Article

Susceptibility of Prevotella intermedia/Prevotella nigrescens (and Porphyromonas gingivalis) to Propolis (Bee Glue) and other Antimicrobial Agents

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Black-pigmented gram-negative anaerobes such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia are suspected pathogens in adult periodontitis, whereas Prevotella nigrescens has been associated with health. Antimicrobial resistance among bacteria from this group has been reported in the past decade. This research aimed to evaluate and compare the susceptibility profile of 17 P. intermedia/P. nigrescens isolates recovered from patients with periodontitis and three reference strains to six antimicrobials, prescribed in dentistry in Brazil, and propolis (bee glue). The antimicrobial agents tested were tetracycline, penicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin, metronidazole, meropenem and six ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEPs) from Brazil. The reference strains P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and P. intermedia ATCC 25611 were used for determination of minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and for time-kill assay to the EEPs. All of the strains were susceptible to penicillin, erythromycin, meropenem, metronidazole and 95% of them (n=19) to tetracycline. Thirty six percent (n=7) of the P. intermedia/P. nigrescens strains tested were resistant to clindamycin. As for propolis activity, all strains were susceptible and the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged from 64 to 256 microg/mL. For the reference strains P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611 the MBC was 256 microg/mL and death was observed within 3 h of incubation for P. gingivalis and within 6 h for P. intermedia. The action of propolis (bee glue) against suspected periodontal pathogens suggests that it may be of clinical value.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... History suggests its use by ancient Egyptians, Persians, and Romans [5]. Roman soldiers carried it as emergency war-wound medicine, Egyptians used it to embalm their dead, Aristotle recommended it to treat abscesses, ancient Greeks called it a "cure for bruises and suppurating sores," and records from 12th-century Europe describe propolis use for the treatment of mouth and throat infections and dental caries [6][7]. Constituents of propolis vary depending on the area from where it is collected. ...
... This verification of antibacterial effect of propolis is not surprising since its primary function is to act as a biochemical weapon by honey bees to protect their hives against foreign pathogens [7]. ...
... In our study, complete resistance to tetracycline was demonstrated by the P gingivalis and P intermedia isolates while intermediate resistance to tetracycline was indicated by both P asaccharolytica and P melaninogenica isolates. In Brazil, a group of researchers in 2002 concluded that 5 % of their P intermedia isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC of 32 mg/mL) whereas 30% of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin (MIC ≥ 8 mg/mL) [7]. Another study that came in the limelight in 2003 reported that resistance of pigmented anaerobic pathogens to clindamycin and metronidazole has emerged as Prevotella intermedia/Prevotella nigrescens isolates and showed 62.5% susceptibility to benzylpenicillin and 87.5% to both clindamycin and metronidazole [12]. ...
... In recent years, special attention has been paid to the use of natural materials for periodontal treatment with minimal adverse effects. Propolis, a resinous substance produced by honey bees (Apis melifera), has been investigated for its antibacterial activities against oral pathogens [6,7]. The chemical composition of propolis varies according to the season of collection by the bees and the regional vegetation [8]. ...
... The chemical composition of propolis varies according to the season of collection by the bees and the regional vegetation [8]. Furthermore, The antimicrobial activity exerted by propolis is dependent on the synergism between flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters but not a single propolis compound [6,9]. ...
... Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia are regarded as major etiologic agents for periodontitis [2,24] in good agreement with that reported by Yoshimasu., et al. [9] but higher than the findings of Santos., et al. [6]. This difference could be explained by the diverse composition of propolis [8], and different methodologies in the preparation of propolis extracts. ...
... Propolis or bee glue is a resinous material collected by bees from several plant sources and used for construction and adaptation of their nests (Bankova, 2005;Castaldo and Capasso, 2002;Santos et al., 2002). Chemical composition of propolis is very complex. ...
... The components vary according to the plant sources, local flora, regional vegetation and season of collection by the bees (Banskota et al., 2001;Santos et al., 2002). So far over 300 compounds in propolis have been identified and this variety of composition causes problems for its standardization and medical use (Bankova, 2005;Marcucci et al., 2001;Sforcin, 2007). ...
