Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor–Mediated Proliferation of Enterocytes Requires p21waf1/cip1 Expression
Department of Surgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio, USA. Gastroenterology
(Impact Factor: 16.72).
07/2006; 131(1):153-64. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2006.05.007
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated increase in enterocyte proliferation following massive resection is a major mechanism by which the small intestine adapts to the loss of its mucosal surface area. In addition, expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(waf1/cip1) is required for resection-induced enterocyte proliferation. This study sought to establish a mechanistic link between EGFR-mediated intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and p21(waf1/cip1) expression.
EGF was used to stimulate IEC-6 and HCA-7 cells. P21(waf1/cip1) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. P21(waf1/cip1) promoter studies were performed using p21(waf1/cip1) promoter-driven luciferase assay. Pharmacologic inhibitors of PI3-kinase and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) were used to block these pathways downstream of the activated EGFR. Constitutively active Ras, Raf, or MEK-1 constructs were transfected into cells for overexpression studies. Cell proliferation was measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation following p21(waf1/cip1) silencing with RNAi. Finally, Cyclin D(1)/Cdk interaction was evaluated by immunoprecipitation.
EGFR activation in intestinal epithelial cells induced the expression of p21(waf1/cip1) mRNA and protein This event was transcriptionally regulated via a 50-bp segment of the p21(waf1/cip1) promoter as a result of MAPK activation. Exogenous EGF failed to induce proliferation in p21(waf1/cip1)-silenced cells and adaptive proliferation after intestinal resection in p21(waf1/cip1)-null mice. Functionally, p21(waf1/cip1) up-regulation was required for stabilizing Cyclin D/Cdk 4 complexes and intestinal cell proliferation.
EGFR-mediated induction of enterocyte proliferation requires MAPK-dependent increase in p21(waf1/cip1) expression in intestinal epithelial cells. These studies elucidate an important mechanism for resection-induced enterocyte proliferation during intestinal adaptation.
Available from: Amin Afrazi
- "For instance, Besner and colleagues have shown that heparin binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) is important in regulating the pathogenesis of NEC, in part through determining the extent of enterocyte migration . This work is in agreement with the findings of Clark and colleagues as well as Sheng and colleagues, who have demonstrated that EGF administration can attenuate NEC severity by enhancing the healing response to mucosal injury [86, 87]. Soliman and colleagues have demonstrated that platelet-activating factor (PAF) plays an important role in NEC pathogenesis and have shown that TLR4 signaling can upregulate PAF expression and therefore increase injury in experimental NEC [88, 89]. "
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ABSTRACT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a challenging disease to treat, and caring for patients afflicted by it remains both frustrating and difficult. While NEC may develop quickly and without warning, it may also develop slowly, insidiously, and appear to take the caregiver by surprise. In seeking to understand the molecular and cellular processes that lead to NEC development, we have identified a critical role for the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the pathogenesis of NEC, as its activation within the intestinal epithelium of the premature infant leads to mucosal injury and reduced epithelial repair. The expression and function of TLR4 were found to be particularly elevated within the intestinal mucosa of the premature as compared with the full-term infant, predisposing to NEC development. Importantly, factors within both the enterocyte itself, such as heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and in the extracellular environment, such as amniotic fluid, can curtail the extent of TLR4 signaling and reduce the propensity for NEC development. This review will highlight the critical TLR4-mediated steps that lead to NEC development, with a focus on the proinflammatory responses of TLR4 signaling that have such devastating consequences in the premature host.
Available from: Bo Lonnerdal
- "Growth factors are known to be present in breast milk , , , and have been investigated in their capacities to enhance intestinal growth. Transforming growth factor alpha, hepatocyte growth factor , and epidermal growth factor  are able to significantly stimulate crypt cell proliferation as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation assay. Crypt cell migration and cell proliferation increased after mucosal injury in rat crypt IEC-6 cell in response to insulin like-growth factor 1 . "
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs play extensive roles in cellular development. Analysis of the microRNA expression pattern during intestinal cell proliferation in early life is likely to unravel molecular mechanisms behind intestinal development and have implications for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we isolated mouse intestinal crypt cells, examined the differences in microRNA expression upon IGF-1 stimulated proliferation and identified miR-103 as a one of the key regulators. Mouse intestinal crypt cells were cultured and treated with IGF-1 for 24 h. MicroRNA microarray showed that multiple microRNAs are regulated by IGF-1, and miR-103 was the most sharply down-regulated. Expression of miR-103 in mouse intestinal crypt cells was confirmed by real-time Q-PCR. Sequence analyses showed that, among the 1040 predicted miR-103 target genes, CCNE1, CDK2, and CREB1 contain complementary sequences to the miR-103 seed region that are conserved between human and mouse. We further demonstrated that miR-103 controls the expression level of these three genes in mouse crypt cells by luciferase assay and immunoblotting assay. Taken together, our data suggest that in mouse intestinal crypt cells, miR-103 is part of the G1/S transition regulatory network, which targets CCNE1, CDK2, and CREB1 during IGF-1 stimulated proliferation.
Available from: Roberta Alfieri
- "Interaction of Ckis with cyclin D/Cdks in the execution of the G0/G1 to S progression with the Cdk inhibitors (Cki), p21Cip1 and p27Kip1  also promotes stabilization and activity of cyclin D/Cdks complexes themselves. The levels of the two Ckis are quite different in quiescent cells: expression of p27Kip1 is high in quiescent cells, since the synthesis and the stability of p27Kip1 is inhibited by mitogenic signals , while the expression of p21Cip1 is lower than p27Kip1 in quiescent cells and frequently increases during G1 phase progression in response to mitogenic signals [82,83]. Hence both inhibitors, albeit at low level, are present along the G0/G1 to S transition. "
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ABSTRACT: The cell cycle is a complex process that allows eukaryotic cells to replicate chromosomal DNA and partition it into two daughter cells. A relevant regulatory step is in the G0/G1 phase, a point called the restriction (R) point where intracellular and extracellular signals are monitored and integrated.Subcellular localization of cell cycle proteins is increasingly recognized as a major factor that regulates cell cycle transitions. Nevertheless, current mathematical models of the G1/S networks of mammalian cells do not consider this aspect. Hence, there is a need for a computational model that incorporates this regulatory aspect that has a relevant role in cancer, since altered localization of key cell cycle players, notably of inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, has been reported to occur in neoplastic cells and to be linked to cancer aggressiveness.
The network of the model components involved in the G1 to S transition process was identified through a literature and web-based data mining and the corresponding wiring diagram of the G1 to S transition drawn with Cell Designer notation. The model has been implemented in Mathematica using Ordinary Differential Equations. Time-courses of level and of sub-cellular localization of key cell cycle players in mouse fibroblasts re-entering the cell cycle after serum starvation/re-feeding have been used to constrain network design and parameter determination. The model allows to recapitulate events from growth factor stimulation to the onset of S phase. The R point estimated by simulation is consistent with the R point experimentally determined.
The major element of novelty of our model of the G1 to S transition is the explicit modeling of cytoplasmic/nuclear shuttling of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, their inhibitor and complexes. Sensitivity analysis of the network performance newly reveals that the biological effect brought about by Cki overexpression is strictly dependent on whether the Cki is promoting nuclear translocation of cyclin/Cdk containing complexes.
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