Inclusion complexes of EMPO derivatives with 2,6-di-O-methyl-β- cyclodextrin: Synthesis, NMR and EPR investigations for enhanced superoxide detection
Aix-Marseille Université, Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, FranceOrganic & Biomolecular Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.56). 09/2006; 4(15):2874-82. DOI: 10.1039/b606062e
The free radical trapping properties of eight 5-alkoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (EMPO) type nitrones and those of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) were evaluated for trapping of superoxide anion radicals in the presence of 2,6-di-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DM-beta-CD). (1)H-NMR titrations were performed to determine both stoichiometries and binding constants for the diamagnetic nitrone-DM-beta-CD equilibria. EPR titrations were then performed and analyzed using a two-dimensional EPR simulation program affording 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 stoichiometries for the nitroxide spin adducts with DM-beta-CD and the associated binding constants after spin trapping. The nitroxide spin adducts associate more strongly with DM-beta-CD than the nitrones. The ability of the nitrones to trap superoxide, the enhancement of the EPR signal intensity and the supramolecular protection by DM-beta-CD against sodium L-ascorbate reduction were evaluated.
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ABSTRACT: Recently, it was demonstrated that superoxide oxidizes dihydroethidium to a specific fluorescent product (oxyethidium) that differs from ethidium by the presence of an additional oxygen atom in its molecular structure. We have adapted this new HPLC-based assay to quantify this product as a tool to estimate intracellular superoxide in intact tissues. Ethidium and oxyethidium were separated using a C-18 column and quantified using fluorescence detection. Initial cell-free experiments with potassium superoxide and xanthine oxidase confirmed the formation of oxyethidium from dihydroethidium. The formation of oxyethidium was inhibited by superoxide dismutase but not catalase and did not occur upon the addition of H(2)O(2), peroxynitrite, or hypochlorous acid. In bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and murine aortas, the redox cycling drug menadione increased the formation of oxyethidium from dihydroethidium ninefold (0.4 nmol/mg in control vs. 3.6 nmol/mg with 20 microM menadione), and polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD) significantly inhibited this effect. Treatment of BAEC with angiotensin II caused a twofold increase in oxyethidium formation, and this effect also was reduced by PEG-SOD (0.5 nmol/mg). In addition, in the aortas of mice with angiotensin II-induced hypertension and DOCA-salt hypertension, the formation of oxyethidium was increased in a manner corresponding to superoxide production estimated on the basis of cytochrome c reduction. Detection of oxyethidium using HPLC represents a new, convenient, quantitative method for the detection of superoxide in intact cells and tissues.
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ABSTRACT: alpha-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) derivatives bound to beta-cyclodextrin derivatives have been synthesized. Inclusion of the PBN group into the beta-cyclodextrin moiety is host- and temperature-dependent. In the case of the nitrone linked to permethylated cyclodextrin (Me3CD-PBN), the thermokinetic parameters are in favour of a slow chemical exchange between a tight and a loose complex. In contrast, 2,6-di-O-Me-beta-cyclodextrin-grafted PBN (Me2CD-PBN) exists either in a fast exchange or as a strongly self-associated complex. The covalent cyclodextrin-PBN compounds have been used to trap carbon and oxygen-centred free radicals. The self-associated forms of the beta-CD-spin-traps are compatible with effective spin-trapping, affording spin-adducts with enhanced EPR signal intensities relative to noncovalent CD-nitrone systems or the nitrone alone. This kind of cyclodextrin-bound nitrone is the first type of covalent supramolecular spin-trap and should open new possibilities for the study of biological free radicals in vivo.
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