... With the popularity in propolis use and/or consumption, there has been an increased interest in determining the content of propolis. Following extensive scientific data, propolis is accepted as a valuable natural compound which has a variety of chemical content such as amino acids, phenolic constituents, flavonoids, cinnamic acid, terpenes and caffeic acid (Burdock, 1998;Frenkel et al., 1993;Orsolic et al., 2004;Santos et al., 2002). We suggest that several chemical components of propolis contribute to its immunomodulatory effect confirmed in the PBMC system applied. ...
Article
In most of the diseases which are considered to benefit from propolis, cellular immune reaction is activated, neopterin levels in body fluids are increased and enhanced tryptophan degradation is observed. In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of six Turkish propolis samples were evaluated by using the in vitro model of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Concentrations of neopterin, tryptophan, kynurenine and pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were determined and also the viability of the cells was checked with trypan blue and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] test. In PBMC treated with mitogen phytohaemagglutinin, neopterin production and tryptophan degradation by enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) as well as release of cytokines was significantly enhanced and upon treatment with propolis extracts all these effects were dose-dependently suppressed. Results show an immunomodulatory effect of propolis extracts which includes down-regulation of IDO activity. IDO enzyme is considered to play an important role in the development of immunodeficiency and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patient with chronic inflammation. The suppression of tryptophan degradation by propolis extracts may therefore be related with some of its beneficial health properties in humans.
... In Japan, the scientific productivity reported for propolis increased 660% between the 1980 and 1990 [22]. The global interest in propolis research increased considerably in relation to its various biological properties [23][24][25][26][27]. Another incentive for conducting research on propolis is a high value on the international market, mainly in Japan, where a bottle of ethanol extract is sold at prices ten times higher than that prevailing in Brazil. ...
... Propolis antimicrobial effect is directly proportional to its concentration [54]. Propolis ethanolic extracts exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against many pathogens from the oral cavity, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum [ (69,24,71], which is the main microbiota involved in periodontal disease related to plaque. Gram-positive bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-negative bacteria to propolis extracts [72]. ...
... Mouthwash based on herbal extracts and propolis are for sale in the Brazilian and world market, without, however, have undergone clinical studies proving their effectiveness and documenting possible undesirable side effects. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of propolis extracts as an antimicrobial agent useful for dental caries and periodontal pathogens microorganisms in in vitro studies [24,78,59,148,149]. Propolis standardization is necessary and several authors from different countries are involved in the study of pharmacological activity and mechanism of action of various types of propolis. ...
Research
Full-text available
Bees are arthropods of Hymenoptera order and are classified into two groups based on their type of life: solitary and social life. Propolis is produced by bees that live socially, from the harvesting of products derived from plants and used to seal and protect the hive against intruders and natural phenomena [1]. Propolis term derives from the Greek Pro, "opposite, the entry" and polis, "city or community" [2,3]. Propolis is a natural substance collected by Apis mellifera bees in several plant species. It has been used in folk medicine for centuries [2,4]. Characteristically, it is a lipophilic material, hard and brittle when cold, but soft, flexible and very sticky when warm. Hence the name "beeswax" [5]. It has characteristic odor and shows adhesive properties of oils and interact strongly with skin proteins [6]. The composition of propolis is complex [7,8].
... History suggests its use by ancient Egyptians, Persians, and Romans [5]. Roman soldiers carried it as emergency war-wound medicine, Egyptians used it to embalm their dead, Aristotle recommended it to treat abscesses, ancient Greeks called it a "cure for bruises and suppurating sores," and records from 12th-century Europe describe propolis use for the treatment of mouth and throat infections and dental caries [6][7]. Constituents of propolis vary depending on the area from where it is collected. ...
... This verification of antibacterial effect of propolis is not surprising since its primary function is to act as a biochemical weapon by honey bees to protect their hives against foreign pathogens [7]. ...
