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Effect of Physical Education and Activity Levels on Academic Achievement in Children

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Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the effect of physical education class enrollment and physical activity on academic achievement in middle school children. Participants were 214 sixth-grade students randomly assigned to physical education during either first or second semesters. Moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (number of 30-min time blocks) outside of school was assessed using the 3-d physical activity recall (3DPAR). The 3DPAR time blocks were converted to ordinal data with scores of 1 (no activity), 2 (some activity), or 3 (activity meeting Healthy People 2010 guidelines). Academic achievement was assessed using grades from four core academic classes and standardized test scores (Terra Nova percentiles). Grades were similar regardless of whether students were enrolled in physical education during first or second semesters. Physical education classes averaged only 19 min of MVPA. Students who either performed some or met Healthy People 2010 guidelines for vigorous activity had significantly higher grades (P < 0.05) than students who performed no vigorous activity in both semesters. Moderate physical activity did not affect grades. Standardized test scores were not significantly related to physical education class enrollment or physical activity levels. Although academic achievement was not significantly related to physical education enrollment, higher grades were associated with vigorous physical activity, particularly activity meeting recommended Healthy People 2010 levels.

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... Data from several sources (25,26) have identified that higher levels of aerobic fitness are also known to predict better academic achievement, during childhood (27)(28)(29)(30), and significant improvements in scholastic performance are associated with increased participation in PA during the school day (30)(31)(32). ...
... Data from several sources (25,26) have identified that higher levels of aerobic fitness are also known to predict better academic achievement, during childhood (27)(28)(29)(30), and significant improvements in scholastic performance are associated with increased participation in PA during the school day (30)(31)(32). ...
... and academic achievement. It is somewhat surprising that no correlation was founded because other studies confirm that aerobic fitness has an effect on the academic achievement (66) during childhood (27)(28)(29)(30) and in primary school (32,67). However, the aerobic performance can be influenced by other non-cognition factors like motivation, school demographic characteristics and classroom practices (68,69). ...
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Background: Many studies results suggest how can we improve the academic performance for our kids. The purposes of this study were to examine how physical activity could affect both academic achievement and fluid intelligence in adolescence. Study design: We measured the three variables (physical, cognitive, academic) and try to find the correlations between them. Methods: A total of 167 adolescents (mean age = 16.34 years SD = 1.2) from Morocco are participating in this study. The cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with the20 m endurance shuttle-run test. We also assessed the Resistance capacity with 500m sprint test. The academic achievement was assessed by school grades. The fluid intelligence was assessed by using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. We examined the correlation between all variables. Results: This study indicates that the academic achievement was positively associated with the Fluid Intelligence and also with the Resistance Capacity and not with Cardiorespiratory Fitness (VO2peak). Conclusions: We can conclude that the professionals and researchers in sports and education have to promote physical activity at the school age for a public health purpose.
... Lastly, the effects of PA interventions on academic achievement have also been explored. Specifically, an in-school vigorous PA intervention over the course of 1 semester was associated with higher grades in academic achievement at the completion of the semester [28]. Notably, the increased grades were not observed in children who participated in moderate PA interventions, suggesting that this effect was only related to the PA of vigorous intensity [28]. ...
... Specifically, an in-school vigorous PA intervention over the course of 1 semester was associated with higher grades in academic achievement at the completion of the semester [28]. Notably, the increased grades were not observed in children who participated in moderate PA interventions, suggesting that this effect was only related to the PA of vigorous intensity [28]. Additionally, an acute in-school PA intervention in adolescents demonstrated increased performance in mathematical tasks, indicating that benefits may be observed immediately following the cessation of an exercise bout, as well as following prolonged exposure to PA behaviors. ...
Chapter
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Physical activity (PA) can improve physical, mental, cognitive, and brain health throughout the lifespan. During preadolescent childhood, the benefits of PA for cognitive health have been widely studied, with evidence indicating enhanced executive control, improved academic performance, and adaptation in underlying brain structure and function. Across school age children, the predominant literature has focused on preadolescent children, with a comparatively smaller body of evidence in adolescent children. Yet, preliminary findings suggest improvements in verbal, numeric, and reasoning abilities as well as academic achievements. Further, benefits of PA are also rarely examined in preschool children. Consequently , lack of standardization across studies has led to various approaches in the measurement of PA and fitness. However, since implementing tools that objectively quantify active play, PA has been related to better executive function, language acquisition, and academic achievement. Despite evidence that PA promotes cognitive and brain health during development, a growing number of schools have minimized PA opportunities across the school day. The minimization of PA along with several other factors, including lack of active commuting to school, nutrition transition, and availability of electronic devices, for example, has reduced children's physical and mental health. Accordingly, today's children have become increasingly inactive, which affects public health and contributes to educational concerns. By dedicating time to active play, sports, physical education, and other forms of PA, children are best positioned to thrive in both the physical and cognitive domains.
... There are of course barriers to increasing physical activity in schools. One is the attitude that physical education is not an academic course and therefore not as important to a child's development as math and reading (Coe et al., 2006). A lack of awareness by teachers about the positive effect that physical activity has on the learning centers of the brain is another (Ratey, 2008). ...
... A third barrier is the lack of rigor in most PE classes. In a study conducted by Coe et al. (2006), where traditional PE classes were evaluated by means of a test called the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT), researchers found that in most 55-minute PE classes, students experience moderate to vigorous activity levels on an average of only 19 minutes per class. This is well below the threshold for physical activity minutes that enhance health and wellness. ...
Article
Physical activity (PA) or movement embedded into elementary school education offers both mental and physical health benefits for students. This paper will look at the important role physical activity plays in the overall physical, emotional, and academic well-being of students and make an argument for why the field of positive education should incorporate physical activity into its framework. It will also make a case for the critical role teachers play in bringing physical activity into their classrooms and provide strategies for how teachers can do this in a more organic way. Studies show that PA is as important to the learning environment as academics. With buy-in from administrators, teachers, and educational institutions, a practice of including physical activity into our daily schedule will produce benefits for wellness at school and beyond.
... Nowadays, there is much more knowledge related to the benefits of Physical Education, as even parents are being educated regarding this issue (Miller, 2017). Coe. et al. (2006), states that Physical Education increases arousal and diminish boredom within students, which might lead to a surge in attention span and concentration. Moreover, with children participating in Physical Education, and their activity levels increasing, there might also be a rise in self-esteem, in which this might affect the classroom be ...
... et al. (2006), states that Physical Education increases arousal and diminish boredom within students, which might lead to a surge in attention span and concentration. Moreover, with children participating in Physical Education, and their activity levels increasing, there might also be a rise in self-esteem, in which this might affect the classroom behaviour as well as enhancing the student's academic performance (Coe, et al., 2006). A recent local study by , showed the benefits that Physical Education lessons have on students. ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this study was to investigate how Physical Education teachers perceive their own subject and what issues need to be addressed in order to deliver quality Physical Education (P.E.) lessons. Moreover, this study explored the Psychological Barriers that students go through during P.E. lessons. Six semi-structured interviews were conducted amongst these teachers who came from the three school systems in Malta, being State, Church and Independent schools. The interviews were planned around a topic guide, yet additional questions were put forward in order to understand the individuals better. These interviews were carried out to get a clearer vision of what students go through during Physical Education lessons and what can be done in order to eliminate these barriers, while also unveiling issues that needs to be worked upon. A thematic analysis was later used to analyse the data collected through the interviews. The analysis gave a clearer picture that adolescents do go through Psychological Barriers during P.E. lessons, and in fact although it is a subject with numerous benefits, it can still give students a sense of disappointment and failure. Adding on, various issues were mentioned by the interviewees, were they admitted that for quality P.E. to take place, there are quite a few things that need to change. While carrying out this study, limitations occurred. Originally it was planned that the interview questions are conducted much earlier in the year, yet the approval to carry out my research in schools took longer than expected. Moreover, after conducting the interviews and all the transcripts were ready, it was clear that one of the interviewees was not concise in his answers, and some of the answers were even out of point, thus that interview was barely used. This study is an information tool for adolescents, parents, teachers and their stakeholders as it sheds light on the importance of Physical Education, the benefits that come around with it; yet also the Psychological Barriers that certain students are facing during their P.E. lessons. Besides, all that, the study also tackles the issues that the teachers and students respectively are facing due to improperly built curriculums, lack of facilities and absence of time. Keywords: Adolescence, Physical Education, P.E. Teachers, Psychological Barriers, Quality P.E.
... The results of the present study are also consistent with the studies conducted by Coe et al. (2006), Orit Bart (2007) ...
... Coe et al. (2006) studied the impact of physical education and physical activity status on academic achievement of school children. Results reveal positive relationship between physical activity with academic achievement in the classroom. ...
... Movement allows a man-child a balanced and stable bio-psycho-social status, and also affects reducing fatigue and boredom and increasing self-esteem [30]. Some studies on physical activity and cognitive functioning have provided evidence that regular physical activity can be associated with improved cognitive performance and academic achievement [31,32], but other studies have reported that these associations are usually small and inconsistent. On the other hand, certain are the studies that showed consistent negative associations between mental health and sedentary behavior [33]. ...
... Physical activity is positively connected to academic accomplishment [32], cognitive performance [31] and physical and general self-validation [40]. It also prepares children for a healthy lifestyle and independence in the labor market [29]. ...
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The purpose of this research is to identify, through longitudinal study, the qualitative effects of both prescribed and modified physical education syllabus, on the motor abilities of the students of each syllabus, and to offer the recommendations for improving syllabus. All tests were conducted on a sample of 122 respondents, first and second year students attending secondary schools. Sixty-three respondents were participants of the experimental group and 59 were participants of the control group. For assessing the basic motor abilities of the students, the standard motor tests were used. Data was analyzed using the application statistics program SPSS 20.0. The results showed that a significant difference in progress was found in 40-meter dash from a standing start, 60-meter dash from a standing start, double foot tapping, squat, standing long jump, standing triple jump among the groups, while a significant difference was not found in six remaining tests among the groups. These findings give the competent authorities who are in charge of creating teaching syllabus in Serbia better working knowledge and suggestions for developing even better teaching syllabus by following contemporary trends.
