Regulation of progranulin expression in myeloid cells

Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada
AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.11). 01/2007; 291(6):R1602-12. DOI: 10.1152/ajpregu.00616.2005
Source: PubMed


Progranulin (pgrn; granulin-epithelin precursor, PC-cell-derived growth factor, or acrogranin) is a multifunctional secreted glycoprotein implicated in tumorigenesis, development, inflammation, and repair. It is highly expressed in macrophage and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Here we investigate its regulation in myeloid cells. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) increased pgrn mRNA levels in myelomonocytic cells (CD34(+) progenitors; monoblastic U-937; monocytic THP-1; progranulocytic HL-60; macrophage RAW 264.7) but not in nonmyeloid cells tested. Interleukin-4 impaired basal expression of pgrn in U-937. Differentiation agents DMSO, and, in U-937 only, phorbol ester [phorbol 12-myristate,13-acetate (PMA)] elevated pgrn mRNA expression late in differentiation, suggestive of roles for pgrn in more mature terminally differentiated granulocyte/monocytes rather than during growth or differentiation. The response of pgrn mRNA to ATRA differs in U-937 and HL-60 lineages. In U-937, ATRA and chemical differentiation agents greatly increased pgrn mRNA stability, whereas, in HL-60, ATRA accelerated pgrn mRNA turnover. The initial upregulation of pgrn mRNA after stimulation with ATRA was independent of de novo protein synthesis in U-937 but not HL-60. Chemical blockade of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation impaired ATRA-stimulated pgrn expression in HL-60 but not U-937, whereas in U-937 it blocked PMA-induced pgrn mRNA expression, suggestive of cell-specific roles for NF-kappaB in determining pgrn mRNA levels. We propose that: 1) ATRA regulates pgrn mRNA levels in myelomonocytic cells; 2) ATRA acts in a cell-specific manner involving the differential control of mRNA stability and differential requirement for NF-kappaB signaling; and 3) elevated pgrn mRNA expression is characteristic of more mature cells and does not stimulate differentiation.

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    • "Exceptionally, GEP was not detected in A549 human epithelial cells although this cell line contains GEP mRNA (Daniel et al., 2000), suggesting that GEP expression is controlled post-transcriptionally in these cells or that they secrete the protein especially efficiently. Little GEP was detected in U937 cells (data not shown), but it is inducible by mitogens (data not shown, (Ong et al., 2006)). GEP was also undetectable in 3T3 cells, in keeping with previous studies and with the failure to detect its mRNA in these cells (Bhandari et al., 1992; Zhang and Serrero, 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: Progranulin (also known as granulin/epithelin precursor, GEP) is composed of seven granulin/epithelin repeats (granulins) and functions both as a full-length protein and as individual granulins. It is a secretory protein but a substantial amount of GEP is found inside cells, some in complexes with positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). GEP and certain granulins interact with the cyclin T1 subunit of P-TEFb, and with its HIV-1 Tat co-factor, leading to repression of transcription from the HIV promoter. We show that GEP lacking the signal peptide (GEPspm) remains inside cells and, like wild-type GEP, interacts with cyclin T1 and Tat. GEPspm represses transcription from the HIV-1 promoter at the RNA level. Granulins that bind cyclin T1 are phosphorylated by P-TEFb in vivo and in vitro on serine residues. GEPspm and those granulins that interact with cyclin T1 also inhibit transcription from cellular cad and c-myc promoters, which are highly dependent on P-TEFb, but not from the PCNA promoter. In addition, GEPspm and granulins repress transcriptional activation by VP16 or c-Myc, proteins that bind and recruit P-TEFb to responsive promoters. These data suggest that intracellular GEP is a promoter-specific transcriptional repressor that modulates the function of cellular and viral transcription factors.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
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    • "QRT-PCR was performed as described elsewhere [41] using a Light Cycler FastStart DNA Master SYBR Green I kit (Roche). Melting curve analysis confirmed the presence of a single product for every PCR primer used, and genomic contamination was excluded by amplification of a control sample without reverse transcription. "
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    ABSTRACT: Progranulin is a secreted high molecular weight growth factor bearing seven and one half copies of the cysteine-rich granulin-epithelin motif. While inappropriate over-expression of the progranulin gene has been associated with many cancers, haploinsufficiency leads to atrophy of the frontotemporal lobes and development of a form of dementia (frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin positive inclusions, FTLD-U) associated with the formation of ubiquitinated inclusions. Recent reports indicate that progranulin has neurotrophic effects, which, if confirmed would make progranulin the only neuroprotective growth factor that has been associated genetically with a neurological disease in humans. Preliminary studies indicated high progranulin gene expression in spinal cord motor neurons. However, it is uncertain what the role of Progranulin is in normal or diseased motor neuron function. We have investigated progranulin gene expression and subcellular localization in cultured mouse embryonic motor neurons and examined the effect of progranulin over-expression and knockdown in the NSC-34 immortalized motor neuron cell line upon proliferation and survival. In situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical techniques revealed that the progranulin gene is highly expressed by motor neurons within the mouse spinal cord and in primary cultures of dissociated mouse embryonic spinal cord-dorsal root ganglia. Confocal microscopy coupled to immunocytochemistry together with the use of a progranulin-green fluorescent protein fusion construct revealed progranulin to be located within compartments of the secretory pathway including the Golgi apparatus. Stable transfection of the human progranulin gene into the NSC-34 motor neuron cell line stimulates the appearance of dendritic structures and provides sufficient trophic stimulus to survive serum deprivation for long periods (up to two months). This is mediated at least in part through an anti-apoptotic mechanism. Control cells, while expressing basal levels of progranulin do not survive in serum free conditions. Knockdown of progranulin expression using shRNA technology further reduced cell survival. Neurons are among the most long-lived cells in the body and are subject to low levels of toxic challenges throughout life. We have demonstrated that progranulin is abundantly expressed in motor neurons and is cytoprotective over prolonged periods when over-expressed in a neuronal cell line. This work highlights the importance of progranulin as neuroprotective growth factor and may represent a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases including motor neuron disease.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · BMC Neuroscience
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    • "All in vitro results suggests that there are high levels of expression in hematopoietic myeloid cells in the periphery, but low basal level of expression in vivo. In contrast to the mitogenic properties of PGRN on epithelial cells, there is little evidence to suggest that PGRN has mitogenic effects on hematopoietic cells [6,11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Progranulin (PGRN) is a pleiotropic protein that has gained the attention of the neuroscience community with recent discoveries of mutations in the gene for PGRN that cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Pathogenic mutations in PGRN result in null alleles, and the disease is likely the result of haploinsufficiency. Little is known about the normal function of PGRN in the central nervous system apart from a role in brain development. It is expressed by microglia and neurons. In the periphery, PGRN is involved in wound repair and inflammation. High PGRN expression has been associated with more aggressive growth of various tumors. The properties of full length PGRN are distinct from those of proteolytically derived peptides, referred to as granulins (GRNs). While PGRN has trophic properties, GRNs are more akin to inflammatory mediators such as cytokines. Loss of the neurotrophic properties of PGRN may play a role in selective neuronal degeneration in FTLD, but neuroinflammation may also be important. Gene expression studies suggest that PGRN is up-regulated in a variety of neuroinflammatory conditions, and increased PGRN expression by microglia may play a pivotal role in the response to brain injury, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Journal of Neuroinflammation
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