... In our study, complete resistance to tetracycline was demonstrated by the P gingivalis and P intermedia isolates while intermediate resistance to tetracycline was indicated by both P asaccharolytica and P melaninogenica isolates. In Brazil, a group of researchers in 2002 concluded that 5 % of their P intermedia isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC of 32 mg/mL) whereas 30% of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin (MIC ≥ 8 mg/mL) [7]. Another study that came in the limelight in 2003 reported that resistance of pigmented anaerobic pathogens to clindamycin and metronidazole has emerged as Prevotella intermedia/Prevotella nigrescens isolates and showed 62.5% susceptibility to benzylpenicillin and 87.5% to both clindamycin and metronidazole [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Periodontitis is one of the most common causes of tooth loss worldwide. Recently, special attention has been paid to natural medication for its treatment. For this purpose, propolis (bee glue) activity has also been investigated. Its antibacterial properties are mainly attributed to flavonones pinocembrin, flavonols galangin and to the caffeic acid phenethyl ester. This study is aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial effects of propolis from Pakistan on 35 clinical isolates of pigmented anaerobic periodontal pathogens. Methods: This study was conducted in the Microbiology department, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. Pathogens included were Porphyromonas asaccharolytica (n=9), Porphyromonas gingivalis (n=13), Prevotella intermedia (n=9), Prevotella melaninogenica (n=4). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to three antibiotics was obtained by E-test method. All strains were sensitive to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid and metronidazole, but 100% of P asaccharolytica and P melaninogenica strains displayed intermediate resistance to tetracycline while 69.2% P gingivalis and 100% P intermedia strains exhibited complete resistance to tetracycline. Screening for antibacterial activity of propolis extract was done by agar well diffusion assay, and all strains were found sensitive to ethanolic extract of propolis. Results: MIC was obtained by agar incorporation technique with values ranging from 0.064 to 0.512 mg/ml. It was also noticed that percentage yield of ethanolic extract of propolis prepared from ultrasonic extraction method was higher compared to extract obtained with maceration. Conclusion: These results indicate that propolis from this region has potent antimicrobial activity against pigmented anaerobic periodontal pathogens. Taking into consideration the increasing resistance in anaerobic bacteria, this effective antimicrobial activity of propolis gives hope in the treatment of oral cavity diseases.
... Santos F y col.. (17) realizó un estudio en el que menciona la susceptibilidad de bacterias como Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Prevotella nigrescens (Pn) y Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) frente al propóleos, en el que se encuentra positiva la actividad antimicrobiana de este producto. Recalca también que bacterias (Pi y Pn ) resistentes a clindamicina y tetraciclina se mostraron susceptibles al propóleo, proponiéndolo como un producto preventivo de enfermedades periodontopatogenas. ...
... La actividad antimicrobiana contra microorganismos periodontopatógenos fue demostrada incluso frente a microorganismos resistentes a la clindamicina y tetraciclina; convirtiéndose en una terapia prometedora en el tratamiento en enfermedades periodontales (7,17,18). ...
Article
Full-text available
In Crescendo. Ciencias de la Salud. 2015; 2(2): 567-573
... Many studies have demonstrated the multiple biological activities of propolis [30][31][32][33][34][35][36] and highlighted its properties in the dental eld [13,[37][38][39]. In fact, the antimicrobial activity of propolis against various periodontal pathogens has been largely demonstrated, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia [40,41]. Moreover, propolis samples were observed to have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against vancomycin-and methicillin-resistant Streptococcus aureus [19] and Enterococcus faecium [41]. ...
