Makarevich, G. et al. Different Polycomb group complexes regulate common target genes in Arabidopsis. EMBO Rep. 7, 947-952

ETH Zürich, Institute of Plant Sciences and Zürich-Basel Plant Science Center, Plant Developmental Biology, LFW E 31, Universitätsstrasse 2, Zürich 8092, Switzerland.
EMBO Reports (Impact Factor: 9.06). 10/2006; 7(9):947-52. DOI: 10.1038/sj.embor.7400760
Source: PubMed


Polycomb group (PcG) proteins convey epigenetic inheritance of repressed transcriptional states. Although the mechanism of the action of PcG is not completely understood, methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) is important in establishing PcG-mediated transcriptional repression. We show that the plant PcG target gene PHERES1 is regulated by histone trimethylation on H3K27 residues mediated by at least two different PcG complexes in plants, containing the SET domain proteins MEDEA or CURLY LEAF/SWINGER. Furthermore, we identify FUSCA3 as a potential PcG target gene and show that FUSCA3 is regulated by MEDEA and CURLY LEAF/SWINGER. We propose that different PcG complexes regulate a common set of target genes during the different stages of plant development.

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    • "Loss-offunction mutants of these proteins express embryo identity genes ectopically and develop somatic embryos on seedlings. These chromatin-modifying proteins include members of the Arabidopsis SWI/SNF and CHD classes of chromatin-remodeling ATPases (Ogas et al., 1999), members of the Polycomb Group Repressive Complex1 (PRC1) and PRC2, which deposit repressive marks on histones, histone 2A Lys-119 ubiquitination and histone 3 Lys-27 trimethylation, respectively (Chanvivattana et al., 2004; Schubert et al., 2005; Makarevich et al., 2006; Chen et al., 2009; Bratzel et al., 2010; Bouyer et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2012), and histone deacetylases (HDACs), which create a repressive transcriptional state by removing acetyl groups from the Lys residues of histone tails (Tanaka et al., 2008). The large number of proteins that play a role in this process, combined with the potential crosstalk between different chromatin-modifying proteins (Zhang et al., 2012), ensures a multilevel dynamic control over cell totipotency. "
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    ABSTRACT: The haploid male gametophyte, the pollen grain, is a terminally differentiated structure whose function ends at fertilization. Plant breeding and propagation widely use haploid embryo production from in vitro-cultured male gametophytes, but this technique remains poorly understood at the mechanistic level. Here, we show that histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the switch to haploid embryogenesis. Blocking HDAC activity with trichostatin A (TSA) in cultured male gametophytes of Brassica napus leads to a large increase in the proportion of cells that switch from pollen to embryogenic growth. Embryogenic growth is enhanced by, but not dependent on, the high-temperature stress that is normally used to induce haploid embryogenesis in B. napus. The male gametophyte of Arabidopsis thaliana, which is recalcitrant to haploid embryo development in culture, also forms embryogenic cell clusters after TSA treatment. Genetic analysis suggests that the HDAC protein HDA17 plays a role in this process. TSA treatment of male gametophytes is associated with the hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4. We propose that the totipotency of the male gametophyte is kept in check by an HDAC-dependent mechanism and that the stress treatments used to induce haploid embryo development in culture impinge on this HDAC-dependent pathway.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · The Plant Cell
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    • "FIS2 is an indispensable subunit of the FIS complex, and EMF2 and VRN2 cannot substitute it (Chanvivattana et al., 2004; Roszak and Köhler, 2011). Nevertheless, the FIS and the EMF complex share target genes, which they repress during gametogenesis and early seed development and during sporophytic development, respectively (Makarevich et al., 2006) (Fig. 1). FIE and MSI1 are both essential subunits of all three PRC2 complexes in Arabidopsis (Hennig et al., 2003; Köhler et al., 2003a; De Lucia et al., 2008; Derkacheva et al., 2013) (Fig. 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Polycomb group (PcG) proteins evolved early in evolution, probably in the common ancestor of animals and plants. In some unicellular organisms, such as Chlamydomonas and Tetrahymena, PcG proteins silence genes in heterochromatin, suggesting an ancestral function in genome defence. In angiosperms, the PcG system controls many developmental transitions. A PcG function in the vernalization response evolved especially in Brassicaceaea. Thus, the role of PcG proteins has changed during evolution to match novel needs. Recent studies identified many proteins associated with plant PcG protein complexes. Possible functions of these interactions are discussed here. We highlight recent findings about recruitment of PcG proteins in plants in comparison with animal system. Through the new data, a picture emerges in which PcG protein complexes do not function in sequential linear pathways but as dynamically interacting networks allowing stabilizing feedback loops. We discuss how the interplay between different PcG protein complexes can enable establishment, maintenance, and epigenetic inheritance of H3K27me3.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of Experimental Botany
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    • "MEDEA (MEA) (Grossniklaus et al., 1998), CURLY LEAF (CLF) (Goodrich et al., 1997), and SWINGER (SWN) (Chanvivattana et al., 2004) are the EZH2 homologs; EMBRYONIC FLOWER2 (EMF2), FERTILISATION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2), and VERNALIZATION2 (VRN2) are the SU(Z)12 homologs (Luo et al., 1999; Gendall et al., 2001; Yoshida et al., 2001); FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) is the unique EED homolog (Ohad et al., 1999); and MULTICOPY SUPRESSOR OF IRA1–5 (MSI1–5) are the five RbAp46/48 homologs, but only MSI1 has been shown to be part of the PRC2s (Köhler et al., 2003; De Lucia et al., 2008; Derkacheva et al., 2013). Although the different PRC2s have discrete roles in controlling distinct aspects of plant development , they also regulate a common set of target genes at different stages of development (Makarevich et al., 2006). As in animals, several PHD proteins, such as VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE3 (VIN3) (Sung and Amasino, 2004; Wood et al., 2006), VERNALIZATION5 (VRN5, also known as VIL1) (Sung et al., 2006; Greb et al., 2007), and VIN3-LIKE 2 (VIL2) (Kim and Sung, 2010), have been shown to co-purify with the VRN2-PRC2. "
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    ABSTRACT: From mammals to plants, the Polycomb Group (PcG) machinery plays a crucial role in maintaining the repression of genes that are not required in a specific differentiation status. However, the mechanism by which PcG machinery mediates gene repression is still largely unknown in plants. Compared to animals, few PcG proteins have been identified in plants, not only because just some of these proteins are clearly conserved to their animal counterparts, but also because some PcG functions are carried out by plant-specific proteins, most of them as yet uncharacterized. For a long time, the apparent lack of Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC)1 components in plants was interpreted according to the idea that plants, as sessile organisms, do not need a long-term repression as they must be able to respond rapidly to environmental signals; however, some PRC1 components have been recently identified, indicating that this may not be the case. Furthermore, new data regarding the recruitment of PcG complexes and maintenance of PcG repression in plants have revealed important differences to what has been reported so far. This review highlights recent progress in plant PcG function, focusing on the role of the putative PRC1 components.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Molecular Plant
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