Efficacy of Telephone Counseling for Pregnant Smokers

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Obstetrics and Gynecology (Impact Factor: 5.18). 08/2006; 108(1):83-92. DOI: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000218100.05601.f8
Source: PubMed


Reducing tobacco use in pregnancy is a public health priority. Brief smoking counseling during prenatal care is effective but generates modest cessation rates. Telephone counseling is an effective smoking cessation method that could offer pregnant women convenient access to more intensive smoking cessation counseling.
The efficacy of proactive pregnancy-tailored telephone counseling for smoking cessation was compared with a "best-practice" brief-counseling control in a randomized controlled trial of 442 pregnant smokers referred by prenatal providers and a managed care plan. Trained counselors using cognitive-behavioral and motivational interviewing methods called intervention subjects throughout pregnancy and for 2 months postpartum (mean = 5 calls, mean total contact = 68 minutes). Controls received one 5-minute counseling call.
Cotinine-validated 7-day tobacco abstinence rates in intervention and control groups were 10.0% and 7.5% at end of pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-2.70; number needed to treat = 40) and 6.7% versus 7.1% at 3 months postpartum (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.44-1.99). The intervention increased end-of-pregnancy cessation rates among 201 light smokers (< 10 cigarettes/day at study enrollment) (intervention 19.1% versus control 8.4%; OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.1-6.1; number needed to treat = 9.3) and among 193 smokers who attempted to quit in pregnancy before enrollment (intervention 18.1% versus control 6.8%; OR 3.02, CI 1.15-7.94; number needed to treat = 8.8); 63% of the sample (n = 267) was in one of these subgroups.
Proactive pregnancy-tailored telephone counseling did not outperform a brief "best practice" intervention among pregnant smokers. The intervention had efficacy in light smokers and in women who had attempted cessation earlier in pregnancy. Future studies should confirm whether telephone counseling benefits these groups of pregnant smokers., #NCT00181909.

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    • "The nutrients included the Protein, Calcium, Vitamin A, Carbohydrate and so forth. There is much instructive involvement has focused on the pregnancy linked nutrition and health inconveniences [53] [54]. "

    Full-text · Article · May 2014
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    • "In considering the health provider’s role in discussing smoking cessation, a common barrier was found to be personal beliefs that quitting smoking would have adverse effects on women’s psychological wellbeing [52] and that attempting to quit resulted in inordinate expenditure of emotional energy [53]. However, many studies have demonstrated that these concerns are unfounded [54-56]. It would be timely to assess the psychological impact of GWG interventions on pregnant women. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) can affect the immediate and long term health outcomes of mother and infant. Understanding health providers’ views, attitudes and practices around GWG is crucial to assist in the development of practical, time efficient and cost effective ways of supporting health providers to promote healthy GWGs. This study aimed to explore midwives’ views, attitudes and approaches to the assessment, management and promotion of healthy GWG and to investigate their views on optimal interventions. Methods Midwives working in antenatal care were recruited from one rural and one urban Australian maternity hospital employing purposive sampling strategies to assess a range of practice areas. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 15 experienced midwives using an interview guide and all interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results Midwives interviewed exhibited a range of views, attitudes and practices related to GWG. Three dominant themes emerged. Overall GWG was given low priority for midwives working in the antenatal care service in both hospitals. In addition, the midwives were deeply concerned for the physical and psychological health of pregnant women and worried about perceived negative impacts of discussion about weight and related interventions with women. Finally, the midwives saw themselves as central in providing lifestyle behaviour education to pregnant women and identified opportunities for support to promote healthy GWG. Conclusions The findings indicate that planning and implementation of healthy GWG interventions are likely to be challenging because the factors impacting on midwives’ engagement in the GWG arena are varied and complex. This study provides insights for guideline and intervention development for the promotion of healthy GWG.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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    • "0.30], p Ͻ .75 Rigotti et al. (2006) "
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    ABSTRACT: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a treatment approach that has been widely examined as an intervention for tobacco dependence and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Previous reviews evaluating the efficacy of MI for smoking cessation noted effects that were modest in magnitude but included few studies. The current study is a comprehensive meta-analysis of MI for smoking cessation. The meta-analysis included 31 controlled trials with an abstinence outcome variable. Studies with nonpregnant (N = 23) and pregnant samples (N = 8) were analyzed separately. For nonpregnant samples, combined results suggest that MI significantly outperformed comparison conditions at long-term follow-up points (dc = .17). The magnitudes of this result represented a 2.3% difference in abstinence rates between MI and comparison groups. All analyses investigating the impact of moderating participant, intervention, and study design characteristics on outcome were nonsignificant, with the exception of studies including international, non-U.S. samples, which had larger effects overall. Several subgroups of studies had significant combined effect sizes, pointing to potentially promising applications of MI, including studies that had participants with young age, medical comorbidities, low tobacco dependence, and, consistent with clinical practice guidelines, low motivation or intent to quit. Effects were smaller among pregnant samples. In addition, significant combined effect sizes were observed among subgroups of studies that administered less than 1 hr of MI and among studies that reported high levels of treatment fidelity. The results are interpreted in light of other behavioral approaches to smoking cessation, and the public health implications of the findings are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
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