... In fact, the antimicrobial activity of propolis against various periodontal pathogens has been largely demonstrated, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia [40,41]. Moreover, propolis samples were observed to have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against vancomycin-and methicillin-resistant Streptococcus aureus [19] and Enterococcus faecium [41]. The antimicrobial properties of propolis against oral pathogens are attributable to the avonone pinocembrina, the avonol galangin and the phenethyl ester caffeic acid (CAPE) with the mechanism of action probably based on the inhibition of bacterial RNA-polymerase [40]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives. We determined the polyphenol content in a defined volume of chemically characterized and standardized propolis sample to evaluate its effectiveness in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods. After having determined the polyphenol content of a given volume of propolis extract and characterized the molecular profile, 150 patients were enrolled, randomly divided into three groups and subjected to three different treatments, Scaling and Root planing (SRP) associated with propolis, SRP with 1% chlorhexidine gel and SRP only. Before the treatments, Full Mouth Plaque Score (FMPS), Pocket Depth at Probing (PPD), Full Mouth Bleeding Score (FMBS), Impaired furcations according to the Hamp Classification, Mobility, Gingival recession and Clinical Attack Level (CAL) were evaluated. Results. A significant reduction of all the studied variables was observed in the three examined groups even if in the group treated with propolis, after 6 weeks, the reduction, and therefore the improvement, was higher than SRP treatment alone and in the presence of 1% chlorhexidine gel. Finally, there were no significant differences in the reduction of PPD and CAL between the groups treated with chlorhexidine and the group treated with SRP alone. Conclusion. Compared to the other two groups, Subjects treated with 10.4 mg propolis showed a significant improvement in all four variables. Clinical relevance. This study shows that propolis could be used as a natural adjuvant in the treatment of periodontal disease.
... 7,8 Nevertheless, some authors reported propolis antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori, 8,9 whereas there are very few data 10 about its effect on other Gram-negative pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni, a major cause of enteric infection. [11][12][13][14][15] Normally, Campylobacter infections are self-limiting, and the treatment with antibiotics is therefore not generally recommended. 16 However, antimicrobial treatments are needed in individuals with invasive or very severe disease, such as Guillain-Barré or Miller Fisher syndrome. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of two ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEPs) and selected flavonoids against 16 Campylobacter jejuni clinical isolates and several Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogens. The antimicrobial activity of EEPs and flavonoids was evaluated by the agar well diffusion method. The EEPs inhibited the growth of C. jejuni, Enterobacter faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The most active flavonoid was galangin, with the highest percentage of sensitivity among C. jejuni strains (68.8%); lower percentages of sensitivity were observed for quercetin (50%). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of EEPs and flavonoids for C. jejuni isolates were determined by the agar dilution method. EEPs showed MIC values of 0.3125-0.156 mg/mL for all C. jejuni strains; galangin and quercetin gave MICs ranging from 0.250 to 0.125 mg/mL. Thus propolis preparations could be used as support to traditional therapy for Campylobacter infection, especially when the antibiotic agents show no activity against this microorganism.
... Additionally, the use of natural products has also gained special attention in periodontics. In vitro studies have demonstrated the susceptibility of periodontal pathogenic microorganisms to propolis extract solutions, as well as no cytotoxicity toward gingival fibroblasts (Gebara et al., 2002;Santos et al., 2002;Sonmez et al., 2005;Ozan et al., 2007). A clinical study has also shown promising results after SI with propolis extract (Gebaraa et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate the histometric effects of subgingival irrigation with different solutions as adjuvant for the treatment of periodontal disease in rats. Periodontal disease was induced by ligature in the first lower molars of 91 Wistar rats over the course of 28 days. After removal of the ligatures, the animals were subjected to scaling and root planing, followed by subgingival irrigation with different solutions (0.9% saline, 0.2% chlorhexidine, 0.1% and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite and 11% propolis extract). The animals were sacrificed 7 and 14 days after the treatment and tissue was processed for histometric analysis for evaluation of bone support and epithelial migration. The histometric analysis showed no statistically significant differences between the group treated with scaling and groups treated with subgingival irrigation (p > 0.05) regarding bone support and epithelial migration. Similarly, significant differences were not found among the different solutions used for subgingival irrigation. This study agrees with the position of the American Academy of Periodontology, which states that there is insufficient evidence to indicate the routine use of subgingival irrigation as adjuvant to periodontal treatment.
