Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is one of the most important causes of progressive kidney failure in HIV-1-seropositive patients. Since the 1980s, much has been published regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of HIVAN. Our knowledge of the clinical features, pathologic manifestations, course, and potential outcome of HIVAN has increased considerably. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy has shown significant improvement in the outcome of human immunodeficiency virus infection and is found to be effective in preventing end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this review is to summarize the data about the clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and pathophysiologic mechanisms of HIVAN with particular attention on treatment including pharmaceutical and renal replacement options.