... educational aspirations, as well as maintaining them in colleges. Their study revealed that there is a link between participation in sports and academic performance and sports activities positively influenced on the education of the youth. It also revealed that participation in these activities improve cognitive development of the youth. Moreover, Coe et. al (2006) also asserted that higher grades of the middle school children were associated with vigorous physical activities. Ghildiyal (2015) also supported that sports help students study better, improves concentration, problem solving, and memory. Sports teaches one to develop team spirit, leadership skills, fairplay, fighting spirit, great leve ...
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Participation in different rent sports activities plays a significant role in the enrichment of a student's social life and the development of social interaction skills. This study aimed to evaluate the Jose Rizal Memorial State University-Katipunan Campus students' involvement in sports activities. It utilized the descriptive method that used 318 students participating sports activities. The result of the study revealed that volleyball, basketball and badminton are the sports participated by the students in and off the campus, 2-3 hours of sports involvement in a week and 6% and 2% are involved in regional and national competition levels respectively. The facilities for basketball and volleyball were identified for need of improvements while facilities for gymnastics and sports club were identified to be established in the campus. Thus, the researchers recommend the administration to design a sports development program to address the current needs of the students. Copyright © 2018, Theresa Mee S. Habagat and Rolando P. Romasasa, C. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
... In terms of sports practice and AP, there is national and international research, as is the case of McPherson et al. (2018), who identified a significant relation between PA and AP (r = 0.225) of schoolchildren; as well as Coe et al. (2006), who specify that the grades were similar regardless of whether the students were enrolled in physical education during the first or second semester and sports practice did not affect these grades. In addition to Dwyer et al. (2001), who obtained as a result that PA improves AP; likewise, Donnelly and Lambourne (2011) indicated that moderate sports practice improved AP by 6% (p < .02). ...
... Only one study analysed both interventions and cognition variables. 33 Ardoy [33] Coe [35] Coster B [26] Coster G [26] Ericsson and Karlsson B [27] Ericsson and Karlsson G [27] Lima [34] Overall Heterogeneity: τ 2 = 0.02, I 2 = 48.48%, H 2 = 1.94 ...
Article
Objective To determine the effects of interventions aimed at optimising the quantity and quality of physical education (PE) on cognition and academic performance in children and adolescents. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Studies from electronic databases from inception to 3 January 2021 were identified. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Experimental studies that assessed the effect of quantity-based (ie, increasing the amount of curriculum time allocated to PE) or quality-based (ie, increasing students’ participation in physical activity during PE) PE interventions, or both, on changes in cognition and/or academic performance in youth (aged 5–18 years) were included. Results 19 trials comprising 8676 youth (46.5% girls) were included. Individual quality-based PE interventions increased cognition performance (Hedges’ g=0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.60; I 2=83.70%), mainly in primary education settings (g=0.48, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.89; I 2=90.43%). Academic performance, principally mathematics-related skills, was also increased by quality-based PE interventions (g=0.15, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.24; I 2=41.75%). Among these interventions, teaching strategies favoured similar results, but without heterogeneity in the results (g=0.12, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.18; I 2=0%). In contrast, quantity-based PE interventions had a very small and non-significant effect on academic performance (g=0.09, 95% CI −0.05 to 0.24; Q=11.65; I 2=48.48%). Finally, there were no differences between the three PE interventions (ie, quantity, quality, and combined PE interventions) in regard to academic performance. Conclusion Improving the quality of PE classes may improve students’ cognition and academic performance in children and adolescents. Importantly, allocating more time for PE does not seem to compromise this performance.
... specific high-level cognitive abilities such as decision-making, concentration, thinking speed, memory, and alertness. The literatures from (Coe, Pivarnik, Womack, Reeves, & Malina, 2006;Donnelly et al., 2009;Hillman, Castelli, & Buck, 2005) reported ...
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This study aims to percieve the relationship between physical fitness and the grade-point average. This study used a quantitative method with survey techniques with design correlation. The subjects of this study were 1st and 3rd semester physical education college students with total sample of 142 students (M: 97, F: 45). Random sampling was used as the sampling technique and TKJI (Indonesian Physical Fitness Test) was used as the instrument in this study was. The results show that 4 students (2,82%) were in very good, 68 students (47,89%) were in good, 58 students (40,85%) were in good fitness classification, 11 students (7,75%) were in less, and 1 students (0,7%) were in very less fitness classification. It means that the physical fitness of physical education college students mostly in good fitness classification. ANOVA was used to analyze the relationship between health-related physical fitness and grade-point average index. The statistical test shows that physical fitness has a positive correlation with the grade-point average index with Sig (P value) = 0,000 and 5% margin of error. Based on the t-test, the value of t count (21,360)>t table (2.12) which can be concluded that physical fitness affects the grade-point average index.
... Schools should promote students' physical, mental and social health as well as their learning (SFS, 2010:800). However, research to date has revealed significant correlations between promoting students' health and improving their learning (Awartani et al., 2008;Coe et al., 2006). In the past decade, education in Sweden, supported by a new grading system, has demonstrated not only reduced academic performance compared to other countries (Skolverket, 2019a(Skolverket, , 2019b but also a falling proportion of secondary school graduates, namely from 90% to 83% (Skolverket, 2019c). ...
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The vast majority of students in Sweden are healthy and live good lives, but rising health problems and declining academic performance pose risks to the country’s student population. School health services (SHS) in Sweden have a long tradition of hosting health dialogues (HD) with students to support their health and its repercussions on their learning. Purpose: To describe experiences from 6- to 16-year-old students participating in the health dialogue in school. Method: Descriptive qualitative design. Data were collected from 734 open-ended responses on a questionnaire distributed among students ranging in age from 6 to 16. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Findings: The analysis identified five categories: Important to identify health and health problems, School nurse, a key profession, School environment important for both health and learning, Importance of health screening and Important to have a healthy lifestyle. The findings revealed that students aged 6 to 16 years old consider health and health problems, school environment, health screening and healthy lifestyle to be important areas for health and learning School nurses were identified as key persons in HD and for student’s experience of health and learning. Conclusion: HD is an opportunity for students to participate and influence decisions concerning their health and education, to actively engage in their own health and learning in areas that affect them for example, the school environment.
... O DE foi mensurado através das notas das disciplinas de português e matemática, as quais são bastante utilizadas em estudos com diferentes delineamentos (BOTH et al., 2014;COE et al., 2006;KIM & SO, 2012;ESTEBAN-CORNEJO et al., 2014;SHORE et al., 2014;ARDOY et al., 2014, KALL et al., 2014, bem como apresentadas em estudos de revisão (DONELLY et al., 2016;POITRAS et al., 2016;SPRUIT et al., 2016;HAPALA, 2012;HAAPALA, 2013). ...
Thesis
The promotion of health and health education has given special attention to the school environment. In this perspective, evidence on interventions to promote PA and health by identifying improvements in educational indicators may increase the interest of schools in the adoption of health programs. The objective of the study was to analyze the effect and possible mediators factors related to PA (teacher support, support from friends, perception of school environment for PA and practice of PA) of an intervention on academic performance 7th to 9th year of public schools of Integral Time of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. A randomized, clustercontrolled study at four full-time Fortaleza schools (two were randomly allocated for each condition - intervention and control). The intervention lasted four months and involved teacher training and action to discuss PA and health in the curriculum, PA (materials and games) and educational (including parents) opportunities. Data collection was done in July 2014 and, after the intervention, in December 2014. The academic performance was obtained through the notes of the portuguese and math subjects, converted into standard scores by school and class. The weekly AF time was estimated from the self-completion of a validated questionnaire, considering a list of PA. A validated instrument was used to measure interpersonal factors (support of friends and teachers for FA) and environmental (perception of neighborhood safety, neighborhood / school facilities and AF) associated with PA. Control variables were school, gender and economic class. Generalized linear models were used to identify the effect of intervention on academic performance, PA and factors associated with PA. Effect size was calculated. The procedures proposed by Hayes to analyze the product of the coefficients were used in the mediation analysis. The level of significance was 5%. A total of 733 students (361 in the intervention group), aged 11 to 18 years. There was a positive and significant effect (p <0.05) of the intervention in the weekly time in PA and in the perception of school facilities / equipment for PA. No effect was observed in academic performance (p = 0.06). Simple and serial mediation in portuguese and math were not confirmed. The analysis of serial mediation proposed in the present study takes into consideration seven paths, the confirmation of the mediation is strict. Positive results in the analysis of mediation in some ways were confirmed in both disciplines. In conclusion, the intervention caused an increase in PA and perception of the environment associated with PA, however, these changes were not enough to promote academic performance alteration. Future studies may test other strategies in interventions aimed at improving academic performance.
... A weaker relationship was also observed between fitness levels and English performance. Coe, Pivarnik, Womack, Reeves and Malina (2006) didn't just examine physical fitness impact on academics but also looked at physical activity levels. In this study, six-graders were split into two groups, group one had physical education the first semester along with four core classes (math, science, English, and world studies), while the other had physical education the second semester of the year with the four core classes. ...
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Sixteen 6th grade middle school students, who were all classified as struggling readers, volunteered to participate in a study examining the impact of daily physical movement and singing (Affirming Parallel Concepts) on reading fluency, as measured by words read per minute. Half of the participants received instruction on learning new songs to sing in class while simultaneously learning new sight words over a six-week period. The other eight students served as a control group and received standard reading instruction on learning new sight words. The experimental group incorporated movement into their singing by clapping their hands and thighs, stomping their feet, and moving around the classroom while singing. Students in the experimental group significantly improved their reading fluency (14% improvement) versus those students in the control group (5% improvement) over the six-week instruction period as measured by Fountas and Pinnell reading assessments.
... 25 Besides, obese students are mostly less physically activated which lead them to experience lower school performance compared with normal BMI students. [26][27][28][29] Numerous studies have been performed across the United States on whether or not physical fitness levels have a significant positive correlation with academic achievement. [30][31][32][33] CONCLUSION Obesity continues to be the most important preventable risk factor for lifestyle diseases. ...
