Effect of Increased Social Unacceptability of Cigarette Smoking on Reduction in Cigarette Consumption

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.55). 09/2006; 96(8):1359-63. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.069617
Source: PubMed


Taxes on cigarettes have long been used to help reduce cigarette consumption. Social factors also affect cigarette consumption, but this impact has not been quantified. We computed a social unacceptability index based on individuals' responses to questions regarding locations where smoking should be allowed. A regression analysis showed that the social unacceptability index and price had similar elasticities and that their effects were independent of each other. If, through an active tobacco control campaign, the average individual's views on the social unacceptability of smoking changed to more closely resemble the views of California residents, there would be a 15% drop in cigarette consumption, equivalent to a 1.17 dollars increase in the excise tax on cigarettes.

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Available from: Stanton Glantz, Dec 15, 2014
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    • "Therefore, understanding social environments such as social norms is important to understand smokers from a variety of social backgrounds (Nichter, 2003; Unger et al., 2003). Furthermore , shaping social norms about cigarette smoking, through successful tobacco control policies, can be one of the most cost-effective cessation strategies (Alamar & Glantz, 2006). Despite the important role of social norms in successful tobacco control policies among publics in general, most studies evaluating the role of social norms in antismoking campaigns are limited to adolescents in the United States. "
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    ABSTRACT: Antismoking mass media campaigns are known to be effective as part of comprehensive tobacco control programs in high-income countries, but such campaigns are relatively new in low- and middle-income countries and there is a need for strong evaluation studies from these regions. This study examines Malaysia's first national antismoking campaign, TAK NAK. The data are from the International Tobacco Control Malaysia Survey, which is an ongoing cohort survey of a nationally representative sample of adult smokers (18 years and older; N = 2,006). The outcome variable was quit intentions of adult smokers, and the authors assessed the extent to which quit intentions may have been strengthened by exposure to the antismoking campaign. The authors also tested whether the impact of the campaign on quit intentions was related to cognitive mechanisms (increasing thoughts about the harm of smoking), affective mechanisms (increasing fear from the campaign), and perceived social norms (increasing perceived social disapproval about smoking). Mediational regression analyses revealed that thoughts about the harm of smoking, fear arousal, and social norms against smoking mediated the relation between TAK NAK impact and quit intentions. Effective campaigns should prompt smokers to engage in both cognitive and affective processes and encourage consideration of social norms about smoking in their society.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Health Communication
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    • "De verklaring die hiervoor wordt gegeven is dat binnen roken in toenemende mate als sociaal onacceptabel wordt gezien (Alamar & Glantz, 2006; Chapman & Freeman, 2008). "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
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    • "The increased social unacceptability of smoking has had a major impact on the prevalence of smoking in the United States (Alamar and Glantz, 2006). The denormalization of tobacco has had a dramatic impact on smoking behaviors. "
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    ABSTRACT: In 2010, lung cancer is expected to be the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. Because survival rates are increasing, an evaluation of the effects of treatment on quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome measure. In other diseases, stigma is known to have a negative impact on health status and QOL and be amenable to intervention. This is the first study to compare levels of lung cancer stigma (LCS) and relationships between LCS, depression, and QOL in ever and never smokers. A total of 192 participants with a self-report diagnosis of lung cancer completed questionnaires online. Strong associations in the expected directions, were found between LCS and depression (r = 0.68, p < 0.001) and QOL (r = -0.65, p < 0.001). No significant differences were found in demographic characteristics or study variables between ever smokers and never smokers. A simultaneous multiple regression with 5 independent variables revealed an overall model that explained 62.5% of the total variance of QOL (F5,168 = 56.015, P < 0.001). After removing age, gender, and smoking status, depression explained 22.5% of the total variance of QOL (F4,168 = 100.661, p < 0.001). It is expected that depression and LCS would share some of the explanation of the variance of QOL, the correlation between LCS and depression is 0.629 (p < 0.001), however, LCS provides a unique and significant explanation of the variance of QOL over and above that of depression, age, gender, and smoking status, by 2.1% (p < 0.001).
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