Hip fracture: Heparin is for thromboembolic prophylaxis [7]

ArticleinBMJ (online) 333(7559):147 · August 2006with4 Reads
DOI: 10.1136/bmj.333.7559.147-c · Source: PubMed
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guidelines recommend thromboprophylaxis for at least 10 days to prevent venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing high-risk orthopedic surgery, such as total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Furthermore, the recently updated ACCP guidelines also recommend extending the duration of thromboprophylaxis for 28 to 35 days following THA or hip fracture surgery as the risk for venous thromboembolism persists for up to 3 months after surgery. Extended-duration thromboprophylaxis (up to 6 weeks) with low-molecular-weight heparin is significantly more effective in preventing venous thromboembolism in orthopedic surgery patients than the recommended practice of at least 10 days. Extended-duration thromboprophylaxis may require risk stratification to identify high-risk patients. Current risk-assessment models have limitations and are not specific to orthopedic surgery patients; therefore, improvements may facilitate the use of extended-duration thromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients, thereby reducing the burden of venous thromboembolism.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The guideline group was selected to be representative of UK-based medical experts. The drafting group met and communicated by e-mail. Draft guidelines were revised by consensus. Since the initial guideline published by the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH; Colvin & Barrowcliffe, 1993) evidence-based guidelines on the use and monitoring of heparin have been included in the American College of Chest Physicians Consensus Conferences on Antithrombotic Therapy ( ACCP; Hirsh & Raschke, 2004) and the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network ( SIGN; http://www.sign.ac.uk/guidelines/fulltext/36/section12.html). Reference to these guidelines is advised for a comprehensive review of the evidence. The recommendations in this BCSH guideline generally reflect those of the ACCP and SIGN and are updated where appropriate to encompass recent studies. The guideline was reviewed by a multidisciplinary sounding board, the BCSH and the British Society for Haematology (BSH) and comments incorporated where appropriate. Criteria used to quote levels and grades of evidence are as in Appendix 3 of the Procedure for Guidelines Commissioned by the BCSH (http://www.bcshguidelines.com). The target audience for this guideline is healthcare professionals involved in the management of patients receiving heparin.
    Full-text · Article · May 2006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although effective strategies for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) are widely available, a significant number of patients still develop VTE because appropriate thromboprophylaxis is not correctly prescribed. We conducted this study to estimate the risk profile for VTE and the employment of adequate thromboprophylaxis procedures in patients admitted to hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Four hospitals were included in this study. Data on risk factors for VTE and prescription of pharmacological and non-pharmacological thromboprophylaxis were collected from 1454 randomly chosen patients (589 surgical and 865 clinical). Case report forms were filled according to medical and nursing records. Physicians were unaware of the survey. Three risk assessment models were used: American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) Guidelines, Caprini score, and the International Union of Angiololy Consensus Statement (IUAS). The ACCP score classifies VTE risk in surgical patients and the others classify VTE risk in surgical and clinical patients. Contingency tables were built presenting the joined distribution of the risk score and the prescription of any pharmacological and non-pharmacological thromboprophylaxis (yes or no). According to the Caprini score, 29% of the patients with the highest risk for VTE were not prescribed any thromboprophylaxis. Considering the patients under moderate, high or highest risk who should be receiving prophylaxis, 37% and 29% were not prescribed thromboprophylaxis according to ACCP (surgical patients) and IUAS risk scores, respectively. In contrast, 27% and 42% of the patients at low risk of VTE, according to Caprini and IUAS scores, respectively, had thromboprophylaxis prescribed. Despite the existence of several guidelines, this study demonstrates that adequate thromboprophylaxis is not correctly prescribed: high-risk patients are under-treated and low-risk patients are over-treated. This condition must be changed to insure that patients receive adequate treatment for the prevention of thromboembolism.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2006
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