Does the Metabolic Syndrome Exist?

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Y3.206, Dallas, 75390-9052, USA.
Diabetes Care (Impact Factor: 8.42). 08/2006; 29(7):1689-92; discussion 1693-6. DOI: 10.2337/dc05-2307
Source: PubMed


The fundamental questions raised by Kahn et al. are 1) whether the wellestablished clustering of metabolic risk factors underlying both CVD and type 2 diabetes deserve to be called a "syndrome" and, 2) even if the metabolic syndrome can be accepted as a concept, whether the concept has matured enough to be introduced into medical practice. The first is a matter of semantics and is controversial because of differences in perspectives and biases of cardiovascular and diabetes communities and individual investigators. Yet the term metabolic syndrome seems to be as good for describing the proven clustering of metabolic risk factors as any alternative. The second question is more substantial and requires considerations of the growing importance of obesity in causation of CVD and diabetes, the need for more intensive lifestyle intervention in clinical risk management, and the necessity for identification of patients in whom multiple risk factors convey greater risk than otherwise recognized by a single-risk factor strategy for CVD and diabetes prevention. There appears to be growing support for moving clinical practice away from the single-risk factor strategy to one that focuses on multiple risk factors, of which the metabolic syndrome is a prime example.

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    • "Lifestyles characterized by excessive calories intake and low practice of physical exercise are responsible for the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which represents a collection of cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and abdominal obe- sity[1,2]. More than 312 million adults worldwide have been diagnosed with MetS and it is estimated that this number will rise to 1 billion by 2025. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Alterations in the activity of ectonucleotidase enzymes have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, whereas regular exercise training has been shown to prevent these alterations. However, nothing is known about it relating to metabolic syndrome (MetS). We investigated the effect of exercise training on platelet ectonucleotidase enzymes and on the aggregation profile of MetS patients. Methods: We studied 38 MetS patients who performed regular concurrent exercise training for 30weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical profiles, hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides in platelets and platelet aggregation were collected from patients before and after the exercise intervention as well as from individuals of the control group. Results: An increase in the hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP and AMP) and a decrease in adenosine deamination in the platelets of MetS patients before the exercise intervention were observed (P<0.001). However, these alterations were reversed by exercise training (P<0.001). Additionally, an increase in platelet aggregation was observed in the MetS patients (P<0.001) and the exercise training prevented platelet hyperaggregation in addition to decrease the classic cardiovascular risks. Conclusionis. An alteration of ectonucleotidase enzymes occurs during MetS, whereas regular exercise training had a protective effect on these enzymes and on platelet aggregation.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
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    • "Metabolic Syndrome, known also as Met Syn or Syndrome X, is a combination of disorders usually included with abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and most probably insulin resistance [1] [2]. From a holistic point of view, the society's health could be threaten by this syndrome; in other words, this syndrome could increase the probability of coronary heart diseases (CHD), Type II diabetes and also the mortality rate of such diseases among people who are suffering from it. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Compared with other members of a society, drivers are under more periodic and constant surveillance due mainly to this fact that their type of work requires them to spend most of their times in a sedentarily position. The recent survey had done to evaluate the prevalence of Met Syn among professional drivers in northeast area of Iran. Materials and methods: To evaluate the prevalence of Met Syn among long-haul drivers, 1018 male drivers were studied. Definition of Met Syn was based on ATP III, IDF and AHA. The statistical tests were composed of chi-square and independent t tests. Results and conclusion: The participants' mean age was 42.17±10.65 years. The prevalence of Met Syn according to ATP III, IDF and AHA criteria was 26.1%, 35.2% and 31.6% respectively. 6.6% of drivers were impaired fasting glucose. The drivers with the bus, minibus, taxi formed the greatest number of smokers (82.9%) among all drivers (p=0.023). The average of body mass index (BMI) was 26.2±4.06. The most prevalence of Mets according to IDF criteria were observed in drivers of heavy vehicles and also the ones of passenger vehicles, with 36.7% and 43.9% respectively. Based on high prevalence of Met Syn and other risk factors in this study, and considering these factors, should be more careful about this point. It is recommended to control risk factors such as, control of high BMI and TG, LDL, waist circumfernce, education.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Clinical Research and Reviews
    • "The modernization of contemporary society has brought an increase in obesity and T2DM, both in developed countries such as those in the process of development [15]. In parallel to the increase in these risk factors, cardiovascular disease mortality (CD), especially coronary ischemic heart disease has increased in Costa Rica in recent decades [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine associated factors to metabolic syndrome in the populations that participated in the Mexico hospital health fair in February 2007. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, descriptive transverse and analytic study of the population interviewed during the Health Fair held from February 19 to 22. A descriptive analysis was done as well as a single-variable and mul-tivariate analysis of the main variables. Results: San Jose Province reported a higher percentage of cases with 40.7%, followed by Heredia with 26.0% and Alajuela with 24.9%. In the case of Lemon, the percentage was 0.4% only. Most of the interviewed ones are Costa Ricans, representing 94.0%. The female predominance was notorious with 72.6%. The single-variable and multivariate analysis presented an association among blood pressure, glucose, besides of the body mass index related to the metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The blood pressure, the glucose, and the body mass index are to be considered as associated factors to metabolic syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Health
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