this process.
  • Article
    4-Hydroxynonenal binds rapidly to Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, and this was accompanied by a decrease in measurable sulfhydryl groups and a loss of enzyme activity. The I50 value for Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibition by 4-hydroxynonenal was found to be 120 microM. Although the sulfhydryl groups could be completely restored with beta-mercaptoethanol during the reaction of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-HNE-adduct, the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was only partially restored by this reducing agent. A combination of hydroxylamine and beta-mercaptoethanol yielded the greatest recovery of enzyme activity, 85% of original. Thus, 4-hydroxynonenal binding to Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase led to an irreversible decrease of enzyme activity under the conditions employed. It is hypothesized that 4-hydroxynonenal reacts with sulfhydryls at sites on the enzyme that are inaccessible by beta-mercaptoethanol. Furthermore, evidence was obtained that 4-hydroxynonenal reacts with other amino acids such as lysine to form adducts that also interfere with protein function.
  • Article
    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) center on the formation of reactive oxygen species and the onset of oxidative stress leading to oxidative damage to substantia nigra pars compacta. Extensive postmortem studies have provided evidence to support the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of PD; in particular, these include alterations in brain iron content, impaired mitochondrial function, alterations in the antioxidant protective systems (most notably superoxide dismutase [SOD] and reduced glutathione [GSH]), and evidence of oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Iron can induce oxidative stress, and intranigral injections have been shown to induce a model of progressive parkinsonism. A loss of GSH is associated with incidental Lewy body disease and may represent the earliest biochemical marker of nigral cell loss. GSH depletion alone may not result in damage to nigral neurons but may increase susceptibility to subsequent toxic or free radical exposure. The nature of the free radical species responsible for cell death in PD remains unknown, but there is evidence of involvement of hydroxyl radical (OH.), peroxynitrite, and nitric oxide. Indeed, OH. and peroxynitrite formation may be critically dependent on nitric oxide formation. Central to many of the processes involved in oxidative stress and oxidative damage in PD are the actions of monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B). MAO-B is essential for the activation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion, for a component of the enzymatic conversion of dopamine to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and for the activation of other potential toxins such as isoquinolines and beta-carbolines. Thus, the inhibition of MAO-B by drugs such as selegiline may protect against activation of some toxins and free radicals formed from the MAO-B oxidation of dopamine. In addition, selegiline may act through a mechanism unrelated to MAO-B to increase neurotrophic factor activity and upregulate molecules such as glutathione, SOD, catalase, and BCL-2 protein, which protect against oxidant stress and apoptosis. Consequently, selegiline may be advantageous in the long-term treatment of PD.
  • Article
    Oxidative modification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Glu-6-PDH), as observed for other proteins, increases the susceptibility of the protein to degradation by the multicatalytic proteinase/proteasome (MCP). Oxidized Glu-6-PDH is, however, more prone to cross-linking reactions by the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), processes which render the protein resistant to proteolysis. In addition, HNE cross-linked protein inhibits the degradation of oxidatively modified glutamine synthetase by the MCP. In contrast to oxidized Glu-6-PDH, which inhibits the proteolysis of GS in a competitive manner, HNE cross-linked protein acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor. As judged by binding of the hydrophobic fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, a common structural feature of both macromolecular substrates and inhibitors of the MCP is an increased accessibility of hydrophobic regions on the protein.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The mechanisms that cause aging are not well understood. The oxidative stress hypothesis proposes that the changes associated with aging are a consequence of random oxidative damage to biomolecules. We hypothesized that oxidation of specific proteins is critical in controlling the rate of the aging process. Utilizing an immunochemical probe for oxidatively modified proteins, we show that mitochondrial aconitase, an enzyme in the citric acid cycle, is a specific target during aging of the housefly. The oxidative damage detected immunochemically was paralleled by a loss of catalytic activity of aconitase, an enzyme activity that is critical in energy metabolism. Experimental manipulations which decrease aconitase activity should therefore cause a decrease in life-span. This expected decrease was observed when flies were exposed to hyperoxia, which oxidizes aconitase, and when they were given fluoroacetate, an inhibitor of aconitase. The identification of a specific target of oxidative damage during aging allows for the assessment of the physiological age of a specific individual and provides a method for the evaluation of treatments designed to affect the aging process.
