Mutation in TRMU Related to Transfer RNA Modification Modulates the Phenotypic Expression of the Deafness-Associated Mitochondrial 12S Ribosomal RNA Mutations

University Pompeu Fabra, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
The American Journal of Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 10.93). 09/2006; 79(2):291-302. DOI: 10.1086/506389
Source: PubMed


The human mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) A1555G mutation has been associated with aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic deafness in many families worldwide. Our previous investigation revealed that the A1555G mutation is a primary factor underlying the development of deafness but is not sufficient to produce a deafness phenotype. However, it has been proposed that nuclear-modifier genes modulate the phenotypic manifestation of the A1555G mutation. Here, we identified the nuclear-modifier gene TRMU, which encodes a highly conserved mitochondrial protein related to transfer RNA (tRNA) modification. Genotyping analysis of TRMU in 613 subjects from 1 Arab-Israeli kindred, 210 European (Italian pedigrees and Spanish pedigrees) families, and 31 Chinese pedigrees carrying the A1555G or the C1494T mutation revealed a missense mutation (G28T) altering an invariant amino acid residue (A10S) in the evolutionarily conserved N-terminal region of the TRMU protein. Interestingly, all 18 Arab-Israeli/Italian-Spanish matrilineal relatives carrying both the TRMU A10S and 12S rRNA A1555G mutations exhibited prelingual profound deafness. Functional analysis showed that this mutation did not affect importation of TRMU precursors into mitochondria. However, the homozygous A10S mutation leads to a marked failure in mitochondrial tRNA metabolisms, specifically reducing the steady-state levels of mitochondrial tRNA. As a consequence, these defects contribute to the impairment of mitochondrial-protein synthesis. Resultant biochemical defects aggravate the mitochondrial dysfunction associated with the A1555G mutation, exceeding the threshold for expressing the deafness phenotype. These findings indicate that the mutated TRMU, acting as a modifier factor, modulates the phenotypic manifestation of the deafness-associated 12S rRNA mutations.

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    • ", but none of the other mt-tRNAs need to undergo 2-thiouridylation by tRNA 5- methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase (TRMU) (Sasarman et al 2011). Mutations in TRMU have also been suggested to aggravate the deafness phenotype of the mitochondrial m.1555A > G 12S rRNA mutation (Guan et al 2006), however the variants reported here were rather SNPs, and had no primary involvement in liver disease. Mutations in TRMU have first been identified as the primary disease cause in 13 patients with severe infantile hepatopathy (Zeharia et al 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial diseases are usually severe and progressive conditions; however, there are rare forms that show remarkable spontaneous recoveries. Two homoplasmic mitochondrial tRNA mutations (m.14674T>C/G in mt-tRNA(Glu)) have been reported to cause severe infantile mitochondrial myopathy in the first months of life. If these patients survive the first year of life by extensive life-sustaining measures they usually recover and develop normally. Another mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of the 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase (TRMU) causes severe liver failure in infancy, but similar to the reversible mitochondrial myopathy, within the first year of life these infants may also recover completely. Partial recovery has been noted in some other rare forms of mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of mitochondrial tRNA synthetases and mitochondrial tRNA modifying enzymes. Here we summarize the clinical presentation of these unique reversible mitochondrial diseases and discuss potential molecular mechanisms behind the reversibility. Understanding these mechanisms may provide the key to treatments of potential broader relevance in mitochondrial disease, where for the majority of the patients no effective treatment is currently available.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
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    • "transcription factor B1 (TFB1M) mutations in Spanish, Italian and Arab–Israeli pedigrees (Bykhovskaya et al., 2004) and the mitochondrial tRNA modification protein (TRMU) mutation p.A10S, found in Arab–Israeli and European families (Guan et al., 2006). However, these genes were not screened in the present study. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder and is genetically heterogeneous. Apart from nuclear gene mutations, a number of inherited mitochondrial mutations have also been implicated. The m.1555A>G mutation in the mitochondrial MT-RNR1 gene is reported as the most common mutation causing nonsyndromic hearing loss in various ethnic populations. We report here for the first time the clinical, genetic and molecular characterisation of a single large five-generational Tamil-speaking South Indian family with maternally inherited nonsyndromic postlingual hearing loss. Molecular analysis led to identification of m.1555A>G in 28 maternal relatives with variable degree of phenotypic expression. The penetrance of hearing loss among the maternal relatives in this family was 55%. Sequence analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome in 36 members of this pedigree identified 25 known variants and one novel variant co-transmitted along with m.1555A>G mutation. The mtDNA haplotype analysis revealed that the maternal relatives carry the R*T2 haplotype similar to Europeans and South Asians. Sequencing of the coding exon of GJB2 nuclear gene did not show any pathogenic mutations. The results suggest that other nuclear or environmental modifying factors could have played a role in the differential expression of mutation m.1555A>G in postlingual hearing loss in this family.
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    • "This kind of modification is crucial to the mitochondrial translational fidelity and the efficiency of protein synthesis, because the modified uridine base increases both the stability of these tRNAs and the capacity of codon recognition at the ribosomal A-site. Meanwhile, TRMU (human MTO2) was the first identified nuclear modifier gene regulating the phenotypic manifestation of the mitochondrial A1555G mutation [19]. These studies indicated a complex interaction between the MTO2 (TRMU) gene and the mitochondrial small rRNA. "
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    ABSTRACT: The phenotypic manifestations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are modulated by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, nuclear modifier genes and environmental factors. The yeast mitochondrial 15S rRNA C1477G (P(R) or P(R) 454) mutation corresponds to the human 12S rRNA C1494T and A1555G mutations, which are well known as primary factors for aminoglycoside-induced nonsyndromic deafness. Here we report that the deletion of the nuclear modifier gene MTO2 suppressed the aminoglycoside-sensitivity of mitochondrial 15S rRNA C1477G mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, the strain with a single mtDNA C1477G mutation exhibited hypersensitivity to neomycin. Functional assays indicated that the steady-state transcription level of mitochondrial DNA, the mitochondrial respiratory rate, and the membrane potential decreased significantly after neomycin treatment. The impaired mitochondria could not produce sufficient energy to maintain cell viability. Second, when the mto2 null and the mitochondrial C1477G mutations co-existed (mto2(P(R))), the oxygen consumption rate in the double mutant decreased markedly compared to that of the control strains (MTO2(P(S)), mto2(P(S)) and MTO2(P(R))). The expression levels of the key glycolytic genes HXK2, PFK1 and PYK1 in the mto2(P(R)) strain were stimulated by neomycin and up-regulated by 89%, 112% and 55%, respectively. The enhanced glycolysis compensated for the respiratory energy deficits, and could be inhibited by the glycolytic enzyme inhibitor. Our findings in yeast will provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of human deafness.
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