Comparison of Ketorolac Tromethamine, Diclofenac Sodium, and Loteprednol Etabonate in an Animal Model of Ocular Inflammation

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 1.47). 07/2006; 22(3):155-9. DOI: 10.1089/jop.2006.22.155
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activities of ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% and 0.1%; diclofenac sodium 0.1%; and loteprednol etabonate 0.5% suspension in an animal model of ocular inflammation.
An ocular inflammatory response was induced in New Zealand White rabbits by the intravenous (i.v.) administration of 10 microg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In study animals, 1 eye was treated topically with 50 microL of study medication (n = 8 animals per drug) and the other eye was treated topically with a 50-microL vehicle (buffered saline). In control animals (n = 8), both eyes were treated with vehicle. All animals were treated twice: 2 h and 1 h before LPS challenge. The breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier in the anterior chamber was measured by fluorophotometry (FITC-dextran 30 mg/kg, i.v. given immediately after LPS challenge). Aqueous prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) immunoassay.
Ketorolac 0.4% resulted in a nearly complete inhibition of endotoxin-induced increases in FITC-dextran and PGE(2) synthesis (P < 0.001 vs. vehicle). Diclofenac 0.1% had much less of an effect on these parameters (P < 0.01 vs. ketorolac 0.4%). Loteprednol 0.5% was no more effective than vehicle at inhibiting increases in FITC-dextran.
Ketorolac has greater anti-inflammatory effects than diclofenac and loteprednol.

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    • "Waterbury and Flach (Waterbury and Flach 2006) using a rabbit model of ocular inflammation induced by injecting a lipopolysaccharide endotoxin isolated from Salmonella enterica intravenously investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of ketorolac 0.4% and other NSAIDs. They reported a nearly complete inhibition of PG synthesis in the aqueous humor compared with vehicle. "
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