Effect of dietary and antismoking advice on the incidence of myocardial infarction: A 16-year follow-up of the Oslo Diet and Antismoking Study after its close

Oslo University Hospital, Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases (Impact Factor: 3.32). 08/2006; 16(5):330-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2005.04.007
Source: PubMed


The Oslo Diet and Antismoking Study was a 5-year randomised controlled trial initiated in 1972-1973 and ended in 1977-1978, which showed that dietary change and smoking cessation reduced the incidence of coronary heart disease among high risk middle-aged men. In an extended follow-up we studied the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) 16 years after the end of the trial in the intervention and control groups.
The primary endpoint was the first occurrence of non-fatal and fatal MI including sudden death up to December 31 1993. Cases of fatal MI were identified by linkage to Statistics Norway using each subject's individual personal number. Cases of non-fatal MI were extracted from the hospital records. Cox proportional hazards regression models estimated relationships between changes in total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and smoking status and the primary endpoints up to 16 years following the end of the trial.
At 5 and 10 years following the end of the trial the incidence of MI among the 604 men in the intervention (I) and 628 in the control (C) group differed significantly (5-year event rate (I/C) =0.059/0.090; P=0.038 and 10-year event rate (I/C) =0.111/0.155; P=0.023), but the difference faded slowly and subsequently (P=0.069 at 16 years). The reduction in MI in the intervention group was primarily explained by the differences in total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations between the groups.
This extended follow-up of the Oslo Diet and Antismoking Study found a prolonged benefit of the intervention lasting for at least a decade after the close of the trial. This finding is in accordance with statin and other studies showing that the effect of cholesterol lowering may be prolonged after the end of the intervention.

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    ABSTRACT: The Oslo Diet and Antismoking study was a 5-year randomised trial initiated in 1972-1973, which studied the effect of dietary change and smoking cessation for the prevention of coronary heart disease among high-risk middle-aged men. To test the long-term maintenance of lifestyle change, we examined diet and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects initially randomised to the control and intervention groups 20 years after cessation of the intervention. Of the original cohort that included 1232 participants, 910 survivors were identified in 1997 and cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 563 (62%) in 1997-1999. Of these, 558 (99%) also completed questionnaires about their food intake and attitudes to health and diet. Cigarette smoking was nearly halved between baseline and 20-year follow-up in each of the intervention and control groups (P<0.001 within groups), but did not differ between the intervention group (39%) versus the control group (34%); P=0.07. Body mass index increased by 1.4+/-2.6 and 1.6+/-2.6 kg/m(2) between baseline and 20-year follow-up in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P<0.001 within groups; NS between groups). Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations decreased substantially in subjects treated or untreated with statins (P<0.001 within the intervention and control groups) but did not differ between the groups (total cholesterol change of -1.4+/-1.3 and -1.3+/-1.2 mmol/l, respectively, and triglyceride change of -0.5+/-1.0 mmol/l in both groups). Men in the intervention group reported a less atherogenic fat quality score and lower intakes of fat, saturated fat and cholesterol, higher intakes of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein and beta-carotene and greater attention to lifestyle and change of diet than the control group (all P<0.05). The fatty acid concentrations did not differ, however, between the intervention and control groups (P>0.05). No long-term differences in smoking rates or lipid concentrations between the intervention and control groups were observed in the surviving attendees two decades after the end of the trial. Lifestyle intervention still influenced the dietary intake, though modestly.
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