  • Article
    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is damaged in diabetes through complex mechanisms that are not fully understood. Prominent among them is nonenzymatic protein glycation leading to the formation of so-called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We examined the effects of in vitro glycation of intact collagen type IV in bovine lens capsule (LBM) and kidney glomerular (GBM) basement membranes on their susceptibility to matrix metalloproteinases, using stromelysin 1 (MMP-3) and gelatinase B (MMP-9). Sites of cleavage of unmodified LBM collagen were located in the triple helical region. In vitro glycation by glucose severely inhibited the release of soluble collagen cleavage peptides by MMP-3 and MMP-9. The distribution of AGEs within the three domains of collagen IV (7S, triple helical, and noncollagenous NC1) were compared for LBM glycation using AGE fluorescence, pentosidine quantitation, and immunoreactivity towards anti-AGE antibodies that recognize the AGE carboxymethyllysine (CML). Marked asymmetry was observed, with the flexible triple helical domain having the most pentosidine and fluorescent AGEs but the least CML. The in vivo relevance of these findings is supported by preliminary studies of AGE distribution in renal basement membrane (RBM) collagen IV domains from human kidneys of two insulin-dependent diabetics and one normal subject. Pentosidine and fluorescent AGE distributions of diabetic RBM were similar to LBM, but the CML AGE in diabetic kidney was less in the triple helical domain than in NC1. Our results support the hypothesis that nonenzymatic glycation of collagen IV contributes to the thickening of basement membranes, a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Glycation of basement membrane collagen IV has been implicated as a major pathogenetic process leading to diabetic microvascular complications. To evaluate the relevance of carbohydrate-induced modifications on collagen IV in diabetic nephropathy, we isolated the cross-linking domains 7S and NC1 from the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) of patients with diabetes mellitus. Modifications characteristic for glycated proteins were identified when the domains from diabetic kidney were compared with the same domains from human placenta as an unmodified control. In both domains a marked formation of inter-and intramolecular cross links could be demonstrated by SDS-PAGE. Furthermore circular dichroism studies showed a decrease in helicity of the 7S domain from human diabetic kidneys of 13%, indicating denaturation already at room temperature. Thermal transition profiles, showing a shift of the denaturation temperature towards a lower temperature, with loss of a distinct second melting point, confirmed this observation. Our data provide further evidence for a possible role of protein-modification by glycoxidative reactions in the onset of diabetic nephropathy in vivo.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    In diabetes, the persistence of hyperglycemia has been reported to cause increased production of oxygen free radicals through glucose autooxidation and nonenzymatic glycation. The aim of this study was to determine whether oxidative cellular damage occurs at the clinical onset of diabetes and in later stages of the disease in young patients. Indicative parameters of lipoperoxidation, protein oxidation, and changes in the status of antioxidant defense systems were evaluated in single blood samples from 54 diabetic children, adolescents, and young adults and 60 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects. Malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl group levels in plasma were progressively higher in diabetic children and adolescents than in control subjects (P < 0.0001). The highest erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was found in diabetic children at onset of clinical diabetes. In diabetic adolescents, SOD was also significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than in control subjects. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase was significantly lower in diabetic children and adolescents compared with control subjects (P < 0.002). A significant decline in blood glutathione content at the recent onset of diabetes was found (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, our results demonstrated progressive glutathione depletion during diabetes evolution. The plasma alpha-tocopherol/total lipids ratio and beta-carotene levels during diabetes development (P < 0.001) were low. This cross-sectional study in young diabetic patients showed that systemic oxidative stress is present upon early onset of type 1 diabetes and is increased by early adulthood. Decreased antioxidant defenses may increase the susceptibility of diabetic patients to oxidative injury. Appropriate support for enhancing antioxidant supply in these young diabetic patients may help prevent clinical complications during the course of the disease.
