Article

A functional polymorphism within plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU) is associated with Alzheimer's disease. Hum Mol Genet

Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia
Human Molecular Genetics (Impact Factor: 6.39). 09/2006; 15(16):2446-56. DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddl167
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

A number of susceptibility loci for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been identified including a region on Chromosome 10q21-q22. Within this region the plasminogen activator urokinase gene (PLAU) was considered as a reasonable candidate from its functional implication in plasmin generation, a serine protease capable of degrading beta-Amyloid (Abeta) protein. We screened 56 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) around PLAU using 1751 individuals from four independent case-control samples (Munich, N=679; Bonn N=282; Brescia (Italy) N=219; Perth (Australia) N=557 and one discordant sib-pair sample (Munich N=622). In brain tissue samples of neuropathologically confirmed cases with AD (N=33) we analyzed plaque counts according to the risk allele. We identified that one functional exonic SNP (rs2227564) is associated with development of AD using the four independent case-control samples (Munich, P=0.02; Bonn, P=0.005; Brescia (Italy), P=0.001; Perth (Australia), P=0.03) and the discordant sib-pair sample (P=0.001). In brain tissue, from neuropathologically confirmed cases with AD, we identified significantly higher plaque counts in carriers of the risk allele (N=6; 60.3+/-16.9) compared with non-carriers (N=9; 26.3+/-8.8; P=0.007). This study provides compelling evidence of a genetic and functional involvement of a common PLAU variant into the pathogenesis of AD. Further functional investigations are warranted to elucidate the specific role of PLAU, respectively, PLAU variants in the metabolism of Abeta proteins.

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    • "PLAU, located on chromosome 10q, was shown to be involved in the degradation of Aβ; however, studies on the association of PLAU rs2227564 (exon 6) and AD/aMCI found complex and discrepant results. Inconsistent with a finding from Riemenschneider's study with a higher frequency of the T allele in AD [20], one study of smaller sample size by Finckh et al. observed a lower frequency of the T allele in AD [21], and our study found a protective association with the CT genotype in aMCI. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and candidate gene polymorphisms in a Chinese population, 116 aMCI patients and 93 normal controls were recruited. Multi-dimensional neuropsychological tests were used to extensively assess the cognitive functions of the subjects. MassARRAY and iPLEX systems were used to measure candidate single nucleotide polymorohisms (SNPs) and analyse allelic, genotypic or haplotypic distributions. The scores of the neuropsychological tests were significantly lower for the aMCI patients than for the normal controls. The distributions of SNPs relating to the amyloid cascade hypothesis (TOMM40 rs157581 G and TOMM40 rs2075650 G), to the cholesterol metabolism hypothesis (ApoE rs429358 C, LDLR rs11668477 G and CH25H rs7091822 T and PLAU rs2227564 CT) and to the tau hypothesis (MAPT/STH rs242562 GG) in aMCI were significantly different than those in normal controls. Interactions were also found in aMCI amongst SNPs in LDLR rs11668477, PLAU rs2227564, and TOMM40 rs157581, between SNPs in TOMM40 rs157580 and BACE2 rs9975138. The study suggests that aMCI is characterised by memory impairment and associated with SNPs in three systems relating to the pathogenesis of AD--those of the amyloid cascade, tau and cholesterol metabolism pathways. Interactions were also observed between genes in the amyloid pathway and between the amyloid and cholesterol pathways.
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    • "The V60L variant at MC1R, also quite common in the AJ cohort, has been associated with melanoma in some, but not all, populations [35]. By contrast, the AJ population has a reduced frequency of the T allele at rs2227564, which has been associated with Alzheimer's disease [36]. Similarly, the AJ population has a reduced frequency of the R15W variant of the AIF1 gene, which has been strongly (odds ratio > 2) associated with rheumatoid arthritis [37]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Relatively small, reproductively isolated populations with reduced genetic diversity may have advantages for genomewide association mapping in disease genetics. The Ashkenazi Jewish population represents a unique population for study based on its recent (< 1,000 year) history of a limited number of founders, population bottlenecks and tradition of marriage within the community. We genotyped more than 1,300 Ashkenazi Jewish healthy volunteers from the Hebrew University Genetic Resource with the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad platform. Comparison of the genotyping data with that of neighboring European and Asian populations enabled the Ashkenazi Jewish-specific component of the variance to be characterized with respect to disease-relevant alleles and pathways. Using clustering, principal components, and pairwise genetic distance as converging approaches, we identified an Ashkenazi Jewish-specific genetic signature that differentiated these subjects from both European and Middle Eastern samples. Most notably, gene ontology analysis of the Ashkenazi Jewish genetic signature revealed an enrichment of genes functioning in transepithelial chloride transport, such as CFTR, and in equilibrioception, potentially shedding light on cystic fibrosis, Usher syndrome and other diseases over-represented in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Results also impact risk profiles for autoimmune and metabolic disorders in this population. Finally, residual intra-Ashkenazi population structure was minimal, primarily determined by class 1 MHC alleles, and not related to host country of origin. The Ashkenazi Jewish population is of potential utility in disease-mapping studies due to its relative homogeneity and distinct genomic signature. Results suggest that Ashkenazi-associated disease genes may be components of population-specific genomic differences in key functional pathways.
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