Roelke, M.E. et al. T-lymphocyte profiles in FIV-infected wild lions and pumas reveal CD4 depletion. J. Wildl. Dis. 42, 234-248

Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, Basic Research Program, SAIC Frederick, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA.
Journal of wildlife diseases (Impact Factor: 1.36). 05/2006; 42(2):234-48. DOI: 10.7589/0090-3558-42.2.234
Source: PubMed


Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes feline AIDS in the domestic cat (Felis catus). Serological surveys indicate that at least 25 other species of cat possess antibodies that cross-react with domestic cat FIV. Most infected nondomestic cat species are without major symptoms of disease. Long-term studies of FIV genome variation and pathogenesis reveal patterns consistent with coadaptation of virus and host in free-ranging FIV-Ple-infected African lions (Panthera leo) and FIV-Pco-infected pumas (Puma concolor) populations. This report examined correlates of immunodeficiency in wild and captive lions and pumas by quantifying CD5(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T-cell subsets. Free-ranging FIV-Ple-infected lions had immunofluorescence flow cytometry (IFC) profiles marked by a dramatic decline in CD4(+) subsets, a reduction of the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio, reduction of CD8(+)beta(high) cells, and expansion of the CD8(+)beta(low) subset relative to uninfected lions. An overall significant depletion in CD5(+) T-cells in seropositive lions was linked with a compensatory increase in total CD5(-) lymphocytes. The IFC profiles were altered significantly in 50% of the seropositive individuals examined. The FIV-Pco-infected pumas had a more generalized response of lymphopenia expressed as a significant decline in total lymphocytes, CD5(+) T-cells, and CD5(-) lymphocytes as well as a significant reduction in CD4(+) T-cells. Like lions, seropositive pumas had a significant decline in CD8(+)beta(high) cells but differed by not having compensatory expansion of CD8(+)beta(low) cells relative to controls. Results from FIV-infected lions and pumas parallel human and Asian monkey CD4(+) diminution in HIV and SIV infection, respectively, and suggest there may be unrecognized immunological consequences of FIV infection in these two species of large cats.

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    • "Infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) can adversely impact immune function in domestic or wild felids (Roelke et al. 2006; Hartmann 2011). Exposure to these viruses was used as a marker to evaluate association of immunosuppression with T. gondii shedding. "
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii, a global zoonotic parasite, adversely impacts human and animal health. Toxoplasma is a significant cause of mortality in threatened Southern sea otters, which serve as sentinels for disease threats to people and animals in coastal environments. As wild and domestic felids are the only recognized hosts capable of shedding Toxoplasma oocysts into the environment, otter infection suggests land-to-sea pathogen transmission. To assess relative contributions to terrestrial parasite loading, we evaluated infection and shedding among managed and unmanaged feral domestic cats, mountain lions, and bobcats in coastal California, USA. Infection prevalence differed among sympatric felids, with a significantly lower prevalence for managed feral cats (17%) than mountain lions, bobcats, or unmanaged feral cats subsisting on wild prey (73-81%). A geographic hotspot of infection in felids was identified near Monterey Bay, bordering a high-risk site for otter infection. Increased odds of oocyst shedding were detected in bobcats and unmanaged feral cats. Due to their large populations, pet and feral domestic cats likely contribute more oocysts to lands bordering the sea otter range than native wild felids. Continued coastal development may influence felid numbers and distribution, increase terrestrial pathogens in freshwater runoff, and alter disease dynamics at the human-animal-environment interface.
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    • "FIV antibodies are reasonable because FIV is not uncommon in mountain lions . Chronic infection is asymptomatic in this host in Montana , Washington , Texas , and Florida in the United States ( Evermann et al . 1997 , Biek and Poss 2002 , Biek et al . 2006 , Miller et al . 2006 ) , or in Brazilian felids ( Filoni et al . 2006 ) and African lions ( Roelke et al . 2006 ) . Seroprevalence of antibody to FCV was high in bobcats ( Table 2 ) in California , USA , in rural zones where they potentially came into contact with domestic cats ( Riley et al . 2004 ) . Members of the cat family are the only known definitive hosts for T . gondii ( Aiello 1998 ) . After being shed in feces , the sporulated oocysts "
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    ABSTRACT: An understanding of the prevalence of diseases in free-ranging populations of felids is limited, and there is even less known about the overall health and diseases of wild felids that inhabit or utilize urban areas. We collected serum samples from 9 radiocollared mountain lions (Puma concolor) in the mountains surrounding Tucson, Arizona, USA, from August 2005 to August 2008. We tested serum samples for evidence of exposure to 10 feline viruses: Feline Calicivirus (FCV), Feline Herpesvirus, Feline Enteric Coronavirus, Feline Syncytial Virus–Feline Foamy Virus, Feline Infectious Peritonitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPLV), Feline Leukemia Virus, Canine Distemper Virus (CDV), and Toxoplasma gondii. The highest prevalences of exposure were: T. gondii (8/9), FPLV (7/9), and FCV (6/9). One male was seropositive for CDV, T. gondii, and FPLV. Mountain lions inhabiting smaller fragmented landscapes and urban areas have more contact with other felids and domesticated animals. Frequent contact among mountain lions, other felids, and domesticated animals can lead to higher risk of exposure and facilitate the spread of the disease from animal to animal. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Wildlife Society Bulletin
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    • "Infected domestic cats exhibit immunosuppression and opportunistic infections during advanced stages of the disease (generally after many years of infection). Clinical disease in non-domestic felids infected with FIV is still debated and likely is present only after several years of infection [21], [22], [23], [24], [25]. Transmission is believed to primarily occur via direct contact, especially during aggressive interactions and mating [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the mechanisms driving disease exposure and to predict zones of cross-species pathogen transmission among wild and domestic felids.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · PLoS ONE
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