... Therefore, the study of the motor performance of a child is a prerequisite for a full understanding of the entire development of the child. It has also been suggested that increased physical activity can cause excitement and decrease boredom, resulting in increased span of attention and improved focus [3]. In fact, physical activity can increase self-efficacy and self-esteem feelings and can boost class behaviour [4]. ...
... El GC empeoró los resultados en variables como la memoria o la atención, el grupo que hizo juegos sedentarios no obtuvo diferencias y los grupos de AF moderada y vigorosa obtuvieron mejoras significativas respecto a los demás. Por su parte, Coe et al. (2006), analizaron el efecto de la intensidad en jóvenes de 10-11 años, observando que el grupo de intensidad moderada no reflejó cambios, mientras que el grupo que trabajó a intensidad vigorosa sí obtuvo mejoras significativas frente al GC. Estos hallazgos difieren en parte con los del presente estudio que mostró mayores beneficios del grupo que realizó AF a baja intensidad. ...
Article
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El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer el efecto agudo de dos tipos diferentes de descansos activos (baja y alta intensidad), llevados a cabo entre dos clases, sobre varias variables cognitivas como la memoria, atención-concentración, cálculo matemático, razonamiento lingüístico y creatividad en jóvenes de Educación Secundaria. Participaron 136 adolescentes de 12.92 ± 0.43 años. Se emplearon 3 grupos de estudio: 1) Grupo de control (GC) que permaneció sentado dentro de la clase; 2) Grupo experimental 1 (GE1) que realizó 1 descanso activo de 4 minutos a baja intensidad; y 3) Grupo experimental 2 (GE2) que llevó a cabo ejercicios de alta intensidad. Para analizar los efectos de los diferentes tipos de descansos se empleó ANCOVA de medidas repetidas 3 Grupo (GC, GE1, GE2) x 2 Tiempo (pre, post). Se empleó como covariables la edad, sexo y estudios de la madre. Los resultados mostraron que los descansos activos mejoraron la memoria posterior de los participantes (p<0.001). Los descansos activos de baja intensidad presentaron un efecto de mejora similar en la atención y concentración (21 y 25%, p<0.001). Se observaron mejoras en el cálculo matemático tras ambos tipos de descansos activos, sin embargo, las diferencias no han llegado a ser significativas. Los adolescentes no mostraron mejoras en la capacidad lingüística ni en la creatividad. Se sugiere la inclusión de descansos activos, preferiblemente a baja intensidad, para obtener beneficios a corto plazo en la atención, concentración y cálculo matemático en jóvenes de educación secundaria. Abstract. The objective of this study was to know the acute effect of two different types of active breaks (low and high intensity), carried out between two classes, on several cognitive variables such as memory, attention-concentration, mathematical calculation, linguistic reasoning and creativity in high school youth. 136 adolescents of 12.92 ± 0.43 years participated. Three study groups were used: 1) Control group (CG) that remained seated within the class; 2) Experimental group 1 (EG1) that made 1 active break of 4 minutes at low intensity; and 3) Experimental group 2 (EG2) that carried out high intensity exercises. To analyze the effects of the different types of breaks, ANCOVA was used with repeated measures 3 Group (CG, EG1, EG2) x 2 Time (pre, post). Age, sex and studies of the mother were used as covariates. The results showed that active rest improved the participants' later memory (p <0.001). The low intensity active breaks had a similar improvement effect in attention and concentration (21 and 25%, p <0.001). Improvements in the mathematical calculation were observed after both types of active breaks, however, the differences have not become significant. The adolescents showed no improvement in linguistic ability or creativity. It is suggested the inclusion of active breaks, preferably at low intensity, to obtain short-term benefits in the attention, concentration and mathematical calculation in secondary school youth.
... Research by Koo et al. Has shown that participating in sports activities increases accuracy and reduces learning problems for students with ADHD (Coe, Pivarnik, Womack, Reeves, & Malina, 2006). Ploughman considers the effect of physical exercise on cognitive parameters such as attention due to increased blood oxygenation, increased secretion of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and norepinephrine, and regulation of neurotrophins (Ploughman, 2008). ...
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The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Functional Training (FT) on impulsiveness of female students with Intellectual Disability (ID). The research method was pretestposttest- with a control group. The statistical population consisted of all female students with ID in elementary school of Shiraz studying under the auspices of the Special Education Organization in 2018- 2019. The participants included 30 female students with ID selected through convenience sampling and randomly assigned to the experimental (n=14) and control (n=14) groups. The experimental group received the functional training for 15 sessions, while the control group did not receive any intervention. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 11 (BIS-11) was used for measuring the impulsiveness. The Impulsiveness pre-test was performed for both experimental and control groups. The experimental group received the FT for 15 sessions, while the control group did not receive any intervention. At the end of the intervention, post-test was performed for both groups. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the data. The results showed that the mean scores of impulsivities and its subscales (motor impulsiveness, attentional impulsiveness and nonplanning impulsiveness) in the experimental group were significantly reduced. The results showed that FT had a significant effect on impulsiveness of female students with ID (p<0.001). Therefore, it is recommended to design and implement a FT program to improve impulsiveness in people with ID.
... The benefits of being physically active are well established and because children spend more time in school than any other setting except home, the school becomes an ideal place to integrate physical activity. Coe et al. (2006) found that increased physical activity may increase arousal and reduce boredom which may result in increased attention span and concentration. Inclusively, single sessions of physical activity demonstrate benefits due to increased attention and task behaviors in the classroom (Mahar et al., 2006) such as more attentive, exhibit better behavior, and perform better scholastically after participation in physical activity through recess or physical education. ...
Article
The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between cardiovascular fitness, body mass index and academic performance in 547 Hispanic children in 5th grade from a Rio Grande Valley school district. The dependent variable, academic performance, was measured by children’s gain score on the STAAR Progress Measure for Reading and Math assessments. The independent variables of physical fitness were measured by scores on cardiovascular fitness and body mass index from the FITNESSGRAM assessment. The statistical and data analysis method used by this study utilized multiple regression. The results revealed that body mass index was correlated with academic performance. Body mass index accounted for a statistically significant variance in math gains while time did not explain any significant variance in math. There was no correlation between reading gains and time and body mass index. The results by weight group revealed a significant correlation between time and reading gains for the normal weight group and a significant correlation between body mass index and math gains for the obese group. These results suggest that at grade 5, consideration be given to body mass index levels of Hispanic children from low-income backgrounds.
... Greater levels of VPA have also been related to higher grades in sixth-grade students, especially among those following the Healthy People 2010 recommendations for at least 20 min VPA per day at least 3 days per week. At the same time, the amount of MPA was not associated with higher grades [62]. In addition, research has, in turn, connected higher perceptual abilities with better whole academic performance among 4-6-graders [63], indicating the importance of current findings about the relations between VPA and perceptual skills in the context of academic success. ...
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Citation: Reisberg, K.; Riso, E.-M.; Jürimäe, J. Physical Activity, Fitness, and Cognitive Performance of Estonian First-Grade Schoolchildren According Their MVPA Level in Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7576. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147576
... Another issue that needs to be addressed is the major involvement in eLearning that contributes additionally to a sedentary lifestyle. It has been proven that higher fitness levels are associated with higher grades when compared to those with lower fitness levels [11]. It is worth noting that the traditional form of education can force students to move throughout the day, transitioning between classes and activities. ...
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The lockdown with a prohibition of free mobility introduced in many countries has affected restrictions in physical activity (PA). The purpose of the study was to compare PA during restrictions and the “unfreezing” stage. The study group consisted of 89 healthy adult students. To assess the level of PA, a long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used. The first evaluation was carried out in the period from 16 to 20 April 2020 at the time of the lockdown and the second in the period from 11 to 14 May 2020 during the so-called “unfreezing”. The average total PA rate during the first measurement was 8640 metabolic equivalent (MET)-min/week and in the second, 10,560 MET-min/week. The analysis of total energy expenditure showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.029). The establishment of “unfreezing” laws for sport and recreation and the reduction of restrictions have significantly contributed to an increase in the overall level of PA. Based on our outcomes, we recommend students follow the scientific guidelines for undertaking PA (i.e., WHO) during the pandemic in order to maintain an appropriate pro-healthy dose of exercise.
... Studi di attività fisica e allenamento musicale (Budde, Voelcker-Rehage, Pietrabyk-Kendziorra, Ribeiro, & Tidow, 2008) indicano che l'esercizio che stimola la coordinazione bimanuale può migliorare le FE. Finora l'evidenza non mostra benefici FE dal solo allenamento di forza (Coe, Pivarnik, Womack, Reeves, & Malina, 2006). Infine, lo sport di situazione potrebbe favorire le FE più del solo esercizio aerobico, poiché "stressa" le FE (che richiedono attenzione prolungata, memoria di lavoro e azione disciplinata) e porta gioia, orgoglio e legame sociale: è noto che la tristezza, lo stress e la solitudine compromettono le FE. ...
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Executive functions (EF) are a category of mental processes that make possible "a game within the mind and the ideas" using the time to think before the performance. The core of FE is made up of three processes: i) inhibition, ii) working memory, and iii) cognitive flexibility. The goal of this little review was a discussion about the representative measures of each; address the disputes on them and define the implications of their training and development for social, emotional, and physical health. EF can be trained and can be improved with practice/experience. The topic is addressed including actual methods and the available literature. Le funzioni esecutive (FE) sono una categoria di processi mentali che ren-dono possibile giocare mentalmente con le idee riuscendo a prendersi il tempo di pensare prima di agire. Il nucleo delle FE è formato da tre processi: i) inibizione, ii) memoria di lavoro, e iii) flessibilità cognitiva. L'obiettivo di questo excursus è discutere le misure rappresentative di ciascuno; affrontare le controversie e le implicazioni che comporta il loro allenamento e sviluppo per una salute sociale, emotiva e fisica. Le FE sono addestrabili e possano es-sere migliorate con la pratica/esperienza. Viene affrontato l'argomento, at-traverso una disamina dei metodi sperimentati finora analizzati in letteratura.
