Reliability of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale, and Tiffany Questionnaire for Smoking Urges in Smokers with and without Schizophrenia
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States Drug and Alcohol Dependence
(Impact Factor: 3.42).
01/2007; 86(2-3):278-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.06.005
Few studies have examined the psychometrics of smoking-related behavioral measures in schizophrenia and questions have been raised about the applicability to smokers with schizophrenia. We examined the reliability of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (M-NWS), and the Tiffany Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (TQSU) for smokers with schizophrenia (SS; n=151) and nonpsychiatric smokers (CS; n=181) recruited into three studies with similar inclusion criteria. SS and CS did not differ on a number of demographic and smoking variables (e.g., age). SS reported higher carbon monoxide (CO) levels, plasma cotinine levels, FTND, M-NWS, and TQSU Factor 1 scores. The internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha) of the smoking measures were found to be high and comparable between diagnostic groups for the FTND, M-NWS total scores, and TQSU Factor 2 (all alpha's>0.70) but higher for the CS than SS for the TQSU Factor 1 (0.86 versus 0.79). Test-retest correlations were lower for SS than CS on the FTND (0.65 versus 0.82), TQSU Factor 1 (0.65 versus 0.79), and TQSU Factor 2 (0.69 versus 0.81), but did not differ between diagnostic groups for M-NWS (0.58 versus 0.64). Our findings suggest that these measures may be reliable for use in smokers with schizophrenia.
Available from: Irene Pericot-Valverde
- "This scale has demonstrated good reliability (α = .70) (Weinberger et al., 2007) and moderate correlations with other scales assessing withdrawal symptoms (West, Ussher, Evans, & Rashid, 2006). Psychological characteristics were assessed with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970), the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) and the Delay Discounting (DD) task. "
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ABSTRACT: Although extensive research has demonstrated that cigarette craving can be effectively attenuated, very few studies have explored associations between individual variables and craving reduction. This study explored whether individual characteristics predict craving decreases during virtual reality cue exposure treatment (VR-CET).
Participants were 41 treatment-seeking smokers (73% women) with a mean age of 39.4 (SD=13.2), who had been smoking 15.0 (SD=7.1) cigarettes per day for 20.0 (SD=10.7) years. Their mean score on the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was 4.8 (SD=2.3). Participants completed five cue exposure sessions using virtual reality for smoking cessation over a five-week period. The percentage of reduction in craving was calculated by comparing self-reported craving after the first and last exposure sessions. Sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, years of education and marital status), tobacco-related [duration of daily smoking, cigarettes per day, FTND and Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS)] and psychological characteristics [depressive symptoms (Beck's Depression Inventory-Second Edition, BDI-II), impulsiveness (delay discounting) and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI)] were examined as possible predictors for craving reductions.
Multiple regression revealed that greater decreases in craving were associated with younger age (β=-.30, p=.043), cigarettes smoked per day (β=.30, p=.042), higher values on delay discounting (β=.34, p=.020) and higher BDI-II scores (β=.30, p=.035).
These findings suggest that smokers with certain individual characteristics may benefit most from interventions aimed at reducing craving through VR-CET.
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Available from: Janna Cousijn
- "The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to measure tobacco use and dependence (Heatherton, Kozlowski, Frecker, & Fagerstrom, 1991). Internal consistency is high and test–retest reliability is satisfactory (Pomerleau, Carton, Lutzke, Flessland, & Pomerleau, 1994; Weinberger et al., 2007). "
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ABSTRACT: One of the characteristics of people suffering from addictive behaviors is the tendency to be distracted by drug cues. This attentional bias for drug cues is thought to lead to increased craving and drug use, and may draw individuals into a vicious cycle of drug addiction. In the current study we developed a Dutch version of the cannabis Stroop task and measured attentional bias for cannabis words in a group of heavy cannabis users and matched controls. The classical Stroop task was used as a global measure of cognitive control and we examined the relationship between cognitive control, cannabis-related problems, cannabis craving and cannabis attentional bias. Using our version of the cannabis Stroop task, a group of heavy cannabis users showed attentional bias to cannabis words, whereas a control group of non-users did not. Furthermore, within the group of cannabis users, those who were clinically recognized as dependent showed a stronger attentional bias than the heavy, non-dependent users. Cannabis users who displayed reduced cognitive control (as measured with the classical Stroop task) showed increased session-induced craving. Contrary to expectations, however, cognitive control did not appear to modulate the relationship between attentional bias to cannabis words (cannabis Stroop task) and cannabis dependence. This study confirmed the relationship between cannabis dependence and attentional bias and extends this by highlighting a moderating role for cognitive control, which may make some more vulnerable to craving.
- "2.2.1. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND;Heatherton, Kozlowski, Frecker, & Fagerstrom, 1991) A six item self-report instrument designed to assess degree of tobacco dependence, the FTND has extensive use in the field of nicotine and tobacco research (Charbol, Niezborala, Chastan, & de Leon, 2005;Weinberger et al., 2007). It has demonstrated validity for both current and retrospective assessment of tobacco use (Suchanek Hudmon, Pomerleau, Brigham, Javitz, & Swan, 2005). "
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