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Effects of chronic treadmill running on neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of adult rat. Brain Res

Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Osaka University of Health and Sport Sciences, Asashirodai1-1, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0496, Japan.
Brain Research (Impact Factor: 2.84). 09/2006; 1104(1):64-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2006.05.066
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Proliferating astrocytes and proliferating neuroblasts have been observed in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) in the hippocampus of adult rats under normal conditions. However, whether these proliferating cells are stimulated by running has not been determined. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we examined the effects of chronic treadmill running on proliferating astrocytes (PCNA+/GFAP+ cells), proliferating neuroblasts (PCNA+/DCX+ cells) and newly generated postmitotic neurons (DCX+/NeuN+ cells) in the DG of the hippocampus of adult rats and also characterized the morphological features of PCNA+/GFAP+ cells and PCNA+/DCX+ cells. PCNA+/GFAP+ cells with few processes and PCNA+/DCX+ cells without long processes were detected in the SGZ, and we determined that these are morphological features of the astrocytes and neuroblasts with proliferative ability. Chronic treadmill running (at a speed of 22 m/min, 30 min/days for 7 days) significantly increased the numbers of PCNA+/GFAP+ cells and DCX+/NeuN+ cells, and the number of PCNA+/DCX+ cells tended to increase by chronic treadmill running. These results indicate that chronic treadmill running stimulates the proliferation of astrocytes in the SGZ. Furthermore, the present study indicates that chronic treadmill running increases DCX+/NeuN+ cells that are detected in a transient stage during the neuronal maturation process. These events may be the cellular basis mediating both running-induced increases of new neurons in the DG of the hippocampus and running-induced improvement of learning and memory functions of adult rats.

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    • "In rodents, both exercise and environmental enrichment have been shown to upregulate birth and survival rates of adult born neuronal and glial cells in the DG of the hippocampus, as well as improve performance on hippocampal dependent memory tasks (Creer et al., 2010; Falls et al., 2010; Fordyce and Farrar, 1991; Kempermann et al., 1997; O'Callaghan et al., 2007; Uda et al., 2006; Van Praag et al., 1999, 2005). More generally, environmental enrichment has also been linked to increased cortical thickness across the brain, most notably in posterior regions and the entorhinal cortex (EC) (Diamond et al., 1976, 1987; Greer NeuroImage 126 (2016) 229–238 Abbreviations: ACSM, American College of Sports Medicine; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; BMI, Body Mass Index; CBV, cerebral blood volume; DMS, delayed matching-to-sample; EC, entorhinal cortex; ELISA, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; MTLs, medial temporal lobes; RER, respiratory exchange ratio; RER max , maximum observed respiratory exchange ratio; SMT, subsequent memory test; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; VBM, voxel-based morphometry; · VO 2 max, rate of maximal oxygen consumption in ml per kg of body weight per min; · VO 2 peak, peak rate of oxygen consumption in ml per kg of body weight per min, measured during test. "
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    ABSTRACT: Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N = 33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system.
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    • "tive effect on the spatial memory performance ( Sampedro - Piquero et al . , 2013 , 2014b ) as well as other previous researches showing also the cognitive benefits after this type of exer cise ( Ang et al . , 2006 ; Alomari et al . , 2013 ) . Besides , the forced exercise has more similarity with human exercise training than voluntary protocols ( Uda et al . , 2006 ) because it lasts for a restricted period of time and some times its forced character reflects the attitude of many human subjects toward exercise . The idea of combining EE and forced exercise at the same time is new in animal models , but not in human research , where the combina tion of physical and mental activity has shown positiv"
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    • "Although the results differ somewhat from our hypothesis and previous studies (Kramer et al., 1999; Colcombe and Kramer, 2003; Hillman et al., 2006), improved general cognitive function was also observed in several studies that measured both general and selective improvement (Colcombe and Kramer, 2003) or general improvement only (Smith et al., 2010; Dai et al., 2013). Animal studies have indicated that physical activity leads to improvement in cognition-related molecular constructs, such as neurogenesis (Uda et al., 2006) and synaptogenesis (Eadie et al., 2005; Kempermann, 2008). Physical activity has also been linked to increased neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; Cotman and Engesser-Cesar, 2002), and relationships between exercise, BDNF, and cognition have recently been established in human studies (Kim et al., 2011; Coelho et al., 2013). "
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