Complementary and Alternative Research and Education (CARE) Program, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.Pediatrics in Review (Impact Factor: 0.82). 08/2006; 27(7):e49-51. DOI: 10.1542/pir.27-7-e49
Article: Peppermint oil and colon spasm
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ABSTRACT: Although peppermint oil and caraway oil are frequently used in herbal drugs for abdominal discomfort and pain, the pharmacological insights into their effects on the gastrointestinal tract are poor. The pharmacodynamic effects of 90 mg peppermint oil (WS 1340) and 50 mg caraway oil (WS 1520) on the motility of the stomach and gall-bladder, and on the orocaecal transit time, in comparison with placebo, 10 mg cisapride and 10 mg n-butylscopolamine, were studied in 12 healthy volunteers. The study involved simultaneous ultrasonic determination of gastric and gall-bladder emptying, together with assessment of the orocaecal transit time using the lactulose H2 breath test. The combination of these methods allows three gastrointestinal organs to be studied in one subject simultaneously. The antral filling time was comparable with placebo, peppermint oil, caraway oil and cisapride, whereas it was significantly shortened (P = 0.04, two-sided paired t-test) with n-butylscopolamine. The gastric emptying time did not differ significantly between placebo, peppermint oil, caraway oil and cisapride, but was significantly prolonged by n-butylscopolamine (P = 0.04, two-sided paired t-test). Complete inhibition of gall-bladder emptying was caused by both oils and n-butylscopolamine. Cisapride significantly shortened gall-bladder emptying compared with placebo (P = 0.02, two-sided signed rank test). The orocaecal transit time was significantly prolonged by peppermint oil (P = 0.004) and n-butylscopolamine (P = 0.002), but not significantly prolonged by caraway oil (P = 0.06); it was significantly shortened by cisapride (P = 0.04, all two-sided paired t-test). Peppermint oil and caraway oil show a relaxing effect on the gall-bladder and the former slows small intestinal transit. Further studies should investigate the effects of both oils on a maximal contraction stimulus on the gall-bladder, and in patients suffering from motility disorders.
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ABSTRACT: In nine studies, 269 healthy subjects or patients underwent exposure to peppermint oil (PO) either by topical intraluminal (stomach or colon) or oral administration by single doses or 2 weeks treatment (n = 19). Methods used to detect effects were oro-cecal transit time by hydrogen expiration, total gastrointestinal transit time by carmine red method, gastric emptying time by radiolabelled test meal or sonography, direct observation of colonic motility or indirect recording through pressure changes or relieve of colonic spasms during barium enema examination. The dose range covered in single dose studies is 0.1-0.24ml of PO/subject. With one exception, which show an unexplained potentiation of neostigmine stimulated colon activity, all other studies result in effects, indicating a substantial spasmolytic effect of PO of the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. Pharmacokinetic studies reveal that fractionated urinary recovery of menthol is dependent on the kind of formulation used for the application of PO. Optimal pH triggered enteric coated formulations start releasing PO in the small intestine extending release over 10-12 h thus providing PO to the target organ in irritable bowel syndrome, i.e. the colon. The hypothesis is supported by anecdotal observations in patients with achlorhydria or ileostoma, respectively.
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