... In the present study, it was observed that physical activity increased academic performance both directly and indirectly (through general health). This is consistent with the findings of Coe et al. [43] and Chen et al. [44] studies, in which students who participated in physical activities had significantly higher grades than those whiteout physical activities. ...
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Background: Adherence to treatment is effective in preventing illness and life expectancy, and is an essential issue in chronic diseases, like diabetes. Objectives: The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and education based on protection motivation adherence to treatment in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test, a three-month follow-up, and the control group was conducted on all diabetic women aged 40-65 years who referred to the diabetes association of Tehran. Forty-five available patients were selected (15 in each experimental group) and assigned randomly to the experimental group 1 (CBT) and experimental group 2 (educational intervention) and the other fifteen patients were the control group and did not receive any psychotherapy. The adherence to the treatment inventory (Morisky, 2010) was administered in the pre-test, post-test, and follow-up. The therapeutic packages of CBT and educational intervention based on protection motivation were applied to the experimental groups (90 min each session) weekly. Repeated measures ANOVA and analysis of covariance were used to analyze the data by SPSS V. 22. Results: The results showed that the effects of two methods of CBT and motivation-based education on adherence to treatment were significant in the post-test (P
... In the present study, it was observed that physical activity increased academic performance both directly and indirectly (through general health). This is consistent with the findings of Coe et al. [43] and Chen et al. [44] studies, in which students who participated in physical activities had significantly higher grades than those whiteout physical activities. ...
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Background: Obesity in adolescents is associated with not only physical and psychological problems but also a decrease in educational performance. Objectives: This study aimed at determining the behavioral and psychological factors associated with academic performance in overweight and obese girl students in Kermanshah, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 419 overweight and obese female high school students of Kermanshah in 2017 selected through two-stage cluster sampling. Data were collected using the standard questionnaires, including high school students’ academic performance, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire, Littleton’s Body Image Concern Inventory, physical activity subscale of Walker’s Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Data analysis for structural equation modeling was performed using the IBM SPSS AMOS V. 21 software. Results: Self-esteem was found to have significant direct (β=0.412) and indirect (β=0.142) effects on academic performance, with direct effects being stronger (P
... However, the positive effects of PA on AP may accrue most readily only when there is an adequate amount of vigorous PA included (Tomporowski et al., 2011;Phillips et al., 2015). Evidence regarding the association between PA and any broader aspect(s) of AP have (thus far) remained ambiguous, with some researchers also finding negative, or null effects in this relationship (Coe et al., 2006;Beck et al., 2016;Riley et al., 2016). These inconsistent findings may be due to a difficulty in precisely assessing both the overall amount, and intensity of, PA, which children and adolescents regularly undertake (Monyeki et al., 2018;Sember et al., 2020a). ...
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Objective To determine to what extent physical fitness indicators and/or moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may account for final mathematics academic performance (AP math ) awarded at the end of primary school. Methods School-aged youth were sampled in a repeated-measures, longitudinal design in Grade 6 (∼11 years), and again in Grade 9 (∼14 years). The youth ( N = 231, 111 girls) completed a fitness test battery consisting of: flamingo balance test, standing long jump, backward obstacle course, plate tapping, sit ups, sit and reach, handgrip, and 20-m shuttle run. AP math scores were obtained for all children at the end of Grade 5, end of Grade 8, and end of Grade 9 (their final year of primary school). In a sub-sample of Grade 6 youth ( N = 50, 29 girls), MVPA was measured objectively via SenseWear Pro Armbands (MVPA OB ) for seven consecutive days, with measurements repeated in Grade 9. Results Math scores decreased from Grade 6 to 9 for both boys and girls (95%CI: −0.89 to −0.53, p < 0.001). MVPA OB was reduced by ∼45.7 min (−33%) from Grade 6 to 9 ( p < 0.01). Significant main and interaction effects are noted for each fitness indicator ( p < 0.05). A backward stepwise multiple regression analysis determined significant shared variance in final AP math grade to the change scores from Grade 6 to Grade 9 in: ΔAP math , Δbackward obstacle course, Δsit and reach, and Δsit-ups [ R ² = 0.494, F (4,180) = 43.67, p < 0.0001]. A second regression was performed only for the youth who completed MVPA OB measurements. In this sub-sample, MVPA OB did not significantly contribute to the model. Conclusion Longitudinal changes in youth fitness and their delta change in AP math score accounted for 49.4% of the variance in the final math grade awarded at the end of Grade 9. Aerobic power, upper body strength, and muscular endurance share more common variance to final math grade in boys, whereas whole-body coordination was the more relevant index in girls; this finding suggests that future research exploring the relationship of AP and PF should not be limited to cardiorespiratory fitness, instead encompassing muscular and neuro-muscular components of PF.
... It is to be mentioned here that only changes in the settings of the timing independent variables (Study hours when doing sports, Study hours when doing no sports, and Time of doing activity or sports at the college) will be followed by a consequent positive or negative change in the academic achievement of the participants. In contrast, the findings of Coe, Pivarnik [25] reported that academic performance was not influenced by the timing of the physical education class. In other words, the action of dedicating time for learners to do physical activities as part of their curriculum or extra-curricular activities is not associated with any effect on their academic achievement. ...
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Background: To investigate the effect of physical activity and sports on the academic performance of higher education students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during the academic years 2017/2018 and 2018/2019. Methods: A 15-item internet-based survey was distributed among students-both members and non-members of Jeddah Runners Club (JRC)-studying in public and private universities in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The survey collected participants' information such as demographic details, important habits, sport and physical activities, and GPA scores. Responses reached a total of (N=425) male %87.3 (N= 371) and female %12.7 (N=54) and the data was analyzed using IBM SPSS. Results: Results show that there is a significant negative linear relationship between the time students spend doing no physical activity and their GPA scores (β =-0.28, P<0.05). However, there is a statistically significant positive linear relationship between GPA scores and the time spent in sports or physical activity (β = 0.12, P<0.05). Similarly, the time students spend in sports or physical activity in their colleges also positively affects their academic performance (β = 0.10, P<0.05). Ultimately, the more time spent in doing sports or physical activity in or outside their colleges, the better they achieve in their academic performance. Conclusion: The more time spent in physical activity or sports in or outside colleges, the better academic performance will be. Public physical activities and sports are highly welcomed by the Saudi community. Saudi women have shown an increasing interest in doing public physical activities and sports.
... In addition to mediating between PA and self-concept, PSC is regarded as a prime dimension for children and adolescents' self-concept development due to the high relevance of all aspects concerning the physical domain at these ages (Harter, 1999) and the importance that sociocultural influences have on it (e.g., advertising, information, family and friendship environments), such as through body image (Rodríguez et al., 2013). Moreover, PSC has been linked to other issues of great importance in the personal development of children and adolescents, including their academic performance (Coe et al., 2006), lifestyle habits (Grao-Cruces et al., 2015), physical fitness (Carraro et al., 2010), leisure time, social relationships (Biddle et al., 2015), their future practice of PA (Grao-Cruces et al., 2017), participation in school sports (Lubans et al., 2011) and their intention to be physically active in the future (Moreno-Murcia et al., 2011). All of these determinants make PSC essential to children's health (Al-Nakeeb et al., 2007). ...
Article
Background: Observational studies associate physical activity (PA) with improved perceptions of children and adolescents’ physical self-concept (PSC) and global self concept (GSC). However, only a few PA-based interventions exist for improving PSC and their results have been inconclusive. Objective: To determine the effect of specific PA-based programmes on the PSC (including its sub-dimensions) and GSC of children and adolescents, and to assess possible moderators. Methods: The databases Web of cience, Scopus, SportDiscus, PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library were reviewed in February 2020. Only studies with pre-post measurements and control groups were included. The impact of PA-based interventions was explored through different meta-analyses and moderator analyses. Results: Altogether, 20 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Positive and significant effects of PA were determined on self-perceived physical appearance (g = 0.13; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.23), self-perceived sport competence (g = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.09, 0.51), self-perceived physical fitness (g = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.32), PSC (g = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.10, 0.52), and GSC (g = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.33). The existence of additional interventions in PA-based programmes (e.g., interventions focused on psychological factors or healthy habits) moderated the influence of PA on self-perceived sport competence and physical fitness. Moreover, environment and time were distinguished as moderators for self-perceived physical appearance and sport competence. Further, intervention type, gender, and frequency of intervention moderated the effects of PA on PSC. Conclusions: PA based interventions, especially in school, seem to be beneficial for the development of positive physical self-perceptions.
... Successful experiences influence the effectiveness of doing things, so self-confidence will prepare them to tackle new challenges. It is therefore necessary to consider how psychomotor development and the acquisition of academic skills together influence the integral development of the child [13,[28][29][30][31]. ...
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The development of psychomotor skills in childhood enables children to organise the outside world through their bodies, contributing to their intellectual, affective, and social development. The present study aimed to longitudinally evaluate the psychomotor profile, throughout three academic years, of 3, 4 and 5-year-olds belonging to the second cycle of infant school, relating it descriptively to academic performance. The sample consisted of 82 subjects aged between 3 and 6 years throughout the study. The distribution of the sample was homogeneous, with 47.6% boys (n = 39) and 52.4% girls (n = 43). The results not only highlight the importance of the development and stimulation of motor skills from an early age for the overall development of the child, but also, when related to previous studies, show how they influence the development of human beings in adulthood.
... De acuerdo con información suministrada por La Tercera recogida por Chile Vive Sano ("Preocupante realidad", 2014), un estudio realizado por el Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos (INTA) de la Universidad de Chile en clases de EF en tres regiones del país reveló que "de una clase de una hora y media, un niño se mueve constantemente solo 14 minutos en promedio". Así, se ha visto que los estudiantes realizan bajos niveles de AF moderada o vigorosa en la clase de EF (Bevans et al., 2010;Coe et al., 2006;Scruggs et al., 2003), debido a diferentes factores como el contexto del colegio, las características técnicas del profesor, el tamaño del grupo curso, los materiales, las instalaciones deportivas, la duración de la clase y el número de clases por semana (Martins et al., 2016;Smith et al., 2014;Sutherland et al., 2016), entre otros. ...
