Prevalence of Stuttering in Regular and Special School Populations in Belgium Based on Teacher Perceptions

ArticleinFolia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica 58(4):289-302 · February 2006with5 Reads
DOI: 10.1159/000093185 · Source: PubMed
The purpose of this study was to investigate stuttering prevalence in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium. Using questionnaires distributed among teachers, data were collected on 21,027 pupils from regular schools (age between 6 and 20 years) and 1,272 pupils attending special education (age between 6 and 15 years). The overall prevalence in the regular school population was 0.58%. It was 2.28% in the special school population. In agreement with past studies, stuttering prevalence was higher in males than in females, and higher in pupils attending special schools than in pupils from regular schools. The tendency for stuttering prevalence to decrease with increasing age was confirmed too, but not in the pupils of special schools. Additionally, the pupils of regular schools showed a pattern that was contrary to the general belief that the male-to-female ratio in stuttering prevalence increases with age. Results further indicate that the commonly cited stuttering prevalence figure of 1% is a generalization that requires interpretation.
    • "In Belgium, the prevalence of stuttering was assessed using questionnaires distributed to the teachers. The reported prevalence for age 6–10 years was 0.78%, which is lower than our finding (Van Borsel et al., 2006). The study of McKinnon et al. (2007) reported the lowest prevalence rate of 0.33 among school children up to grade 6. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine the prevalence of stuttering among primary school children in Cairo. Method: A cross-sectional design was employed. Using a multi-stage random sample from 10 schools in Cairo, a total of 8765 primary school students were enrolled in the study. The teacher referring method was initially used to detect stuttering students, which was then confirmed by a Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Personal data were collected for all students and separate questionnaires were administered to the parents of each stuttering child, inquiring about consanguinity, family history, presence of other disorders and family attitudes towards the child. Result: Prevalence of stuttering among primary school children in Cairo was 1.03%. The prevalence of stuttering showed a declining trend in the older age group. Stuttering was 7-fold more prevalent among left-handed students. Males had a higher prevalence of stuttering, but didn't reach statistical significance. Anxiety was expressed in 25% of the families of affected children. Positive family history was found in 28% of cases, mainly among first-degree relatives. Conclusion: The current study showed a prevalence of stuttering comparable to other areas of the world with some evidence of hereditary background, although lower than that reported by other studies.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
    • "People who stutter are more likely to be male than female. The sex ratios range from about 2:1 in younger children to roughly 4:1 in adolescents and adults [2]. This change in sex ratio over time indicates a much higher rate of spontaneous recovery in girls who stutter [3]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role.AimsThe present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more “male” characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population.Study design, subjects, outcome measuresWe searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter.ResultsIn the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter.Conclusions The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder.
    Article · Nov 2014
    • "Given that both stuttering and ADHD are more prevalent in males, it may be interesting to explore the role of gender in these findings. This may be particularly relevant given the fact that close to the onset of stuttering, the boy/girl ratio is close to even but soars to 5:1 during the school years since significantly more girls recover from stuttering (Van Borsel et al., 2006). Additionally, it has been shown that significantly more girls struggle with ADHD-IA than ADHD-HI (Weiler et al., 1999). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore whether parents of CWS reported the presence of ADHD symptoms that would warrant a referral to a psychologist to rule out the disorder. This study also aimed to describe the characteristics of the sample in terms of gender, family history of stuttering, presence of neurological impairment, concomitant diagnoses, and stuttering severity. Finally, this study sought to explore the possible statistical relations among these same variables. METHODS: Participants were 36 school-age CWS (32 males and 4 females) between the ages of 3.9 and 17.2 years (M=10.4, SD=4.0). Parent responses on the ADHD Rating Scale (Power et al., 2001) were collected via a retrospective chart review. RESULTS: For this sample 58% (n=21), of the participants met criteria for needing referral for additional evaluation for symptoms related to ADHD. A strong positive relation (r=.720, p<.001) was found between a reported family history of recovered stuttering and the presence of a concomitant diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study demonstrate the need for further training and education for SLPs working with CWS regarding ADHD. Educational objectives: The reader will be able to (1) describe the main characteristics of ADHD, (2) discuss the evidence suggesting a possible relationship between ADHD and stuttering and (3) discuss how ADHD characteristics could impact clinical outcomes for CWS.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012
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