The Curvilinear Relation Between Experienced Creative Time Pressure and Creativity: Moderating Effects of Openness to Experience and Support for Creativity
Department of Business Administration, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, USA.Journal of Applied Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.31). 08/2006; 91(4):963-70. DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.91.4.963
This study examined the possibility of a curvilinear relation between the creative time pressure employees experience at work and their creativity. The authors also examined whether this curvilinear relation was moderated by employees' scores on the openness to experience personality dimension and by the support for creativity employees received from supervisors and coworkers. Data were obtained from 170 employees and 10 supervisors of a manufacturing organization. Results showed an inverted U-shaped creative time pressure-creativity relation for employees who scored high on openness to experience while simultaneously receiving support for creativity. The authors discussed the implications of these results for future research and practice.
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- "According to the interactionist perspective drawn by Woodman et al. (1993), it requires several aspects to be taken into account, such as the creative process, the creative product, the creative person, and the creative situation, as all of them interact with each other in determining creativity. Extant research offers some evidence highlighting the inherent complexity of organizational creativity, by investigating the importance of a knowledge-sharing culture (Chen et al., 2014) as well as of contextual factors, such as organizational (Baer and Oldham, 2006) and technological factors (Lindič et al., 2011). However, results reported are fragmented. "
ABSTRACT: Improving organizational creativity is not an easy task. According to the interactionist perspective drawn by Woodman et al. (1993), it requires several aspects to be taken into account, such as the creative process, the creative product, the creative person, and the creative situation, as all of them interact with each other in determining creativity. Extant research offers some evidence highlighting the inherent complexity of organizational creativity, by investigating the importance of a knowledge-sharing culture (Chen et al., 2014) as well as of contextual factors, such as organizational (Baer and Oldham, 2006) and technological factors (Lindič et al., 2011). However, results reported are fragmented. In an attempt to extend prior research, we found that while intra-organizational knowledge-sharing processes are vital to organizational creativity, contextual influences may be detrimental. Over the years companies’ memes have switched from “if only we knew what we know” (e.g. O’Dell and Grayson, 1998) to “if only we shared what we know” (e.g. Majchrzak et al., 2012). Our investigation acknowledges the importance of understanding the relationship between collecting knowledge from others and organizational creativity, as interpersonal dynamics are often the ultimate mechanisms essential to producing new ideas (Brown and Duguid, 1991; He et al., 2014; West, 2002). First, we focus on individuals’ behaviors of asking colleagues to share their knowledge; this is consistent with the consideration of organizational learning as a process of distributed cognition (Salomon, 1993), according to which individuals appear to think in conjunction with others under the effect of their social, technical and cultural contexts. Second, we argue that the relationship between knowledge collecting and organizational creativity should be explored while looking at the context in which knowledge-sharing behaviors are adopted. Research stresses that creativity results from an individual’s behavior in a given situation, where the situation is defined by the contextual influences that affect creativity. Following Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1990), “from an interactionist perspective, […] both situation and organism and the interaction that unfolds over time must be explained to fully understand the organism-in-its-environment. […] there is always something more to understanding behavior than just describing the observed behavior per se” (pp. 279–280). Hence, creativity, at each level of social organization (i.e. individual-, group- and organization-level) is not independent from the specific environment in which it takes place (Rego et al., 2014). Similarly, consistently with the contextual nature of any knowledge transfer activity (e.g. Chen et al., 2014), scholars propose seeking knowledge and help from others as a routine which is strongly shaped by the work context in which this behavior is performed (Grodal et al., 2015). Given the broad interpretation of the influences which fall under the “contextual” category, we position our argument within extant research, stressing that knowledge transfer processes and the related outcomes (e.g. creativity) should be investigated while looking at both hard and soft factors (e.g. Goh, 2002; Hlupic et al., 2002; Van den Hooff and de Ridder, 2004; Van den Hooff and Huysman, 2009). The former especially include technological infrastructure, such as knowledge management tools that support knowledge sharing, knowledge capture, and codification; among the latter are less technical issues, such as culture and top-management commitment. Among