... Several studies reported the antimicrobial activity of propolis against E. faecalis (10,11). It is well documented that propolis can be used for pulp capping, intracanal dressing, storage media, anti-inflammatory agent, periodontal applications and dentinal hypersensitivity (12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17). The medicinal values of propolis lie in their component phytochemicals such as flavonoids, aromatic acids, diterpenic acids and phenolic compounds which prevents bacterial cell division and breakdown the bacterial cell wall and cytoplasm, suggesting its potential to be used as a GP disinfectant (18). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 30% propolis extract, 3% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), 10% povidone iodine and 0.9% saline solution to disinfect Guttapercha (GP) cones contaminated by Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Fifty four size 80 GP cones were used. The cones were contaminated by E faecalis. GP cones were immersed in the disinfecting solutions for periods of 1 and 10 min. After the disinfection procedure, the cones were incubated in brain heart infusion and the presence of bacterial growth was analysed by turbidity of the medium. Result showed that that the propolis and the saline solution did not produce any bactericidal action, resulting in intense turbidity in all samples and in both time periods. In all samples for both time periods 3% NaOCl and 2% CHX demonstrated absence of the turbidity in the test tubes; indicating no bacterial growth. In Group4, all cones contaminated by E. faecalis showed bacterial growth after 1 min in povidone iodine and in 20% of the cones after the immersion for 10 min. According to the results, it can be concluded that the immersion of GP cones in a solution of 2% CHX and 3% NaOCl for 1 min is an efficient method to promote their disinfection.Propolis was not effective against clinical strain of E. faecalis when used as a GP disinfectant.
... Mas, reconhecidamente, a atividade biológica mais relevante é a antimicrobiana, sendo atribuída à presença de compostos flavonoides, ácidos fenólicos e seus ésteres (Marcucci et al., 2001). A atividade antibacteriana in vitro já foi evidenciada frente a várias linhagens de bactérias Gram-positivas e negativas (Marcucci et al., 2001;Silici e Kutluca, 2005;Popova et al., 2009), incluindo bactérias anaeróbicas da cavidade oral (Santos et al., 2002) e de interesse veterinário (Bastos et al., 2008), com destaque na inibição de Grampositivos. (Tortora et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
The activity of 23 samples of ethanolic brown propolis, from the State of Mato Grosso, was investigated against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The values of physical and chemical parameters showed significant variation among samples. The percentage of dry extract ranged from 2.6 to 27.6%. The index of oxidation varied from 3 to 519 seconds. All samples showed the percentage of wax higher than the limit preconized by the legislation, with values varying from 3.4 to 74.6%. The quantification of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, responsible for antimicrobial activity, ranged from 0.1 to 5.0 (w/w) and 0.02 to 0.66 (w/w), respectively, being that the higher the index of phenolic compounds the larger the zones of inhibition. Antibacterial activity was observed in seven out of the 23 samples, demonstrating zones of inhibition ranging from 10 to 11.3mm. For these active samples, the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined, ranging from 125 to 1000mg/mL. The value of MIC in 42.9% of these samples was 250mg/mL. These results contribute to the establishment of physical and chemical parameters for the regulation of brown propolis and indicate possible therapeutic applicability in the development of formulations for the treatment of infections caused by E. coli.
... Its complex chemical composition typically consists of waxes, resins, water, inorganics, phenolics and essential oils, the exact composition of the propolis depending on the source plant(s) (Burdock, 1998). It has been widely used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years, at least since 300 BC (Ghisalberti, 1979), and has been reported to possess antimicrobial (Koo et al., 2000;Sforcin et al., 2000;Banskota et al., 2001;Santos et al., 2002;Kartal et al., 2003;Melliou & Chinou, 2004;Bruschi et al., 2006), fungicidal (Ota et al., 2001;Murad et al., 2002;Sawaya et al., 2002;Bruschi et al., 2006;Oliveira et al., 2006;Dias et al., 2007), antiviral (Ghisalberti, 1979;Marcucci, 1995;Kujumgiev et al., 1999), antiulcer (Burdock, 1998), immunostimulating (Burdock, 1998), hypotensive (Marcucci, 1995;Burdock, 1998), anti-inflammatory (Burdock, 1998;Song et al., 2002a;2002b), antioxidant (Isla et al., 2001;Nagai et al., 2001), and cytostatic (Banskota et al., 2001; activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ethylcellulose microparticles containing propolis ethanolic extract (PE) were prepared by the emulsification and solvent evaporation method. Three ratios of ethylcellulose to PE dry residue value (DR) were tested (1:0.25, 1:4 and 1:10). Moreover, polysorbate 80 was used as emulsifier in the external phase (1.0 or 1.5% w/w). Regular particle morphology without amorphous and/or sticking characteristics was achieved only when an ethylcellulose:DR ratio of 1:0.25 and 1.0% polysorbate 80 were used. Microparticles had a mean diameter of 85.83 µm. The entrapment efficiency for propolis of the microparticles was 62.99 ± 0.52%. These ethylcellulose microparticles containing propolis would be useful for developing propolis aqueous dosage forms without the strong and unpleasant taste, aromatic odour and high ethanol concentration of PE. Keywords: Brazilian propolis; ethylcellulose; emulsification and solvent evaporation; microparticle characterisation; optimisation.