  • Article
    A marker of lipid peroxidation 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) was elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) compared with that of most patients with other neurological diseases. Such elevations of HNE were sufficient to kill cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-differentiated motor neuron hybrid cells in vitro, and anti-oxidants prevented this HNE-dependent cell death. These data suggest that oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation are associated with and may promote motor neuron degeneration in sALS.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that elevation in protein oxidative damage during the aging process is a targeted rather than a stochastic phenomenon. Oxidative damage to proteins in mitochondrial membranes in the flight muscles of the housefly, manifested as carbonyl modifications, was detected immunochemically with anti-dinitrophenyl antibodies. Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) was found to be the only protein in the mitochondrial membranes exhibiting a detectable age-associated increase in carbonyls. The age-related elevation in ANT carbonyl content was correlated with a corresponding loss in its functional activity. Senescent flies that had lost the ability to fly exhibited a relatively higher degree of ANT oxidation and a greater loss of functional activity than their cohorts of the same age that were still able to fly. Exposure of flies to 100% oxygen resulted in an increase in the level of ANT carbonyl content and a loss in its activity. In vitro treatment of mitochondria with a system that generated hydroxyl free radicals caused an increase in ANT carbonyl level and a decrease in ANT exchange activity. ANT was also the only mitochondrial membrane protein exhibiting adducts of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal. Results of this study indicate that proteins in mitochondrial membranes are modified selectively during aging.
  • Article
    We report increased modification of proteins by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a product of membrane lipid peroxidation, in the lumbar spinal cord of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients versus that of neurologically normal controls. By immunohistochemistry, HNE-protein modification was detected in ventral horn motor neurons, and immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that one of the proteins modified by HNE was the astrocytic glutamate transporter EAAT2. Given that the function of proteins modified by HNE can be severely compromised as previously demonstrated for glutamate transporters in cortical synaptosome preparations, our findings suggest a scenario in which oxidative stress leads to the production of HNE, impairment of glutamate transport, and excitotoxic motor neuron degeneration in ALS.
  • Article
    Oxidative stress and oxidative damage to tissues are common end points of chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. The question addressed in this review is whether increased oxidative stress has a primary role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications or whether it is a secondary indicator of end-stage tissue damage in diabetes. The increase in glycoxidation and lipoxidation products in plasma and tissue proteins suggests that oxidative stress is increased in diabetes. However, some of these products, such as 3-deoxyglucosone adducts to lysine and arginine residues, are formed independent of oxidation chemistry. Elevated levels of oxidizable substrates may also explain the increase in glycoxidation and lipoxidation products in tissue proteins, without the necessity of invoking an increase in oxidative stress. Further, age-adjusted levels of oxidized amino acids, a more direct indicator of oxidative stress, are not increased in skin collagen in diabetes. We propose that the increased chemical modification of proteins by carbohydrates and lipids in diabetes is the result of overload on metabolic pathways involved in detoxification of reactive carbonyl species, leading to a general increase in steady-state levels of reactive carbonyl compounds formed by both oxidative and nonoxidative reactions. The increase in glycoxidation and lipoxidation of tissue proteins in diabetes may therefore be viewed as the result of increased carbonyl stress. The distinction between oxidative and carbonyl stress is discussed along with the therapeutic implications of this difference.
  • Article
    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), formed during Maillard or browning reactions by nonenzymatic glycation and oxidation (glycoxidation) of proteins, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including diabetes and uremia. AGEs, such as pentosidine and carboxymethyllysine, are markedly elevated in both plasma proteins and skin collagen of uremic patients, irrespective of the presence of diabetes. The increased chemical modification of proteins is not limited to AGEs, because increased levels of advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs), such as malondialdehydelysine, are also detected in plasma proteins in uremia. The accumulation of AGEs and ALEs in uremic plasma proteins is not correlated with increased blood glucose or triglycerides, nor is it determined by a decreased removal of chemically modified proteins by glomerular filtration. It more likely results from increased plasma concentrations of small, reactive carbonyl precursors of AGEs and ALEs, such as glyoxal, methylglyoxal, 3-deoxyglucosone, dehydroascorbate, and malondialdehyde. Thus, uremia may be described as a state of carbonyl overload or "carbonyl stress" resulting from either increased oxidation of carbohydrates and lipids (oxidative stress) or inadequate detoxification or inactivation of reactive carbonyl compounds derived from both carbohydrates and lipids by oxidative and nonoxidative chemistry. Carbonyl stress in uremia may contribute to the long-term complications associated with chronic renal failure and dialysis, such as dialysis-related amyloidosis and accelerated atherosclerosis. The increased levels of AGEs and ALEs in uremic blood and tissue proteins suggest a broad derangement in the nonenzymatic biochemistry of both carbohydrates and lipids.
