Mixed amphetamine salts extended-release in the treatment of adult ADHD: A randomized, controlled trial

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
CNS spectrums (Impact Factor: 2.71). 08/2006; 11(8):625-39.
Source: PubMed


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious neurobehavioral disorder of childhood onset that often persists into adolescence and adulthood. Functional impairments, underachievement, and difficult interpersonal relationships illustrate the need for effective treatment of ADHD through adulthood.
This prospective, multisite, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-escalation study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety, and duration of action of mixed amphetamine salts extended-release (MAS XR) in adults with ADHD, combined type. Adults > or =18 years of age were given placebo or MAS XR 20, 40, or 60 mg/day for 4 weeks. The main outcome measures were the ADHD Rating Scale and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale Short Version Self-Report (CAARS-S-S).
Two hundred fifty-five subjects were randomly assigned to treatment with MAS XR or placebo. MAS XR treatment was associated with statistically and clinically significant ADHD symptom reduction at endpoint; mean ADHD Rating Scale scores were 18.5 for the 20-mg group (P=.001), 18.4 for the 40-mg group (P<.001), and 18.5 for the 60-mg group (P<.001). Adults with severe symptoms (ADHD Rating Scale score >32 at baseline) had significantly greater symptom reduction with the highest MAS XR dose (60 mg/day), however, this dose-response relationship was determined by post-hoc analysis. The mean MAS XR effect size was 0.8. Statistically significant (P<.05) improvements in CAARS-S-S ADHD index scores occurred at 4- and 12-hours postdose for all MAS XR groups, indicating a 12-hour duration of effect. Symptoms improved within the first treatment week. Most adverse events reported were mild or moderate in intensity, and the most commonly reported adverse events were consistent with the known profile of stimulant medications. Vital signs and electrocardiograms showed no clinically significant cardiovascular changes.
These results suggest that MAS XR is safe and effective in adults with ADHD and controlled ADHD symptoms for up to 12 hours.

