Prospective follow-up of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) into adolescence: Evidence for continuing cross-domain impairment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 489-499

ArticleinJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74(3):489-99 · July 2006with6 Reads
Impact Factor: 4.85 · DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.3.489 · Source: PubMed

The authors performed 5-year prospective follow-up (retention rate = 92%) with an ethnically diverse sample of girls, aged 11-18 years, who had been diagnosed in childhood with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 140) and a matched comparison group (N = 88). Hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were more likely to abate than inattentive symptoms. Across multiple domains of symptoms and functional impairment, girls with ADHD continued to display deficits of moderate to large effect size in relation to the comparison girls, but few differences emerged between the inattentive versus combined types. Follow-up effects withstood statistical control of crucial covariates for most outcomes, meaning that there were specific effects of childhood ADHD on follow-up status; in other instances, baseline disruptive disorders accounted for adolescent effects. For outcomes identical at baseline and follow-up, girls with ADHD showed more improvement across time than comparison girls (except for math achievement). Overall, ADHD in girls portends continuing impairment 5 years after childhood ascertainment.

    • "There is a higher prevalence of stimulant use in boys compared to girls, which is in accordance with studies on prevalences of ADHD-disorders [43], and drug use [9]. Girls are more likely to be inattentive without being hyperactive or impulsive, compared with boys [44]. Girls are thus less likely to show obvious problems, which may contribute to a lower diagnosis rate among girls in childhood [45, 46]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Time-trend studies on psychotropic drugs among children and adolescents are scarce, and most of them are outdated. The purpose of this study was to study prevalences of psychotropic drug use during 2004–2014 among Norwegians aged <18 years, overall and in psychotropic sub-groups. Methods: Data were obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database, which covers all dispensed prescription drugs in Norway from 2004 and onwards. Psychotropic drugs included: antipsychotics (ATC-group N05A), anxiolytics (N05B), hypnotic/sedatives (N05C), antidepressants (N06A), stimulants (N06BA), and alimemazine (R06AD01). Period (1-year) prevalence of use, overall and in subgroups of psychotropic drugs, was estimated by identifying individuals <18 years who had at least one psychotropic drug dispensed during each year. Results: Psychotropic drug use increased in 0–17 year olds over an 11-year period, in which the main contributing drugs were stimulants (boys overall; 15.0 to 20.8/1000, girls overall; 3.8 to 8.5/1000), hypnotic/sedative drugs in adolescents (boys overall; 4.2 to 10.8/1000, girls overall; 2.6 to 8.8/1000) and to some extent antidepressants among adolescent girls (girls overall from 3.1 to 4.0/1000). Psychotropic drug use was, however, reduced by half in the youngest children, attributed to reduction of alimemazine only (1-year olds: boys; from 36.6 to 10.2/1000, girls; 26.9 to 7.2/1000). A higher level of psychotropic drug use was observed among younger boys, but there is a shift towards girls using more psychotropic drugs than boys during adolescence for all psychotropic drugs except for stimulants. Conclusion: Different trends in psychotropic drug use exist in age and gender subgroups. Psychotropic drug use has decreased among the youngest children, attributed to alimemazine, and increased in older children and adolescents, attributed mainly to stimulants and hypnotics/sedatives.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · BMC Psychiatry
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    • "The limited literature on sex differences in ADHD has shown that boys and girls with ADHD differ in terms of clinical presentation and, to some extent, neuropsychological functioning. Clinically, boys are more commonly diagnosed with the combined subtype and show a greater preponderance of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, whereas girls with ADHD are more often diagnosed with the inattentive subtype (Hinshaw et al., 2006). In addition, there is some evidence that boys and girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood tend to have different functional outcomes (Rucklidge, 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8-12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8-12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · NeuroImage: Clinical
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    • "Prior research has found that ADHD symptoms decline in number between school age and adolescence (Faraone, Biederman, & Mick, 2006) with the decline being more rapid for HI than for IA symptoms. By adolescence, IA symptoms predominate in both clinical (Biederman, Mick, & Faraone, 2000; Hinshaw, Owens, Sami, & Fargeon, 2006; Lahey & Willcutt, 2010; Pingault et al., 2011) and population-based samples (Larsson, Dilshad, Lichtenstein, & Barker, 2011). These findings, however, use symptom counts that likely mask considerable heterogeneity in longitudinal patterns of IA and HI symptoms experienced across childhood and adolescence. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This study's objective is to differentiate possible ADHD syndromes on the basis of symptom trajectories, prognosis, and associated clinical features in a high-risk cohort. Method: Latent class analysis of inattentive (IA) and hyperactive-impulsive (HI) symptoms in 387 non-disabled members of a regional low birthweight/preterm birth cohort who were evaluated for ADHD at 6, 9, and 16 years. Adolescent functional outcomes and other clinical features were examined across the classes. Results: Three latent classes were identified: unaffected (modest IA and HI symptom prevalences at six, remitting by nine), school age limited (relatively high IA and HI symptom prevalences at six and nine, declining by 16), and persistent inattentive (high IA and HI prevalences at six and nine, with high IA levels persisting to 16). The persistent inattentive class was distinctively associated with poor functioning, motor problems, other psychiatric disorders, and social difficulties as indexed by a positive screen for autism spectrum disorder at 16. Conclusion: These findings differentiate a potential persistent inattentive syndrome relevant to ADHD evaluation and treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Attention Disorders
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