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El tiempo de compromiso motor (TCM) tiene implicaciones relevantes en la clase de Educación Física, dado que está relacionado con la actividad física regular que debe realizar un niño o adolescente y las sugerencias de organizaciones internacionales en relación con la mínima cantidad requerida para el mantenimiento de la salud. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar el tiempo de compromiso motor en clases de Educación Física en enseñanza primaria a partir de una revisión sistemática. La búsqueda se hizo en Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC y Dialnet, seleccionando artículos publicados entre 2009 y el primer semestre de 2021. Aplicando criterios de inclusión y exclusión, fueron seleccionados ocho artículos que comprenden una población de estudio de 1262 alumnos. El TCM es bajo en las clases observadas, y la actividad física de moderada a vigorosa presenta datos a la baja. En el estudio de mejor resultado, el TCM alcanza el 46,67 % y, en los restantes, 43,44 %, 42,8 %, 41,45 %, 32 %, 31,5 %, 28,53 % y 18,10 %. Los niños logran mayor TCM que las niñas; niños y niñas en las primeras edades logran mayor participación y tienen más actividad física; el horario matutino y algunas unidades didácticas favorecen un mayor TCM. Se constata que el TCM es bajo en las clases de Educación Física, y que la gestión del tiempo en la clase condiciona la magnitud de la actividad física que realizan niños y niñas. El tiempo de compromiso motor alcanzado en la clase es insuficiente para cubrir las sugerencias mínimas de actividad física en el período escolar.
... In particular, MVPA and VO2max are strongly associated with health benefits [62]. The development of the brain and memory performance [63,64] as a result of MVPA is an argument for increased time for PA in both the school setting and in leisure time to increase academic results [65,66]. This, in turn, could augment adolescents' self-esteem and subjective health [67,68]. ...
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This study aimed to investigate subjective health and its associations with perceived body image (body appearance and body functioning), physical activity, perceived wellbeing in school, perceived family financial situation, and body mass index among 13- to 15-year-old boys and girls. The study was a cross-sectional study performed in four municipalities in Southern Sweden. Data were obtained from questionnaires completed by adolescents (median age 14; range: 13–15) in Sweden (n = 1518, 51% girls), with a participation rate of 73%. Body weight and body height were measured by school nurses and body mass index was calculated. Logistic regression analyses were carried out with subjective health as the dependent variable. Independent variables included in the model were perceived wellbeing in school, perceived family financial situation, perceived body image, physical activity, body mass index, sex, and residency. Variables significantly associated with good subjective health were good wellbeing in school, a perceived good family financial situation, perceived positive body appearance, perceived positive body functioning, being a boy, and high physical activity. Residency and body mass index were not associated with subjective health. Good subjective health is associated with good wellbeing in school, good family financial situation, positive body image, and high physical activity levels. The results highlight the importance of good school climates, the promotion of positive body image, and increased physical activity for adolescents.
... Con respecto a la intensidad del descanso, Coe et al. (2006) midieron en 214 niños de entre 10 y 11 años el efecto de esta a través de intervenciones de AFMV en los DA, observando que el grupo de intensidad moderada no tuvo cambios, mientras que en el grupo de intensidad vigorosa se encontraron mejoras significativas en comparación al grupo control. Se podría interpretar que un episodio de AF a intensidad vigorosa presenta mayores mejoras en los alumnos con respecto a una intensidad moderada. ...
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Este trabajo tuvo por objetivo realizar una revisión sistemática sobre intervenciones escolares basadas en descansos activos en contexto escolar con la intención de poder identificar las características clave (duración del DA, intensidad de las actividades, naturaleza de las mismas) que debe cumplir un descanso activo para proporcionar un mayor rendimiento cognitivo, como la concentración y la atención en el alumnado. Se realizó una revisión sistemática siguiendo el método PRISMA, estableciendo los siguientes criterios de inclusión: a) estudios publicados entre 2010 y 2020 (ambos inclusive), b) escritos en español o en inglés, c) descanso activo como tema principal, d) artículos elaborados dentro del contexto escolar. Las bases de datos Web of Science, Scopus y PubMed fueron consultadas. Un total de 19 artículos fueron incluidos, mostrando todos ellos mejoras sobre la atención y concentración de los alumnos, tras la realización de un programa de intervención de descansos activos en contexto escolar. Además, se observó la importante influencia que tienen las variables de duración, tipo e intensidad de la intervención para que los descansos activos mejoren el rendimiento cognitivo del alumnado. Finalmente, se concluyó que se encontraron mayores beneficios en descansos activos de corta duración, a una intensidad vigorosa y a través de una actividad con mayor carga cognitiva.
... For example, research suggested that vigorous classroom-based physical activity positively influenced children's sustained attention and academic performance. Therefore, teachers might be encouraged to include classroom-based physical activity as part of their class curriculum (Coe et al., 2006). Physical activity might increase students' resistance to boredom and boost alertness, allowing them to pay more attention to their schoolwork (Shephard, 1996). ...
... Physical fitness is positively correlated with academic achievement and also negatively correlated with BMI [19]. Physical activity is positively related with cognitive function [20][21][22][23]. ...
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A professional soldier should be characterized not only by high physical fitness but also by high intellectual and cognitive skills. Therefore, it is important to focus on the future commanding cadre-cadets that are educated in military academies. The aim of the study was to look for correlations between the level of physical fitness and attention and academic achievements (AA) in different subjects among cadets studying at military academies. The research group consisted of students of a military academy in Poland, i.e., 228 cadets, including 31 women and 197 men. Correlations between explained and explanatory variables were assessed using Pearson’s correlation. Correlations between AA and somatic parameters and motor components were analysed using optimal regression, using the best subset method. A statistical difference was found between men and women in terms of the level of somatic and motor development; men also performed significantly better in practical military subjects. In the female group, dominant hand strength is a significant determinant of AA in civilian and theoretical military subjects. The findings suggest the need for specialized training aimed at bridging the major differences in physical fitness between men and women by placing greater emphasis on muscle strength development.
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Research has shown that students who are healthier and have access to opportunities for physical activity may achieve improved academic achievement. However, challenges with classroom and behavior management can be disruptive to learning opportunities in physical education classes. A combination of a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) with a focus on social emotional learning may help schools address common student challenges, such as poor student behavior. This article presents a school-wide initiative that uses CSPAP combined with concepts of social emotional learning to calm the mind, reduce stress and anxiety levels, and help students stay on task.
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Inasmuch as motives for physical activity and leisure participation have been a well-explored research area in occidental and oriental countries, a very limited data was available in the Philippines specifically on pre-service physical educators. The aim of this study was to analyze the motives for physical activity and leisure (PAL) participation of pre-service physical educators of a certain Philippine state university. One hundred ten Filipino pre-service physical educators (males = 34; females = 76) with a mean age of 19.7 years old responded to the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (Morris & Rogers, 2004). Mean scores revealed that physical condition is the most identified motive while competition/ego is the least. T-test independent sample revealed no significant differences between male and female perceptions on their PAL participation. Also, ANOVA indicated no significant differences on any subscale when grouped according to their age. Lastly, through Pearson correlation, certain subscales revealed a significant relationship with the others except for psychological motive as can be seen in the study. This may serve as a baseline data in crafting plans and targets to further the PAL participation of Filipino pre-service physical educators putting into premium their motives to undertake such.