  • Article
    Oxidative stress is believed to be an important factor in the development of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The CNS is enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and is therefore particularly vulnerable to lipid peroxidation. Indeed, accumulation of lipid peroxidation products has been demonstrated in affected regions in brains of AD patients. Another feature of AD is a change in neuronal microtubule organization. A possible causal relationship between lipid peroxidation products and changes in neuronal cell motility and cytoskeleton has not been investigated. We show here that 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (HNE), a major product of lipid peroxidation, inhibits neurite outgrowth and disrupts microtubules in Neuro 2A cells. The effect of HNE on microtubules was rapid, being observed after incubation times as short as 15 min. HNE can react with target proteins by forming either Michael adducts or pyrrole adducts. 4-Oxononanal, an HNE analogue that can form only pyrrole adducts but not Michael adducts, had no effect on the microtubules. This suggests that the HNE-induced disruption of microtubules occurs via Michael addition. We also show that cellular tubulin is one of the major proteins modified by HNE and that the HNE adduction to tubulin occurs via Michael addition. Inhibition of neurite outgrowth, disruption of microtubules, and tubulin modification were observed at pathologically relevant HNE concentrations and were not accompanied by cytotoxicity. Our results show that these are proximal effects of HNE that may contribute to cytoskeletal alterations that occur in AD.
  • Article
    Throughout the industrialized (well-fed) world, diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Diabetic nephropathy is as likely to develop in long-duration non-insulin-dependent diabetes (type 2) as in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1). Nephropathy in diabetes follows a well outlined course, starting with microalbuminuria through proteinuria, azotaemia and culminating in ESRD. Renal functional decline in diabetic nephropathy is slowed by establishment of euglycaemia and normalization of hypertensive blood pressure. Diabetic ESRD patients, compared with other causes of ESRD, sustain greater mortality and morbidity due to concomitant systemic disorders, especially coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease. A central role for glucose toxicity, especially the adverse impact of accumulated advanced glycosylated end-products (AGEs), appears likely from experimental data generated both in induced diabetic rodents and diabetic individuals. Treatment with aminoguanidine raises the possibility of blocking end-organ damage in diabetes without the necessity for correcting hyperglycaemia.
  • Article
    Oxidative stress is associated with important pathophysiological events in a variety of diseases. It has been postulated that free radicals and lipid peroxidation products generated during the process may be responsible for these effects because of their ability to damage cellular components such as membranes, proteins, and DNA. In the present study, we provide evidence that oxidative stress causes a transient impairment of intracellular proteolysis via covalent binding of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a major end product of lipid peroxidation, to proteasomes. A single intraperitoneal treatment with the renal carcinogen, ferric nitrilotriacetate, caused oxidative stress, as monitored by accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, in the kidney of mice. In addition, transient accumulation of HNE-modified proteins in the kidney was also found by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical analyses. This and the observation that the HNE-modified proteins were significantly ubiquitinated suggested a crucial role of proteasomes in the metabolism of HNE-modified proteins. In vitro incubation of the kidney homogenates with HNE indeed resulted in a transient accumulation of HNE-modified proteins, whereas the proteasome inhibitor significantly suppressed the time-dependent elimination of HNE-modified proteins. We found that, among three proteolytic activities (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and peptidylglutamyl peptide hydrolase activities) of proteasomes, both trypsin and peptidylglutamyl peptide hydrolase activities in the kidney were transiently diminished in accordance with the accumulation of HNE-modified proteins during oxidative stress. The loss of proteasome activities was partially ascribed to the direct attachment of HNE to the protein, based on the detection of HNE-proteasome conjugates by an immunoprecipitation technique. These results suggest that HNE may contribute to the enhanced accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins via an impairment of ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent intracellular proteolysis.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O(2)] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.