Effects of probiotic or prebiotic supplemented milk formulas on fecal microbiota composition of infants

Ultrastructure Laboratory, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA),University of Chile, J.P. Alessandri 5540, Santiago, Chile.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.7). 01/2006; 15(3):368-76.
Source: PubMed


The aim of the study was to evaluate whether supplementation of milk-formulas with prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides or a probiotic, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 (La1), could modulate the composition of the fecal microbiota of formula-fed infants, compared to breastfed (BF) infants. Ninety infants close to 4 months of age were randomized into one of three groups to be blindly assigned to receive for 13 weeks: a) an infant formula (Control), b) the same formula with fructo-oligosaccharides (Prebio), or c) with La1 (Probio). At the end of this period, all infants received the control formula for 2 additional weeks. Twenty-six infants, breastfed throughout the study, were recruited to form group BF. Fecal samples were obtained upon enrolment and after 7 and 15 weeks. Bacterial populations were assessed with classical culture techniques and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Seventy-six infants completed the study. On enrolment, higher counts of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and lower counts of enterobacteria were observed in BF compared to the formula-fed infants; these differences tended to disappear at weeks 7 and 15. No major differences for Clostridium, Bacteroides or Enterococcus were observed between the groups or along the follow up. Probio increased fecal Lactobacillus counts (p<0.001); 88% of the infants in this group excreted live La1 in their stools at week 7 but only 17% at week 15. Increased Bifidobacterium counts were observed at week 7 in the 3 formula groups, similar to BF infants. These results confirm the presence of higher counts of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the microbiota of BF infants compared to formula-fed infants before dietary diversification, and that La1 survives in the infant digestive tract.

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    • "Other studies reported that infant formula supplemented with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) alone influenced the gut microbiota colonization (Brunser et al., 2006; Euler, Mitchell, Kline, & Pickering, 2005; Paineau et al., 2014; Veereman-Wauters et al., 2011). However, while the vast majority of the studies point out the benefit of FOS in combination with other oligosaccharide or alone for newborns or in early infancy, the impact of the supplementation of follow-on formula on growth parameters, tolerance, bifidogenic or immune effects in infants above 4 months of age is not known (Brunser et al., 2006; Salvini et al., 2011; Stam et al., 2011). Vaccine-specific sIgA collected in saliva or in faeces are considered as highly suitable markers of immune response as they correlate with clinical endpoints (Albers et al., 2013) and poliovirus is a typical vaccine of early infancy with high coverage (Moturi et al., 2014) that stimulates mucosal and intestinal immunity and induces detectable level of faecal sIgA (Pasetti, Simon, Sztein, & Levine, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Few studies have assessed efficacy and safety of prebiotics in infants at the time of diversification. We investigated the beneficial effects of a follow-on milk formula supplemented with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) in healthy infants after 4 months of age. Subjects/methods 75 formula-fed healthy infants were included at the age of 4 months in a randomized, controlled, double blind study and received either a placebo or scFOS supplemented formula for six months. Faecal poliovirus sIgA after vaccination and bifidobacteria concentration, height, weight and digestive tolerance were monitored. Results After 1 and 2 months of supplementation, no significant difference was observed between the groups for the evolution of poliovirus sIgA concentration compared to baseline. A significant increase in bifidobacteria count was observed after 1 month of ScFOS supplementation, but this difference was no longer significant after 2 months. Breastfeeding history of infants was shown to have an impact on faecal bifidobacteria evolution. Tolerance and growth parameters were similar in the 2 groups. Conclusions A follow-on milk formula supplemented with scFOS modulates intestinal microbiota via an increase of faecal bifidobacteria concentration, while no effect on sIgA concentrations could be demonstrated. scFOS addition elicited normal digestive tolerance and normal growth suggesting it can be used safely at 5 g/L in infants after 4 months of age. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre
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    • "Full Term Friesland Brunser 2006 [33] Full Term None/Not clear Weizman 2005 [34] "
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    ABSTRACT: There is little or no information available on the impact of funding by the food industry on trial outcomes and methodological quality of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics research in infants. The objective of this study was to compare the methodological quality, outcomes of food industry sponsored trials versus non industry sponsored trials, with regards to supplementation of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics in infant formula. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify published and unpublished randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Cochrane methodology was used to assess the risk of bias of included RCTs in the following domains: 1) sequence generation; 2) allocation concealment; 3) blinding; 4) incomplete outcome data; 5) selective outcome reporting; and 6) other bias. Clinical outcomes and authors' conclusions were reported in frequencies and percentages. The association between source of funding, risk of bias, clinical outcomes and conclusions were assessed using Pearson's Chi-square test and the Fisher's exact test. A p-value < 0.05 was statistically significant. Sixty seven completed and 3 on-going RCTs were included. Forty (59.7%) were funded by food industry, 11 (16.4%) by non-industry entities and 16 (23.9%) did not specify source of funding. Several risk of bias domains, especially sequence generation, allocation concealment and blinding, were not adequately reported. There was no significant association between the source of funding and sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding and selective reporting, majority of reported clinical outcomes or authors' conclusions. On the other hand, source of funding was significantly associated with the domains of incomplete outcome data, free of other bias domains as well as reported antibiotic use and conclusions on weight gain. In RCTs on infants fed infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics, the source of funding did not influence the majority of outcomes in favour of the sponsors' products. More non-industry funded research is needed to further assess the impact of funding on methodological quality, reported clinical outcomes and authors' conclusions.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · BMC Medical Research Methodology
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    • "The infants formula supplemented with Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 (2 × 106 CFU) provided a significant reduction in the number of episodes of respiratory infections compared with control formula, respectively, 53 versus 36 after 6 months of consumption [120]. The use of L. johnsonii La1-supplemented formula did not show any positive effect on the number of respiratory infections compared to the control formula [121]. According to ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition, available data are insufficient to draw a reliable conclusion about using probiotic supplement formula on prevention of respiratory infections in infants [77]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The bacterial colonization is defined immediately after birth, through direct contact with maternal microbiota and may be influenced during lactation. There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of immune system leading to intra- or extra-intestinal diseases. A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood and adolescence is important to gastrointestinal health, including protection against pathogens, inhibition of pathogens, nutrient processing (synthesis of vitamin K), stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of host fat storage. Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favoring the health of the host. This paper is a review about modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention and adjuvant treatment of pediatric gastrointestinal diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Gastroenterology Research and Practice
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