Base of Skull Chordomas in Children and Adolescents
Chordomas in children and adolescents comprise <5% of all chordomas and most frequently develop in the skull base. These tumors are believed to behave more aggressively than chordomas in adults and may have unusual morphology. This study examines a large series of pediatric skull base chordomas treated with a standardized protocol to characterize the behavior and morphology of these tumors. There were 31 males and 42 females ranging from 1 to 18 (mean 9.7) years. Forty-two cases (58%) were conventional chordomas, some of which had unusual histopathologic features. Chondroid chordomas comprised 23% of cases. Fourteen tumors (19%) were highly cellular and had a solid growth pattern with no myxoid matrix or lobular architecture. Eight of these had cytologic features of conventional chordoma cells including physaliferous cells (cellular chordoma). The remaining cellular tumors were composed of poorly differentiated epithelioid cells set in a fibrous stroma and lacked physaliferous cells (poorly differentiated chordoma). All variants studied by immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, S100 protein, and vimentin. Mitoses and necrosis were seen in all variants. Follow-up data were available for all patients and ranged from 1 to 21 (mean 7.25) years. The survival rate was 81%. All but 1 patient with poorly differentiated chordoma died of disease. Overall, base of skull chordomas in children and adolescents treated with proton beam radiation have better survival than chordomas in adults. However, poorly differentiated chordomas are highly aggressive tumors.
Available from: Lei Dong
- "In a number of studies the local control of chordomas has approached 80%, better than a series of treatment with conventional photon therapy   . Other centers using either combinations of photons with PBT or PBT alone have found similar results and attributed the success of this therapy to the increased ability to safely deliver higher doses of radiotherapy using PBT techniques as compared to photons   . In other series using PBT to treat meningiomas, 91.7–100% local control was achieved at 3 years with rates of grade 3 or greater toxicity of 0–12.5%  . "
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ABSTRACT: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a novel method for treating malignant disease with radiotherapy. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the state of the science of PBT and arrive at a recommendation for the use of PBT. The emerging technology committee of the American Society of Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) routinely evaluates new modalities in radiotherapy and assesses the published evidence to determine recommendations for the society as a whole. In 2007, a Proton Task Force was assembled to evaluate the state of the art of PBT. This report reflects evidence collected up to November 2009. Data was reviewed for PBT in central nervous system tumors, gastrointestinal malignancies, lung, head and neck, prostate, and pediatric tumors. Current data do not provide sufficient evidence to recommend PBT in lung cancer, head and neck cancer, GI malignancies, and pediatric non-CNS malignancies. In hepatocellular carcinoma and prostate cancer and there is evidence for the efficacy of PBT but no suggestion that it is superior to photon based approaches. In pediatric CNS malignancies PBT appears superior to photon approaches but more data is needed. In large ocular melanomas and chordomas, we believe that there is evidence for a benefit of PBT over photon approaches. PBT is an important new technology in radiotherapy. Current evidence provides a limited indication for PBT. More robust prospective clinical trials are needed to determine the appropriate clinical setting for PBT.
Available from: Jafri Malin Abdullah
- "Chordomas in children and adolescents are rarer and carry a worse prognosis . Hoch et al. (2006) in their series of skull base chordomas in adolescents found an overall survival rate of 81% . "
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ABSTRACT: Chordoma is a rare malignant tumour with an incidence of metastasis of less than 10 percent. Usually arising from clivus its posterior extension may involve the brainstem before presenting as nasal mass and obstruction. Surgery is the main mode of treatment with adjuvant radiotherapy. However surgery is rarely possible for a large intracranial lesion.
We report the case of an adolescent patient with a chordoma extending posteriorly to the brainstem and anteriorly to the nasopharynx and managed by the combination of resection using a maxillomandibular swing approach and the use of a neurosurgical ultrasonic aspirator.
Maxillomandibular swing approach provides good access for large nasopharyngeal tumour extending brainstem area.
Available from: Madelon C G Pijls-Johannesma
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