Spatiotemporal distribution of heparan sulfate epitopes during murine cartilage growth plate development

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA.
Histochemie (Impact Factor: 3.05). 01/2007; 126(6):713-22. DOI: 10.1007/s00418-006-0203-4
Source: PubMed


Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are abundant in the pericellular matrix of both developing and mature cartilage. Increasing evidence suggests the action of numerous chondroregulatory molecules depends on HSPGs. In addition to specific functions attributed to their core protein, the complexity of heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis provides extraordinary structural and functional heterogeneity. Understanding the interactions of chondroregulatory molecules with HSPGs and their subsequent outcomes has been limited by the absence of a detailed analysis of HS species in cartilage. In this study, we characterize the distribution and variety of HS species in developing cartilage of normal mice. Cryo-sections of femur and tibia from normal mouse embryos were evaluated using immunostaining techniques. A panel of unique phage display antibodies specific to particular HS species were employed and visualized with secondary antibodies conjugated to Alexa-fluor dyes. Confocal microscopy demonstrates that HS species are dynamic structures within developing growth plate cartilage and the perichondrium. GlcNS6S-IdoUA2S-GlcNS6S species are down regulated and localization of GlcNS6S-IdoUA-GlcNS6S species within the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate is lost during normal development. Regional differences in HS structures are present within developing growth plates, implying that interactions with and responses to HS-binding proteins also may display regional specialization.

Download full-text


Available from: Mary C Farach-Carson
  • Source
    • "In bone tissue, HPA1 overexpression creates a complex phenotype that typically results in osteogenesis and increased bone mass.15 Gomes et al.16 provided evidence of a dramatic loss of HS in the chondro-osseous junction during endochondral bone formation processes, suggesting that HS inhibits osteogenesis. Notably, heparanase-2 (HPA2), an isoform of heparanase, does not exhibit enzymatic activity and its function remains unclear.17,18 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the molecules involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and to identify and quantify heparanase isoforms present in herniated and degenerative discs. Heparanase is an endo-beta-glucuronidase that specifically acts upon the heparan sulfate chains of proteoglycans. However, heparanase expression in degenerative intervertebral discs has not yet been evaluated. Notably, previous studies demonstrated a correlation between changes in the heparan sulfate proteoglycan pattern and the degenerative process associated with intervertebral discs. Twenty-nine samples of intervertebral degenerative discs, 23 samples of herniated discs and 12 samples of non-degenerative discs were analyzed. The expression of both heparanase isoforms (heparanase-1 and heparanase-2) was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR analysis. Heparanase-1 and heparanase-2 expression levels were significantly higher in the herniated and degenerative discs in comparison to the control tissues, suggesting a possible role of these proteins in the intervertebral degenerative process. The overexpression of heparanase isoforms in the degenerative intervertebral discs and the herniated discs suggests a potential role of both proteins in the mediation of inflammatory processes and in extracellular matrix remodeling. The heparanase-2 isoform may be involved in normal metabolic processes, as evidenced by its higher expression in the control intervertebral discs relative to the expression of heparanase-1.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • Source
    • "In bone, HPSE overexpression creates a complex phenotype that favors osteogenesis, increases bone mass, but retards bone elongation in female transgenic mice [43]. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated a dramatic loss of HS at the COJ as endochondral bone formation progresses, suggesting that HS inhibits osteogenesis [12]. To expand on these observations, we sought to determine if HPSE influences the transition from chondrogenesis to osteogenesis during endochondral bone formation in mouse models. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endochondral bone formation is a highly orchestrated process involving coordination among cell-cell, cell-matrix and growth factor signaling that eventually results in the production of mineralized bone from a cartilage template. Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation occur in sequence during this process, and the temporospatial patterning clearly requires the activities of heparin binding growth factors and their receptors. Heparanase (HPSE) plays a role in osteogenesis, but the mechanism by which it does so is incompletely understood. We used a combination of ex vivo and in vitro approaches and a well described HPSE inhibitor, PI-88 to study HPSE in endochondral bone formation. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization with HPSE antibodies revealed that HPSE is expressed in the peri-chondrium, peri-osteum, and at the chondro-osseous junction, all sites of key signaling events and tissue morphogenesis. Transcripts encoding Hpse also were observed in the pre-hypertrophic zone. Addition of PI-88 to metatarsals in organ culture reduced growth and suggested that HPSE activity aids the transition from chondrogenic to osteogenic processes in growth of long bones. To study this, we used high density cultures of ATDC5 pre-chondrogenic cells grown under conditions favoring chondrogenesis or osteogenesis. Under chondrogenic conditions, HPSE/Hpse was expressed at high levels during the mid-culture period, at the onset of terminal chondrogenesis. PI-88 addition reduced chondrogenesis and accelerated osteogenesis, including a dramatic up-regulation of osteocalcin levels. In normal growth medium, addition of PI-88 reduced migration of ATDC-5 cells, suggesting that HPSE facilitates cartilage replacement by bone at the chondro-osseous junction by removing the HS component of proteoglycans, such as perlecan/HSPG2, that otherwise prevent osteogenic cells from remodeling hypertrophic cartilage.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Bone
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The procurement of new knowledge and understanding in the ever expanding discipline of cell biology continues to advance at a breakneck pace. The progress in discerning the physiology of cells and tissues in health and disease has been driven to a large extent by the continued development of new probes and imaging techniques. The recent introduction of semi-conductor quantum dots as stable, specific markers for both fluorescence light microscopy and electron microscopy, as well as a virtual treasure-trove of new fluorescent proteins, has in conjunction with newly introduced spectral imaging systems, opened vistas into the seemingly unlimited possibilities for experimental design. Although it oftentimes proves difficult to predict what the future will hold with respect to advances in disciplines such as cell biology and histochemistry, it is facile to look back on what has already occurred. In this spirit, this review will highlight some advancements made in these areas in the past 2 years.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Histochemie
Show more