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Aim: This study investigated the effects of exercises conducted with a Pilates ball on the motor skills of preschool children. Methods: 62 preschool children were randomly divided into two groups: an intervention group (IG) (n = 30) and a control group (CG) (n = 32). Exercises with a Pilates ball were practiced in IG. The One Leg Standing test, Functional Reach test, Ruler Drop test and Timed-Up and Go test were the outcome measures. Results: Static balance performance and dual-task performance were found to be significantly improved in the intragroup and intergroup comparisons, favoring the IG (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The exercises carried out in this study were found to be effective on static balance and dual-task performance. The study can guide an exercise program for the preschool age group. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT04575441 ( ClinicalTrials.gov )
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Summary Movement maintains the vitality of the whole body. Regular physical activity, prolongs life and reduces mortality of the human population from chronic diseases. This trend can be especially noticeable in the age group of 50 to 70 years. Regular exercise, starting from school age, in addition to maintaining health, also helps in faster recovery after illness. However, the „amount“ of physical activity should - must be properly dosed. Inadequate „dosing” of physical activity has two opposites. In one case, this may delay the onset of the disease or the disease itself may have minor consequences for the human body. Otherwise, it can cause the onset of injury or illness. Therefore, a careful approach is needed, knowledge of how the human body functions, but also the etymology of various diseases. Education on movement dosing, requires the unity of different institutions in terms of providing conditions for exercise and movement of the entire population, as well as developing a strategy with clearly set goals. All of the above can significantly improve the health of the entire population. Key words: Movement, determination of load, positive changes Sažetak Kretanje održava vitalnost cijelog tijela. Redovna tjelesna aktivnost, u principu produžava život i smanjuje stopu smrtnosti od hroničnih nezaraznih bolesti. Tvrdnja se posebno odnosi na starosnu životnu dob od 50 do 70 godina. Redovna tjelovježba, počev od školskog doba, osim što održava zdravlje pomaže i kod bržeg oporavka nakon bolesti. Obim kretne aktivnosti treba biti doziran na odgovarajući način. Neadekvatno „doziranje“ kretne aktivnosti ima dva međusobno suprotna kraja. U pozitivnom smislu-može spriječiti nastanak oboljenja, umanjiti posljedice bolesti i ubrzati oporavak, dok u negativnom-može olakšati nastanak oboljenja ili produžiti vrijeme oporavka nakon oboljenja. Zbog toga se i zahtijeva oprezan pristup, dobro poznavanje funkcionisanja ljudskog organizma, ali i poznavanje načina nastajanja povreda ili oboljenja. Nastavnim procesom tjelesnog i zdravstvenog odgoja, ostvaruju se pozitivni utjecaji na organizam, pri čemu se procesom vježbanja stimuliše razvoj morfološko-motoričkog prostora i razvijaju funkcionalne sposobnosti, što posredno utječe na razvoj drugih organskih sistema. Educiranje o doziranju kretanja, navikavanje na redovno vježbanje, obezbjeđenje uslova za vježbanje i kretanje, kao i izrada strategije sa jasno postavljenim ciljevima, mogu značajno unaprijediti zdravlje cjelokupne populacije. Ključne riječi: Kretanje, opterećenje, pozitivne promjene
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This study aimed to analysis the educational process in teaching physical and collective sports activities for secondary education in light of the competencies approach, where we used the descriptive analytical approach. The study was conducted on a sample of 206 teachers of physical and sports education working in some high schools in the Algerian region using a questionnaire network. We have come to say that the educational process in teaching collective physical and sports activities is based on educational goals and procedures and evaluation; and through this, the material of physical and sports education becomes a leading role as a result of developing the performance of teachers, and therefore this offering can be considered as a way to reform educational systems through the reform of educational materials
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The examination is a modern media scene appears to be profoundly unique than when the greater part of us were children. Furthermore, it can appear to be overpowering, especially when similar media is buzzing with hypothesis about how either part of the digital age is hurting our children. Although there is minimal authoritative research, paediatricians have issued moderate suggestions concerning innovation and children for the benefit of their physical, neurological, and mental improvement.The huge number of studies with steady discoveries, we report that there is a noteworthy relationship between screen time and decreased rest span and expanded rest issues, over a scope of screen types and rest results in 90% of the studies. Physical and mental health, at that point figuring out what youngsters are utilizing and when, is the initial step to understanding whether explicit SBMU is related with particular positive or negative health dangers Future research should look to all the more likely measure and blend these discoveries so researchers have a superior feeling of the greatness and clinical importance of the watched affiliations 1. OVERVIEW The screen, regardless of whether it is computer, mobile, tablet or television, is an image of our modern age. For our children, the 'advanced locals' who have grown up encompassed by computerized data and stimulation on screens, time on screens (screen time) is a noteworthy piece of contemporary life. In any case, there have been developing worries about the effect of screens on children and youngsters' (CYP) health. There is proof that screen time is related with weight, with proposed instruments an expansion in vitality consumption, the removal of time accessible for physical movement or all the more legitimately through decrease in metabolic rate. There is additionally proof that high screen time is related with pernicious impacts on peevishness, low state of mind and psychological and socio enthusiastic advancement, prompting poor instructive execution[1-5]. Because of these concerns, expert groups have suggested controlling screen time for children. The Indian Academy of Pediatrics in 2016 prescribed restricting screen time for children matured 2-5years to 60 minutes/day of fantastic projects and for guardians to
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The education system is facing great challenges due to the unexpected epidemiological situation caused by the COVID-19 virus, which has hit the whole world. The aim of this research is to examine and determine the manner of implementation of online teaching of sports activities during the COVID-19 pandemic. 1000 students from the University of Sarajevo participated in the research. The method used is a survey questionnaire. Based on the obtained data, we can conclude that classes in sports activities are mostly realized online. 82.4% of students state that most teachers don’t perform sports activity exercises online, but only send certain theoretical assignments. Although 100% of the respondents believe that sports activities are important for health and that it is necessary to exercise at least 60 minutes a day, 61% believe that sports activities are less important than other subjects. 58.1% believes that the content of exercises from sports activities cannot be successfully realized online. 58.8% of respondents believe that the contents of exercises from sports activities can be realized at home. 77.9% of respondents believe that there are difficulties in implementation of the content of these exercises for those who live in an apartment. The students listed various difficulties they encountered. 45.5% of respondents believe that props for performing these exercises can be made and improvised in various ways. The contents of exercises from sports activities that the respondents believe cannot be realized online at home or in the apartment are martial arts, swimming, some natural forms of movement, athletics, sports games, rhythmic gymnastics, obstacle courses, most elementary games. 60.8% of respondents believe that the best way to implement online classes in sports activities is a live demonstration. It can be concluded that exercises from sports activities can be realized online, but that depends on the creativity of each teacher. Key words: challenges; online teaching; students; sports activities; health, COVID-19.
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Summary This paper discusses the impact of physical exercise on overall health. Physical or kinesiological activity is part of general upbringing and education, but still a large number of people are not aware of its importance. It is needed by both adults and children to strengthen, build coordination, self-confidence or lead a healthy life in general. Thanks to physical activity, bone-connective, neuromuscular and other organic systems are developed and maintained, so it is necessary to "dose" various forms of kinesiological activity in the right way. Inadequate determination of physical activity could, instead of positive ones, cause negative consequences for the organism. Civilizational "benefits" have resulted in hypokinesia, overweight, or nervous tension that is not conducive to either developing or maintaining the health of the population. In order to overcome the negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle, it is necessary to develop the habit of physical exercise, otherwise, as a result of physical inactivity, even more chronic non-communicable diseases will occur, which are already the main cause of health problems in the developed world. Key words: health, movement, load, recommendations Sažetak U ovom radu govori se o utjecaju tjelesnog vježbanja na cjelokupno zdravlje. Tjelesna odnosno kineziološka aktivnost dio je općeg odgoja i obrazovanja, ali još uvijek veliki broj ljudi nije svjestan njenog značaja. Potrebna je kako odraslima tako i djeci kako bi ojačali, izgradili koordinaciju, samopouzdanje ili uopšte vodili zdrav život. Zahvaljujući kretnoj aktivnosti razvijaju se i održavaju koštano-vezivni, živčano-mišićni i drugi organski sistemi, tako da je neophodno razne oblike kineziološke aktivnosti na pravilan način „dozirati“. Neadekvatno određivanje kretne aktivnosti moglo bi umjesto pozitivnih, uzrokovati negativne posljedice po organizam. Civilizacijski „benefiti“ rezultirali su hipokinezijom, prekomjernom težinom ili živčanom napetosti što ne pogoduje niti razvoju niti održavanju zdravlja populacije. Kako bi se prevazišli negativni efekti sjedalačkog načina života, potrebno je razvijati naviku o tjelesnom vježbanju, u suprotnom, kao rezultat tjelesne neaktivnosti, nastati će još više hroničnih nezaraznih bolesti, koje su već sada glavni uzrok zdravstvenih problema razvijenog dijela svijeta. Ključne riječi: zdravlje, kretanje, opterećenje, preporuke
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Movement and body expression exercises are not the obvious choices for mainstream approaches to cognitive and socio-emotional learning. Here we present the preliminary findings of a youth led participatory action research project aiming at a better understanding of wellbeing and educational equity issues associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. We focus on exploring how meaning making and collaborative learning were facilitated through a movement and body expression exercise. Implications for mainstream educational practice are discussed.
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Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Araştırmaları-2021
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緒論:兒童的肥胖問題造成許多醫療與心智上的問題,特別是已有越來越多的研究認為肥胖對認知發展有顯著的負面影響。因此,如何改善肥胖孩童的認知功能儼然是一個重要的議題。本研究主要探討益智動作遊戲活動對超重兒童的效益,包括視覺選擇性注意力、健康體適能與學科成績表現之影響,並且也進一步瞭解運動劑量(例如:參與時間)所扮演的角色為何。方法:本研究共招募75位超重兒童為研究對象,並將其隨機分派至三個組別:實驗A組:參與40分鐘的益智動作遊戲;實驗B組:參與20分鐘益智動作遊戲;控制組:40分鐘靜態活動,各組皆為25人。實驗介入時間主要安排在課後時間,共為期10週,每週5次,且於參與運動過程中全程監控心跳率,而在實驗前後皆施測視覺選擇性注意力、健康體適能與學科成績測驗。本研究以二因子混合設計變異數與多元迴歸分析來檢驗各項研究假說,各項統計考驗顯著水準定為α = .05。結果:根據研究結果發現,實驗A組與實驗B組超重兒童之視覺選擇注意力與學科成績有顯著的提升,且大部分變項於後測表現顯著優於控制組之趨勢,不過兩組實驗組在所有的依變項上則無顯著差異,顯示參與本研究所設計的運動時間長短並不會影響實驗效果;另外,超重兒童之視覺選擇注意力與肌肉適能的前後測改變量對於數學與學科總成績表現的前後測改變量具有顯著且正向的預測力,但國語成績表現的前後測改變量則是僅在視覺選擇注意力的前後測改變量有正向預測力。結論:本研究發現具認知及身體挑戰的益智動作遊戲可有效促進超重兒童的視覺選擇性注意力與學業表現,雖然參與的持續時間增加並不會額外增加運動效益,但本研究的發現仍可做為中小學體育課或是課後運動設計之參考基礎。 Introduction: Childhood obesity has been linked to numerous medical and mental conditions. In particularly, there is accumulating evidence that obesity has a negative impact on children's cognitive development. Therefore, the investigation into how to improve cognitive function in childhood obesity has become a critical issue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitively engaging movement games on visual selective attention, health-related fitness, and academic performance in overweight children. Furthermore, we also investigate how the dosage of exercise (i.e., exercise duration) moderates the effects of interest. Methods: A total of 75 overweight children were recruited, and randomly assigned into three groups: a-40 minute of high does- movement games as the experimental group A (n = 25), a-20 minute of low does-movement games as the experimental group B (n = 25), a- 40 minute of sedentary lifestyle condition as the control group (n = 25). The after-school program of cognitively engaging movement games was conducted 5 times a week for 10 consecutive weeks, with the heart rates being monitored using contact grips during the intervention period. A visual selective attention test, a health-related fitness test battery, and two academic performance tests were administered before and after the intervention. A two-way mixed-method analysis of variance and multiple regression were performed to test the study hypotheses, and all statistical analyses were conducted with a significance level (α) equal to .05. Results: The results of this study revealed that the experimental group A and B showed significant enhancements on visual selective attention and academic performance, with significant greater performance being seen as compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were observed between experimental groups A and B for any examined variables, suggesting that the exercise duration did not modulate the intervention effects. Changes in visual selective attention and muscular strength were found to be predictive for changes in mathematics and overall academic performance, whereas changes in Chinese language performance were significantly predicted by changes in visual selective attention performance. Conclusion: Taken together, the current findings indicate that cognitively engaging movement games can be utilized as a useful intervention for improving the visual selective attention, certain physical fitness (e.g., muscular fitness) and academic performance in overweight children. Although, suggesting that the dosage of exercise did not play a role in modulating the effects of interests. However, the results suggested that the current after-school physical activity can be considered as a basis for the design of physical education settings.