... Antimicrobials are usually regarded as bactericidal, if the MBC is not more than four times the MIC [17]. Based on microbiological data derived from such assays, it has been suggested that propolis may even be of clinical value [18,19]. However, a systematic evaluation on the antimicrobial effects of propolis on bacterial species relevant to oral diseases and dentistry in general is still lacking. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study screened the available evidence for the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, a natural herbal resin bee product, against a selection of three bacterial species of relevance to oral diseases. For this purpose, papers dealing with laboratory studies assessing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) or the agar diffusion method to analyze the antimicrobial properties of propolis on three oral pathogens (S. mutans, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum) and a yeast (C. albicans) are reviewed. Overall, a positive antimicrobial effect could be shown. However, when compared to the commonly used control substances (e.g., specific antibiotics, antiseptics and antifungals), propolis appeared less effective, depending on the bacterial strain, and required higher concentrations than the control substances, in order to show a measurable effect. Nevertheless, propolis as a natural herbal resin bee product can be considered as a natural antiseptic agent within the range of other herbal products, like sanguinarine. Therefore, it may be a valuable compound of non-synthetic, natural origin for patients seeking complementary agents and alternatives for “hard” chemicals.
... The literature on propolis use in dentistry is extensive. There are numerous laboratory and clinical reports of propolis that include: suppression and inhibition of cariogenic [5] and periodontal organisms [6], prevention of respiratory infections [7] and gingival inflammation, [8] inhibitory activity against endodontic pathogens [9], and therapeutic action on oral ulcers [10]. These reports however lack evidence of propolis effectiveness because adequately designed randomized controlled trials have yet to be conducted. ...
... Further, an effect of a decreasing pH cannot be completely excluded, as 10% of honey reduced the pH by about pH 0.3 as measured in broth. Propolis acts antibacterial against different oral anaerobes among them P. gingivalis [31]; MICs of propolis against P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 were reported in two studies as being between 64 and 512 mg/l (different kinds of propolis originating from Brazil and Turkey have been tested) [32,33]. In our study, only one kind of propolis originating from a lowland region in Germany characterized by a temperate climate was included. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey has been discussed as a therapeutic option in wound healing since ancient time. It might be also an alternative to the commonly used antimicrobials in periodontitis treatment. The in-vitro study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy against Porphyromonas gingivalis as a major periodontopathogen. One Manuka and one domestic beekeeper honey have been selected for the study. As a screening, MICs of the honeys against 20 P. gingivalis strains were determined. Contents of methylglyoxal and hydrogen peroxide as the potential antimicrobial compounds were determined. These components (up to 100 mg/l), propolis (up to 200 mg/l) as well as the two honeys (up to 10% w/v) were tested against four P. gingivalis strains in planktonic growth and in a single-species biofilm. 2% of Manuka honey inhibited the growth of 50% of the planktonic P. gingivalis, the respective MIC50 of the German beekeeper honey was 5%. Manuka honey contained 1.87 mg/kg hydrogen peroxide and the domestic honey 3.74 mg/kg. The amount of methylglyoxal was found to be 2 mg/kg in the domestic honey and 982 mg/kg in the Manuka honey. MICs for hydrogen peroxide were 10 mg/l - 100 mg/l, for methylglyoxal 5 - 20 mg/l, and for propolis 20 mg/l - 200 mg/l. 10% of both types of honey inhibited the formation of P. gingivalis biofilms and reduced the numbers of viable bacteria within 42 h-old biofilms. Neither a total prevention of biofilm formation nor a complete eradication of a 42 h-old biofilm by any of the tested compounds and the honeys were found. Honey acts antibacterial against P. gingivalis. The observed pronounced effects of Manuka honey against planktonic bacteria but not within biofilm can be attributed to methylglyoxal as the characteristic antimicrobial component.
