1-Methyl-Tryptophan Can Interfere with TLR Signaling in Dendritic Cells Independently of IDO Activity

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 503, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland, Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, 21 Avenue Tony Garnier, F-69365 Lyon, France.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 09/2006; 177(4):2061-71. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.177.4.2061
Source: PubMed


The compound 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT) is a competitive inhibitor of IDO that can break tolerance and induce fetus, graft, and tumor rejection. Because of its broad effect on immune-related mechanisms, the direct action of 1-MT on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) was analyzed. It is shown here that the effect of 1-MT on DC is dependent on the maturation pathway. Although 1-MT had no effect on DC stimulated by the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C), it strongly enhanced the Th1 profile of DC stimulated with TLR2/1 or TLR2/6 ligands. Drastic changes in the function of DC stimulated by the TLR4 ligand LPS were induced by 1-MT. These cells could still activate allogeneic and syngeneic T cells but stimulation yielded T cells secreting IL-5 and IL-13 rather than IFN-gamma. This action of 1-MT correlated with an increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and sustained activation of the transcription factor c-Fos. Inhibiting p38 and ERK phosphorylation with synthetic inhibitors blocked the effect of 1-MT on LPS-stimulated DC. Thus, 1-MT can modulate DC function depending on the maturation signal and independently of its action on IDO. This is consistent with previous observations and will help further understanding the mechanisms of DC polarization.

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    • "For this reason, we treated both C57BL/6 and NOD dermal fibroblasts with LPS. LPS has been shown to induce IDO expression in primary rat glial cultures without an increase in detectible IFN-γ [33], [34]. Although, it is widely accepted that IFN-γ is an essential factor for IDO induction through JAK/STAT1 pathway [25], [35], recent studies have revealed that IDO expression can be regulated by other inflammatory stimuli, including tumor necrosis factor-α and LPS [35]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) can locally suppress T cell-mediated immune responses. It has been shown that defective self-tolerance in early prediabetic female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice can be attributed to the impaired interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)- induced IDO expression in dendritic cells of these animals. As IFN-γ can induce IDO in both dendritic cells and fibroblasts, we asked the question of whether there exists a similar defect in IFN-γ-induced IDO expression in NOD mice dermal fibroblasts. To this end, we examined the effect of IFN-γ on expression of IDO and its enzymatic activity in NOD dermal fibroblasts. The results showed that fibroblasts from either prediabetic (8 wks of age) female or male, and diabetic female or male (12 and 24 wks of age respectively) NOD mice failed to express IDO in response to IFN-γ treatment. To find underlying mechanisms, we scrutinized the IFN- γ signaling pathway and investigated expression of other IFN-γ-modulated factors including major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and type I collagen (COL-I). The findings revealed a defect of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation in NOD cells relative to that of controls. Furthermore, we found an increase in MHC-I and suppression of COL-I expression in fibroblasts from both NOD and control mice following IFN-γ treatment; indicating that the impaired response to IFN-γ in NOD fibroblasts is specific to IDO gene. Finally, we showed that an IFN-γ-independent IDO expression pathway i.e. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated-c-Jun kinase is operative in NOD mice fibroblast. In conclusion, the findings of this study for the first time indicate that IFN-γ fails to induce IDO expression in NOD dermal fibroblasts; this may partially be due to defective STAT1 phosphorylation in IFN-γ-induced-IDO signaling pathway.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "impairing the ability of DC to stimulate a Th1 response, reducing the amount of IFN secreted by T cells. We did not observe a Th2 shift of DC function, characterized by an increase in IL-10 secretion by DC or IL-5 and IL-13 secretion by stimulated T cells (Agaugue et al., 2006). HDL had the highest inhibitory impact on the Th1 function of mature DC and only HDL but not LDL pre-treatment of DC induced a slight reduction of IL-12 secretion. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoproteins are both lipid carriers in the blood and regulators of essential biological processes. Several studies demonstrated that lipoproteins modified during pathological conditions could alter dendritic cell (DC) maturation. Here the immune function of non-pathological lipoproteins is addressed by analysing their impact on human DC maturation triggered by TLR ligands. Upon TLR4 stimulation, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL) strongly inhibited the ability of DC to induce a Th1 response of T cells, characterized by high levels of IFNγ secretion, whereas the effect of very low-density lipoprotein was subject to variations. HDL also inhibited the Th1 function of DC stimulated by TLR1/2 and TLR2/6 ligands. The phospholipid fraction from HDL retained the inhibitory activity of the lipoprotein. We identified the 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleyl-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC) as one active phospholipid that inhibited the Th1 function of mature DCs whereas the dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine had no significant effect. The treatment of DC by PLPC, 24h before TLR4 stimulation, resulted in reduced activation of NF-κB. This study shows that some HDL phospholipids have a direct immunoregulatory function, by modulating DC ability to activate a Th1 response of T cells.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Immunobiology
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    • "In line with this result, 1-D-MT did not induce the mRNA expression of IFN-β or IFN-γ (Fig. 7B). Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been reported to be modulated by the racemic mixture of 1-MT and thereby influence the polarization of dendritic cells (DC) [31]. We therefore tested whether inhibition of of MAPK signalling affected the 1-D-MT-mediated increase in IDO1 expression. "
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    ABSTRACT: 1-methyl-D-tryptophan (1-D-MT) is currently being used in clinical trials in patients with relapsed or refractory solid tumors with the aim of inhibiting indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-mediated tumor immune escape. IDO is expressed in tumors and tumor-draining lymph nodes and degrades tryptophan (trp) to create an immunsuppressive micromilieu both by depleting trp and by accumulating immunosuppressive metabolites of the kynurenine (kyn) pathway. Here we show that proliferation of alloreactive T-cells cocultured with IDO1-positive human cancer cells paradoxically was inhibited by 1-D-MT. Surprisingly incubation with 1-D-MT increased kyn production of human cancer cells. Cell-free assays revealed that 1-D-MT did not alter IDO1 enzymatic activity. Instead, 1-D-MT induced IDO1 mRNA and protein expression through pathways involving p38 MAPK and JNK signalling. Treatment of cancer patients with 1-D-MT has transcriptional effects that may promote rather than suppress anti-tumor immune escape by increasing IDO1 in the cancer cells. These off-target effects should be carefully analyzed in the ongoing clinical trials with 1-D-MT.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · PLoS ONE
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