Download full-text


Available from: Richard H Weisler
  • Source
    • "The reason for the failure to detect a positive change in CAARS-S:S score with active treatment in the current investigation is unclear, but may be related to dose and formulation of the psychostimulants used, the timing of assessment, or the length of study treatment (1 week per intervention). The prior investigation described by Weisler et al. [33] was a 4-week parallel-group forced-dose titration study with three fixed doses of MAS-XR (20, 40, or 60 mg/day) in adults with ADHD. By contrast, in the present crossover investigation, single fixed doses of LDX (50 mg) and MAS-IR (20 mg) were given for 1 week each. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Understanding the nature and time course of the pharmacodynamic effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications is useful. The Cognitive Drug Research Computerized Battery of Tests (CDR-CBT) is a 20-min battery of ten standardized, validated neuropsychometric tasks. This pilot study examined the sensitivity and responsiveness of the CDR-CBT for assessing cognitive function in adults with ADHD prior to and up to 16 h postdose during treatment with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) or mixed amphetamine salts immediate release (MAS-IR; various generics available). This was a double-blind three-period crossover study. Participants received LDX 50 mg/day, MAS-IR 20 mg/day, and placebo (~7 a.m.) for 7 days each in randomized order. CDR-CBT was administered on day 1 of period 1 and day 7 of each period at scheduled times between -0.5 (predose) and 16 h postdose. Composite power of attention (PoA) score (sum of simple reaction time, choice reaction time, and digit vigilance speed) was the primary outcome measure. The Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self-Report: Short Version (CAARS-S:S) was administered at baseline and on day 1 of period 1, and days 6 and 7 of each treatment period. Tertiary outcomes included CDR-CBT composite continuity of attention scores, its component task scores, cognitive reaction time, and response variability scores. No inferential statistical comparisons were conducted. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) and vital signs. This analysis included 18 participants (mean age 30.8 years); one withdrew because of AEs. Mean pretreatment PoA scores were 1175.9-1361.2 ms, scores commensurate with a normative age of >40 years. Maximum reductions in PoA scores with LDX and MAS-IR occurred at 5 h postdose at day 7 (least squares mean difference [95 % CI] of -150.0 [-235.41 to -64.50] and -79.8 [-165.72 to 6.21] ms vs. placebo, respectively). CAARS-S:S scores were unchanged with LDX and MAS-IR (vs. placebo) at all postdose timepoints. Tertiary attention-related CDR-CBT outcomes were sensitive to LDX and MAS-IR (vs. placebo). Treatment-emergent AEs and vital signs were consistent with previous studies in adult ADHD. In adults with ADHD, PoA scores indicated impaired attention at baseline and response to treatment with LDX and MAS-IR (vs. placebo), demonstrating value for measuring the time course of pharmacologic treatment effects.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Clinical Drug Investigation
  • Source
    • "A number of randomized controlled clinical trials have shown that controlled-release MAS (MAS-CR) is effective versus placebo for reducing ADHD symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults (Table 3) (Biederman et al. 2002; Spencer et al. 2006b; Weisler et al. 2006). An analog classroom trial in children showed that a significant effect of MAS-CR over placebo emerged at 1.5 h post-dosing and was maintained for up to 12 h, based on improvements from baseline at end point in SKAMP-D and math test scores (McCracken et al. 2003). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show pervasive impairments across family, peer, and school or work functioning that may extend throughout the day. Psychostimulants are highly effective medications for the treatment of ADHD, and the development of long-acting stimulant formulations has greatly expanded the treatment options for individuals with ADHD. Strategies for the formulation of long-acting stimulants include the combination of immediate-release and delayed-release beads, and an osmotic-release oral system. A recent development is the availability of the first prodrug stimulant, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX). LDX itself is inactive but is cleaved enzymatically, primarily in the bloodstream, to release d-amphetamine (d-AMP). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that long-acting stimulants are effective in reducing ADHD symptoms compared with placebo. Analog classroom and simulated adult workplace environment studies have shown that long-acting stimulants produce symptom reduction for at least 12 h. Long-acting stimulants exhibit similar tolerability and safety profiles to short-acting equivalents. While variations in gastric pH and motility can alter the availability and absorption of stimulants released from long-acting formulations, the systemic exposure to d-AMP following LDX administration is unlikely to be affected by gastrointestinal conditions. Long-acting formulations may also improve adherence and lower abuse potential compared with their short-acting counterparts. The development of long-acting stimulants provides physicians with an increased range of medication options to help tailor treatment for individuals with ADHD.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
  • Source
    • "Clinical trials of stimulant pharmacotherapy in adults with ADHD indicate high levels of efficacy. Significantly improved ADHD symptom scores (versus placebo) based on randomized, placebo-controlled trials using long-acting formulations of either methylphenidate (MPH) [3,4] or amphetamines have been reported [5,6]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite the overall high degree of response to pharmacotherapy, consensus is lacking on how to judge clinical response or define optimal treatment/remission when treating adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined clinical response and symptomatic remission in analyses of 2 studies of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in adults with ADHD. METHODS: In a 4-week, double-blind, forced-dose trial, adults with ADHD were randomized to LDX 30, 50, and 70 mg/day (mg/d) or placebo. In a second, open-label, follow-up trial, adults entering from the 4-week study were titrated to an "optimal" LDX dose (30 mg/d [n=44], 50 mg/d [n=112], and 70 mg/d [n=171]) over 4 weeks, and maintained for 11 additional months. The ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) with adult prompts and the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale assessed efficacy. Clinical response was defined, post hoc, as >=30% reduction from baseline in ADHD-RS-IV and CGI-I rating of 1 or 2; symptomatic remission was defined as ADHD-RS-IV total score <=18. Log rank analysis examined overall significance among the treatment groups in time to response or remission. RESULTS: Four hundred and fourteen participants in the 4-week study and 345 in the open-label, extension study were included in the efficacy populations. All LDX groups improved by ADHD-RS-IV and CGI-I scores in both studies. In the 4-week study (n=414), 69.3% responded and 45.5% achieved remission with LDX (all doses); 37.1% responded and 16.1% achieved remission with placebo; time (95% CI) to median clinical response (all LDX doses) was 15.0 (15.0, 17.0) days and to remission was 31.0 (28.0, 37.0) days (P<.0001 overall). In the open-label study, with LDX (all doses), 313 (95.7%) and 278 (85.0%) of 327 participants with evaluable maintenance-phase data met criteria for response and remission, respectively. Of participants who completed dose optimization, 75.2% remained responders and 65.7% remained in remission in the 12-month study. Overall, 285 (82.6%) and 227 (65.8%) of 345 participants were responders and remitters, respectively, at their final visits. CONCLUSION: In the long-term study, with open-label, dose-optimized LDX treatment, most adults with ADHD achieved clinical response and/or symptomatic remission; almost two-thirds maintained symptomatic remission over the remaining 11 months.Trial registration: Clinical Trial Numbers: NCT00334880 and NCT01070394Clinical Trial Registry: clinicaltrials.govURLs:
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · BMC Psychiatry
Show more