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Background: : As a curriculum learning area, physical education (PE) has continually struggled to gain status within an increasingly crowded curriculum. This frequently leads to a reduction in available time within the curriculum for PE. In Australia and internationally, this may be explained by a focus on standardised testing, though questions are also raised about the capacity of PE to contribute to broader learning outcomes within the school context. Whilst the links between physical activity (PA) more broadly and cognitive performance, brain development and executive function (EF) have been recognised, the specific role physical education (PE) has on student’s academic achievement (AA) is less well established. Consequently, researchers have sought to evidence the ‘value-add’ of PE in order to justify its relevance and importance in the curriculum. Purpose: This literature review sought to explore the association between physical education (PE) and academic achievement (AA) in other curriculum learning areas. It was guided by the research question, does physical education have measurable educative benefits/impact on student academic achievement in other curriculum learning areas? Data analysis: : Six databases/database platforms were searched: Informit, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, ERIC and Ovid (including AMED, DARE, Cochrane CCTR and CDSR and PsycINFO) for articles published in English between 2004 and 2020. A total of 5,599 unique articles were returned from the searches and alerts after duplicates were removed. Articles were then screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria with 88 articles identified for full text review. This literature review reports on the final 48 peer-reviewed research articles to meet the inclusion criteria. Findings: : The review of the literature suggests mixed findings regarding the association between PE and AA in other curriculum learning areas; the findings are reported as having ‘effect’, ‘no effect’ or ‘inconclusive effect’. Collectively, the ‘effect’ studies indicate that relationships exist between PE, AA and EF. This conclusion is consistent across school settings, study methodology and intervention design. However, the ‘no effect’ studies indicate that there is no relationship between PE, AA and EF. Whilst, the ‘inconclusive effect’ studies collectively indicate an array of inconclusive relationships between a variety of indices associated with PE, PA, AA and/or EF. The ‘no effect’ and ‘inconclusive effect’ conclusions are irrespective of methodology or intervention design, regardless of the approach used and measurement tools, the findings were the same. Studies that increased the amount of PA students were undertaking by the increasing time dedicated to PE did not report any negative impact of student achievement and grades. Conclusion: : In regards to the research question, the evidence is highly mixed as to the potential impact PE can have on AA in other learning areas. What is certain from the studies reviewed is that participation in PE does not have any negative impact on student AA. The review highlights a number of limitations with existing literature.
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OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the aerobic capacity (VO2max) and academic performance and the different components of the cognitive functions of the brain, including spatial memory, attention, problem solving, flexibility, mathematics in medicine students. METHODS. Aerobic capacity measurement was performed by cardiopulmonary exercise test and VO2max measurement in Exercise Physiology Laboratory at Göztepe EAH Merdivenköy Polyclinic in İstanbul Medeniyet University. The measurement of body composition was performed in the Student Physiology Laboratory of the Medical Faculty of Istanbul Medeniyet University. To evaluate cognitive performance, In the Student Computer Laboratory, with Lumosity programme 6 categories of cognitive tests related to speed, memory, attention, flexibility, problem solving and mathematics were applied and evaluated. To assess the academic performance, The final exam grade point averages and weighted grade point averages and LYS entry points of the students who will participate in the study were taken from the student affairs department. The relationships between brain cognitive functions and academic performance and aerobic capacity were evaluated by correlation and regression analysis. RESULTS. When the relationship between aerobic capacity and cognitive performance was examined; Flexibility (r = 0,332 p = 0,007), Problem Solving (r = 0,248 p = 0,047) and Attention (r = 0,248 p = 0,047) from the cognitive performance test categories with aerobic capacity (VO2max) a positive linear relationship was found between them. There was no significant relationship between aerobic capacity and school success. vii Abstract CONCLUSION. As a result of this study, it was found that there is a relationship between aerobic capacity and some of cognitive performance tests in medical school students. However is was not found any relationship between aerobic capacity and school success. This situation may be caused by other factors affecting the success of the school. Keywords: VO2max, aerobic capacity, cognitive performance, academic performance
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Researching the relationship between physical activity and academic performance is becoming an important research topic due to increasing evidence about the positive effect of physical activity on cognitive functioning. The present systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO registration number: CDR132118) is a unique contribution to the recently published reviews since it only includes interventions longer than 6 weeks and acknowledges the influence of the qualifications of practitioners who deliver interventions. After identifying 14,245 records in five databases and selecting 247 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, 44 interventions passed all eligibility criteria. This meta-analysis uses validity generalization in a random effects model, which shows that academic performance itself is not solely caused by increased physical activity. The weighted mean population effect of all included interventions was r w = 0.181. Most of the studies had serious limitations since they did not report physical activity intensity, which is an essential component to achieving positive exercise effects on cognition. In addition, the qualifications of the staff who administer the interventions were largely ignored in existing literature. It was found that 13 out of 20 physical activity interventions with significant positive effects on academic performance were performed by practitioners who held higher qualifications in the field of physical education and exercise science, who could mediate higher physical activity intensities of the given interventions. The population effect in studies where interventions were administered by practitioners with lower qualifications in the field (r w = 0.14) was lower compared to interventions performed by staff with higher qualifications (r w = 0.22). There was also a significant difference in academic performance with regard to staff qualification level (χ = 4.464; p = 0.035). In addition to activity duration, future physical activity intervention studies including those investigating academic performance should focus on the importance of physical activity intensity and include measures of physical fitness as objective indicators to enable more reliable analyses to establish physical activity influence on academic performance.
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A review of the literature indicates that acute bouts of physical activity exert short-term positive benefits on the behavior and cognitive functioning of youths without clinical disorders and on youths who have difficulty focusing attention, controlling impulsive actions, or who evidence high levels of motor activity. Prior research conducted has been largely atheoretical. Information-processing models are suggested to provide a framework for assessing the impact of physical activity and cognition and behavior.
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The purpose of this study was to quantitatively combine and examine the results of studies pertaining to physical activity and cognition in children. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were coded based on design and descriptive characteristics, subject characteristics, activity characteristics, and cognitive assessment method. Effect sizes (ESs) were calculated for each study and an overall ES and average ESs relative to moderator variables were then calculated. ESs (n = 125) from 44 studies were included in the analysis. The overall ES was 0.32 (SD = 0.27), which was significantly different from zero. Significant moderator variables included publication status, subject age, and type of cognitive assessment. As a result of this statistical review of the literature, it is concluded that there is a significant positive relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning in children.
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The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between adolescents' choices regarding physical activity-both organized and nonorganized-and their parents' Socioeconomic status (occupation and education level) and to characterize those differences. The sample comprised 594 adolescents (304 girls and 290 boys) between 13 and 20 yrs old (mean age of 15.9). Physical activity was assessed by questionnaire and was classified as organized or nonorganized. The findings showed that adolescents from families of higher socioeconomic status chose significantly more organized activities, whereas, for those choosing nonorganized activities, only mothers' education was statistically significant. Participants who engaged in organized physical activity reported more moderate-intensity, moderate-frequency team activities, whereas adolescents' in nonorganized physical activities reported more low-intensity, moderate-frequency individual activities.
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The intent of this investigation was to examine the potential influence of varying durations of physical exertion at different times of the day on immediate mathematical performance by 120 sixth-grade boys and girls. Subjects were assigned to two control and two treatment groups (Solomon Four-group Design), with treated subjects administered physical exertion (paced walking at controlled moderate intensity) for durations of 20, 30, and 40 min. at three different times of the school day [8:30 a.m., 11:50 a.m. (before lunch), 2:20 p.m.] over 3 weeks. After each exertion session, subjects were immediately administered a 90-sec. mathematical computation test. Analysis indicated no significant differences in mathematical performance at any duration in the morning, but scores were significantly higher at 11:50 a.m. and 2:20 p.m. at 30- and 40-min. durations in comparison to the 20-min. duration. There were no differences by gender of subject.
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SHPPS measures five components of school health programs at state, district, and school levels. In addition, health education and physical education were assessed at the classroom level. At the state and district levels, SHPPS focused on policies and programs in grades K-12. At the school and classroom levels, SHPPS focused on policies and programs in middle/junior high school and senior high school. Seventeen questionnaires were fielded in the SHPPS data collection, one for each component at state, district, and school levels, plus classroom-level questionnaires for health education and physical education. The sample of districts and schools was generated by first sampling 480 primary sampling units. The initial sample consisted of 480 school districts. In addition, it consisted of 384 schools at the senior high school level and 384 schools at the middle/junior high school level.
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This study examined the associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. In the 1990 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 11631 high school students provided information on physical activity; diet; substance use; and other negative health behaviors. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a subset of 2652 high-active and 1641 low-active students. Low activity was associated with cigarette smoking, marijuana use, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, greater television watching, failure to wear a seat belt, and low perception of academic performance. For consumption of fruit, television watching, and alcohol consumption, significant interactions were found with race/ethnicity or sex, suggesting that sociocultural factors may affect the relationships between physical activity and some health behaviors. Low physical activity was associated with several other negative health behaviors in teenagers. Future studies should examine whether interventions for increasing physical activity in youth can be effective in reducing negative health behaviors.
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We provide an updated version of the Compendium of Physical Activities, a coding scheme that classifies specific physical activity (PA) by rate of energy expenditure. It was developed to enhance the comparability of results across studies using self-reports of PA. The Compendium coding scheme links a five-digit code that describes physical activities by major headings (e.g., occupation, transportation, etc.) and specific activities within each major heading with its intensity, defined as the ratio of work metabolic rate to a standard resting metabolic rate (MET). Energy expenditure in MET-minutes, MET-hours, kcal, or kcal per kilogram body weight can be estimated for specific activities by type or MET intensity. Additions to the Compendium were obtained from studies describing daily PA patterns of adults and studies measuring the energy cost of specific physical activities in field settings. The updated version includes two new major headings of volunteer and religious activities, extends the number of specific activities from 477 to 605, and provides updated MET intensity levels for selected activities.