these factors, top-management support (Kim et al., 2015; Lu et al., 2006; Tan and Zhao, 2003) and the use of information and communication technology (ICT) (Faraj, Jarvenpaa and Majchrzak, 2011; Huysman and Wulf, 2006; Majchrzak et al., 2000; Sheng et al., 2013) have been demonstrated to increase knowledge sharing, organizational innovation and organizational creativity. Despite the abundance of studies, little is yet known with regard to the interaction effect among knowledge collecting, contextual influences and organization-level creativity. Accordingly, our aim is to address the following research question: “What is the relationship between knowledge collecting, ICT use and top-management support in determining organizational creativity?” To test our hypotheses, we analyze survey data of 362 employees operating in the subsidiaries of five multinational corporations (MNCs) located in Italy. The relevance of this empirical setting to our study is consistent with the idea that MNCs’ subsidiaries generally embed both the technical and the social elements for analyzing knowledge sharing, its effects, and contextual influences (e.g. Gupta and Govindarajan, 2000; Zaidman and Brock, 2009). Our data show that while knowledge collecting is strongly and positively associated with organizational creativity, high ICT use surprisingly negatively moderates the relationship between knowledge collecting and the dependent variable, while top-management support does not show a significant moderating effect on the association between knowledge collecting and organizational creativity. In so doing, this paper attempts to extend prior research on organizational creativity (e.g. Gumusluoglu and Ilsev, 2009; Woodman et al., 1993) by combining the joint effect of internal circulation of ideas and knowledge with contextual influences. Therefore, it contributes by providing more empirical evidence likely to capture the inherent complexity of organizational creativity, by conceiving of it as a function of the creative results of individuals interacting and sharing their knowledge with others while being exposed to both hard and soft contextual factors. As a result, this research advises practitioners to create a work environment where individuals value others’ knowledge and try to learn from them. Moreover, in line with the idea that the most critical source of competitive advantage cannot be stored in electronic devices, it recommends managers to carefully plan their investments in ICT infrastructure as well as to be ready to make a personal contribution to the firm’s success, by providing it with strong support. In addition, it points to the importance of building a clear understanding of the role played by both knowledge-sharing activities and hard and soft contextual influences in affecting organizational creativity.
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- "What's more, the increasing influences of highly-activated and promotionfocused positive emotions on creativity suggests that when challenges can be overcome, positive emotions can be induced, which further enhances the player's creativity performance. These findings are in line with the claims that challenges can foster creativity and proactive actions (Baer & Oldham, 2006;Kangas, 2010;Ohly & Fritz, 2010). In games, players are required to overcome the challenges provided through generating solutions in the ideation loop. "
ABSTRACT: Emotion has been identified as an important predictor of creativity, but little attention has been put on investigating how emotion, especially that considers regulation focus, may dynamically influence male and female students' creativity in game-based situations. To explore the dynamic relationship between various types of emotions and creativity during game playing, 266 college students were included and the Creativity Game-based Evaluation System (CGES) was developed in this study. Four types of emotions integrating perspectives of valence (positive vs. negative), activation (high vs. low), and regulatory focus (prevention vs. promotion) were investigated in this study: the positive-low activation-prevention emotion (P-L-Pre) (calm and relaxed), the positive-high activation-promotion emotion (P-H-Pro) (happy and elated), the negative-high activation-prevention emotion (N-H-Pre) (nervous and anxious), and the negative-high activation-promotion emotion (N-H-Pro) (frustrated and angry). The results revealed that, although there was a slight gender difference in game-based creativity, the prediction patterns of emotions in game-based creativity were very similar among participants with different genders. Specifically, emotions during game playing can better predict creativity than those of the baseline; moreover, the P-H-Pro emotion can facilitate performance on creativity, whereas the N-H-Pro emotion can decrease creativity performance. Thus, providing appropriate challenges to induce highly-activated and promotion-focused positive emotions are critical for the success of games designed to improve creativity.
- "Data generated through this research can shed light on whether introducing innovation will be effective, whether any preparatory work is required or whether the efforts are grinding to a halt. Researchers (Kharkhurin et al., 2008; Baer et al., 2006; Anoshkina et al., 2001; Bogomaz et al., 2007; Dolgova, 2013; Klochko et al., 2009; Wu et al.,2014).) point out the importance of identifying and promoting innovative thinking in individuals. "