Dietary patterns in the Southampton Women's Survey

MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.71). 01/2007; 60(12):1391-9. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602469
Source: PubMed


Dietary pattern analysis is receiving increasing attention as a means of summarizing the multidimensional nature of dietary data. This research aims to compare principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis using dietary data collected from young women in the UK.
Diet was assessed using a 100-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. PCA and cluster analysis were used to examine dietary patterns.
Southampton, UK.
A total of 6125 non-pregnant women aged 20-34 years.
PCA identified two important patterns: a 'prudent' diet and a 'high-energy' diet. Cluster analysis defined two clusters, a 'more healthy' and a 'less healthy' cluster. There was a strong association between the prudent diet score and the two clusters, such that the mean prudent diet score in the less healthy cluster was -0.73 standard deviations and in the more healthy cluster was +0.83 standard deviations; the difference in the high-energy diet score between the two clusters was considerably smaller.
Both approaches revealed a similar dietary pattern. The continuous nature of the outcome of PCA was considered to be advantageous compared with the dichotomy identified using cluster analysis.
The study was funded by the Dunhill Medical Trust, the University of Southampton and the Medical Research Council.

Download full-text


Available from: Sian M Robinson
    • "Our results show that the first of these three conditions is met. At both baseline and follow-up three distinctive clusters of dietary patterns were derived, which were also in line with previous research (Bailey et al., 2006; Crozier et al., 2006; Devlin et al., 2012; Newby & Tucker, 2004) and the few longitudinal studies on this topic (Devlin et al., 2012; Hu et al., 1999). This finding adds to the scarce literature on this (Devlin et al., 2012) and implies that comparable and distinctive clusters of dietary patterns can be derived over time. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Developing nutrition education interventions based on clusters of dietary patterns can only be done adequately when it is clear if distinctive clusters of dietary patterns can be derived and reproduced over time, if cluster membership is stable, and if it is predictable which type of people belong to a certain cluster. Hence, this study aimed to: (1) identify clusters of dietary patterns among Dutch adults, (2) test the reproducibility of these clusters and stability of cluster membership over time, and (3) identify sociodemographic predictors of cluster membership and cluster transition. Methods: This study had a longitudinal design with online measurements at baseline (N=483) and 6 months follow-up (N=379). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed, followed by a K-means cluster analysis. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the sociodemographic predictors of cluster membership and cluster transition. Results: At baseline and follow-up, a comparable three-cluster solution was derived, distinguishing a healthy, moderately healthy, and unhealthy dietary pattern. Male and lower educated participants were significantly more likely to have a less healthy dietary pattern. Further, 251 (66.2%) participants remained in the same cluster, 45 (11.9%) participants changed to an unhealthier cluster, and 83 (21.9%) participants shifted to a healthier cluster. Men and people living alone were significantly more likely to shift toward a less healthy dietary pattern. Conclusions: Distinctive clusters of dietary patterns can be derived. Yet, cluster membership is unstable and only few sociodemographic factors were associated with cluster membership and cluster transition. These findings imply that clusters based on dietary intake may not be suitable as a basis for nutrition education interventions.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Appetite
  • Source
    • "International studies have also shown some consistency with these findings. Crozier et al, identified two main patterns in their UK study involving 6125 non-pregnant women aged 20–34 years [43]; ‘Prudent’ and ‘High-energy’. The patterns identified in the present study, ‘Fruits’ and ‘Potatoes and vegetables’ have similar characteristics to the ‘Prudent’ pattern. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention, incorporating a parent modelling component, on fathers' obesity risk-related behaviours. Cluster randomized-controlled trial in the setting of pre-existing first-time parents groups organised by Maternal and Child Health Nurses in Victoria, Australia. Participants were 460 first-time fathers mean age = 34.2 (s.d.4.90) years. Dietary pattern scores of fathers were derived using principal component analysis, total physical activity and total television viewing time were assessed at baseline (infant aged three to four months) and after 15 months. No significant beneficial intervention effect was observed on fathers' dietary pattern scores, total physical activity or total television viewing time. Despite a strong focus on parent modelling (targeting parents own diet, physical activity and television viewing behaviours), and beneficial impact on mothers' obesity risk behaviours, this intervention, with mothers as the point of contact, had no effect on fathers' obesity risk-related behaviours. Based on the established links between children's obesity risk-related behaviors and that of their fathers, a need exists for research testing the effectiveness of interventions with a stronger engagement of fathers.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
  • Source
    • "A and the number of com - ponents retained ( Newby & Tucker 2004 ; Crozier et al . 2006 ) . This makes it difficult to compare diet pattern studies directly . However , in other diet pat - terns analyses of European data , where similar numbers of input variables have been used a compa - rable proportion of variance was explained by two patterns ( Crozier et al . 2006 ; Robinson et al . 2007 ; Fisk et al . 2011 ) . Although FFQs may be subject to meas - urement error , patterns defined using FFQ data have been shown to be comparable to patterns defined using other assessment methods , and pattern scores from different methods are highly correlated ( Hu 2002 ) . Furthermore , a number of studies have "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition 'track' from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The 'lacto-vegetarian' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the 'snack and fruit' pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Maternal and Child Nutrition
Show more