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This study examined the relative contributions of sex, social class, socioeconomic status of the family, and exercise behavior of significant others (father, mother, sister, brother, best friend) to the variability of physical activities of 13-15-year-old urban adolescents (N = 475). Physical activity was measured using 7-day physical activity recall. Family income was negatively correlated with physical activity of adolescents. Physical activity of the father, older brother, and best friend was associated with a higher activity level of adolescents (r = 0.24-0.33). Sex and social class of the families accounted for 18% of the variance of the adolescents' physical activity. When the physical activity of the father, older brother, and best friend were entered into regression analysis, a total of 32% of the variation in adolescents' physical activity was explained. Physical activity of adolescents is associated with sex, activity levels of significant others, and socioeconomic status of the family.
Article
The objective of this study was to examine the association of scholastic performance with physical activity and fitness of children. To do so, school ratings of scholastic ability on a five-point scale for a nationally representative sample of 7,961 Australian schoolchildren aged 7-15 years were compared with physical activity and fitness measurements. Consistently across age and sex groups, the ratings were significantly correlated with questionnaire measures of physical activity and with performance on the 1.6-kilometer run, sit-ups and push-ups challenges, 50-meter sprint, and standing long jump. There were no significant associations for physical work capacity at a heart rate of 170 (PWC170). The results are concordant with the hypothesis that physical activity enhances academic performance, but the cross-sectional nature of the observations limits causal inference, and the disparity for PWC170 gives reason to question whether the associations were due to measurement bias or residual confounding.
Article
This study examined the relationships between children's reported levels of physical activity, body-mass index, self-esteem, and reading and mathematics scores, while controlling for sex, family structure, and socioeconomic status. The data were collected from the full population of Grade 6 students (N = 6,923) in New Brunswick (NB), Canada in 1996, as part of the Elementary School Climate Study, and the NB Department of Education's Grade 6 Assessment. Physical activity had a negative relationship with body-mass index. Physical activity had a positive relationship with self-esteem, and a trivial negative relationship with academic achievement. The analysis revealed that both females and males who were more physically active had considerably higher levels of self-esteem. The study suggests that the relationship between physical activity and academic achievement is weak. For some children, physical activity may be indirectly related to enhanced academic performance by improving physical health and self-esteem.
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Advocates of quality daily physical education for prepubescent children frequently encounter the argument that such initiatives will harm academic progress. The impact of daily physical education upon the academic performance of primary school students is thus reviewed with particular reference to studies conducted in Vanves (France), Australia, and Trois Rivières (Québec). When a substantial proportion of curricular time (14-26%) is allocated to physical activity, learning seems to proceed more rapidly per unit of classroom time, so that academic performance matches, and may even exceed, that of control students. Children receiving additional physical education show an acceleration of their psychomotor development, and this could provide a mechanism for accelerated learning of academic skills. Other potential mechanisms include increased cerebral blood flow, greater arousal, changes in hormone levels, enhanced nutrient intake, changes in body build, and increased self esteem. Academic teachers may also favor the enhanced physical education program, creating "halo" effects, and the resulting release time may enhance their academic teaching. Irrespective of mechanisms, the implication for public policy is that daily required physical education can be introduced when a child enters primary school without compromising academic development. Given the importance of establishing positive health habits from an early age, school boards should be encouraged to follow a policy of required daily physical activity in primary schools. Evidence of specific benefit in students with learning disabilities remains less convincing.
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The public health burden of obesity, overweight, and physical inactivity suggests schools be actively involved in prevention and treatment. Schools were challenged to take action by the Surgeon General in 2001. Few resources have been allocated to support the schools and in the presence of budget and high stakes testing pressure, resources are decreasing. Sources of support (research, professional organizations, government, coalitions/foundations) often criticize schools and teachers while providing erroneous information and no support. Teachers have responded to recommendations by including lifetime activities, health related fitness, and increasing MVPA. Approximately half the recommended minutes per week are provided in schools where there is any PE, many (5-33%) schools have no PE for their students. Three recommendations for scholars and leaders in the field include the following: Provide clear and consistent messages and interpretation of the scientific and theoretical information about physical activity; secure funded mandates for daily PE; be supportive not critical. (Contains 1 figure, 2 tables and 2 notes.)
Article
This paper describes SOFIT (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time), an observation instrument designed to assess variables associated with students’ activity levels and opportunities to become physically fit in physical education. SOFIT involves the direct observation of classes while simultaneously recording student physical activity levels, curriculum context variables, and teacher behavior. The paper reports the reliability, validity, and feasibility of using the instrument, as well as data from using SOFIT to assess 88 third- and fourth-grade classes.
Article
The present study has examined the influence of additional required physical education upon childhood patterns of physical activity, in relation to sex and milieu (urban, or 'rural-industrial'). The subjects were an appropriately stratified group of 281 students aged 10-12 years, who since entry to primary school had participated in either a standard or an enhanced program of physical education. An activity diary was maintained for a weekday and a weekend day during March (urban and rural) and September (rural sample only). A daily retrospective activity questionnaire was also administered for 7 days in March. Girls spent more time in domestic duties than the boys (1.22 h/day versus 0.70 h/day, P<0.001), but allocated less time to light-moderate activity (2.50 versus 2.70 h/day, P<0.005 weekend) and vigorous activity (0.87 versus 1.23 h/day, P<0.001 weekday, P<0.003 weekend). Relative to their rural counterparts, urban children spent less time in very light-light activity (9.78 versus 10.29 h/day, P<0.001 weekday) but more time in light-moderate activity (2.96 versus 2.01 h/day, P<0.01 weekday); respective daily walking distances were 2.4 and 1.23 km/day. The experimental program (nominal additional hour of physical education each weekday) enhanced vigorous weekday activity by 0.73 h per day. On weekend days, the experimental group was also more active than controls (light-moderate activity 2.60, 2.50 h/day, p<0.031). It is concluded that an added hour of required physical education per school day leads to a useful augmentation in the overall activity of the primary school child.
Article
Studies on the effects of regular (three to five times per week) periods of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on the health, academic performance, attitudes and classroom behaviour of children at school are reviewed. Conclusions from the literature provide a basis for enhancement of school-based physical education programs that are currently considered to lack sufficient intensity, duration and frequency to benefit the children involved. The review not only confirms the value of and need for inclusion of MVPA in physical education programs but also shows the feasibility of doing so, to the advantage of both students and teachers.
Article
A coding scheme is presented for classifying physical activity by rate of energy expenditure, i.e., by intensity. Energy cost was established by a review of published and unpublished data. This coding scheme employs five digits that classify activity by purpose (i.e., sports, occupation, self-care), the specific type of activity, and its intensity as the ratio of work metabolic rate to resting metabolic rate (METs). Energy expenditure in kilocalories or kilocalories per kilogram body weight can be estimated for all activities, specific activities, or activity types. General use of this coding system would enhance the comparability of results across studies using self reports of physical activity.
Article
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General was released on July 11, 1996, by the Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.¹ This report assesses the role of physical activity in preventing disease and concludes that regular physical activity reduces the risk for developing or dying from coronary heart disease, noninsulin-dependent diabetes, hypertension, and colon cancer; reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression; contributes to the development and maintenance of healthier bones, muscles, and joints; and helps control weight. Physical activity also may help older adults maintain the ability to live independently and help prevent falling and fractures. The Surgeon General's report emphasizes two important findings. First, demonstrated health benefits occur at a "moderate" level of activity—a level sufficient to expend about 150 calories of energy per day, or 1000 calories per week (e.g., walking briskly for 30 minutes each day). Second,
Article
This study assessed the reliability and validity of the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR), a self-report instrument designed to measure physical activity in youth. Subjects were randomly selected students in grades 7-12. Test-retest reliability was reported as the correlation between estimated relative energy expenditures determined from two PDPAR administrations completed within 1 h. Interrater reliability was determined by two observers using the scoring protocol. Validity was assessed using footstrikes (pedometer), Caltrac activity counts, and heart rate monitoring as criterion measures. Interrater and test-retest reliability was 0.99 and 0.98, respectively (P < 0.01). The correlation between relative energy expenditure from the PDPAR (kcal.kg-1.l.d-1) and pedometer and Caltrac counts was 0.88 (P < 0.01) and 0.77 (P < 0.01), respectively. The correlation between percentage heart rate range (HRmax-HR-rest) and mean energy expenditure from the PDPAR was 0.53 (P < 0.01). The correlation between 1-min heart rates > 50% HRR sustained for 20 min and the number of 30-min blocks with a relative energy expenditure of at least four metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) was 0.63 (P < 0.01). The PDPAR provides valid and reliable estimates of physical activity and also accurately identifies bouts of moderate to vigorous activity.
Article
The appropriateness of recess in the elementary program continues to be questioned although generally it is believed to be useful by elementary principals despite a dearth of supportive data. This study was a developmental study of the effects of physical activity on concentration. Comparison of passive and directed physical education activities on the concentration of second-, third-, and fourth-grade children was made. The Woodcock-Johnson Test of Concentration showed better performance by the fourth grades and within Grade 4 in favor of the physical activity group. A structured physical activity or a classroom activity immediately prior to a concentration task was not detrimental to children in Grades 2 and 3. Fourth-grade children performed significantly better on a test of concentration after engaging in a physical activity.
Article
This study investigated the relationship between adolescents' academic performance and participation in physical activity. 232 boys and girls from Years 8-11 (ages 13-16 years) were randomly selected, and their academic performance was assessed on previous examination scores in English, Mathematics, and Science. Participants were also asked to list all the sports based physical activities in which they normally participated during a typical week and to indicate how many times per week they took part in each activity and the duration of each. Overall, no significant correlations were found, although weak negative correlations were recorded between the amount of time (in minutes) in sport and exercise and English scores for children ages 13, 14, and 16 years. A similar association was also noted for Science scores of children 16 years old.
From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
United States Surgeon General's report on physical activity and health. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA. 276:522, 1996.
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CENTERSFORDISEASECONTROLANDPREVENTION. School Health Programs and Policies Study 2000. J. Sch. Health 71:251-350, 2001.