... On the other hand, the antimicrobial properties seem to relate to the presence of flavonoids, flavones, flavanones. However, due to the complex chemical constitution shown propolis it becomes difficult to confirm the true roles of each compound, since they seem to act synergistically [24,26,36,37]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this phase II study was to determine the effectiveness of a mucoadhesive propolis gel in the prevention of radiation-induced oral mucositis. Twenty-four patients who were selected to undergo radiation therapy for oral cancer were included in this open-label trial. They were advised to use a mucoadhesive gel containing propolis 5,0% w/v three times a day starting one day before the course of radiation therapy and concluding after 2 weeks of radiation therapy. A weekly follow-up for evaluation of food intake, pain and grading of mucositis was performed. In order to confirm the absence of Candida-related mucositis in patients who developed mucositis, it was performed exfoliative cytology of buccal mucosa, palate and tongue and the material for Candifast® Candida species identification. At the end of the study was made the compliance of patients, quality, appreciation and acceptance of product evaluation. Twenty patients did not develop mucositis, two patients developed grade 1 mucositis and two patients developed grade 2 mucositis. None of the patients discontinued food intake and no pain was observed during the study. Candidosis was not detected in any patient. Mucoadhesive propolis gel could be considered as a potential topical medication for preventing radiation-induced oral mucositis. However, comparative phase III study with larger number of patients should be done for confirmation of the efficacy of the product.
... The literature on propolis use in dentistry is extensive. There are numerous laboratory and clinical reports of propolis that include: suppression and inhibition of cariogenic [5] and periodontal organisms [6], prevention of respiratory infections [7] and gingival inflammation, [8] inhibitory activity against endodontic pathogens [9], and therapeutic action on oral ulcers [10]. These reports however lack evidence of propolis effectiveness because adequately designed randomized controlled trials have yet to be conducted. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial the effects of typified propolis and chlorhexidine rinses on salivary levels of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LACT). One hundred patients were screened for salivary levels of MS >100,000 CFUs/mL of saliva. All patients presented with at least one cavitated decayed surface. Sixty patients met entry criteria. Subjects were adults 18-55 years old. After restoration of cavitated lesions patients were randomized to 3 experimental groups: 1) PROP-alcohol-free 2% typified propolis rinse (n = 20); 2) CHX- 0.12% chlorhexidine rinse; 3) PL-placebo mouthrinse. Patients rinsed unsupervised 15 mL of respective rinses twice a day for 1 min for 28 days. Patients were assessed for the salivary levels of MS (Dentocult SM) and LACT (Dentocult LB) at baseline, 7-day, 14-day, and at 28-day visits (experimental effects) and at 45-day visit (residual effects). General linear models were employed to analyze the data. PROP was superior to CHX at 14-day and 28-day visits in suppressing the salivary levels of MS (p < .05). PROP was superior to PL at all visits (p < .01). The residual effects of PROP in suppressing the salivary levels of MS could still be observed at the 45-day visit, where significant differences between PROP and CHX (p < .05), were demonstrated. PROP was significantly superior than CHX in suppressing the levels of salivary LACT at the 28-day visit (p < .05). Typified propolis rinse was effective in suppressing cariogenic infections in caries-active patients when compared to existing and placebo therapies.
... Propolis, a substance produced by bees for protection of the hive against microorganisms (Trevisan, 1983), has been widely used in popular medicine. In the scientific community, propolis has demonstrated antibacterial (Wuyuan, Green, Birch , 1990;Grange, Davey, 1990;Santos et al., 2002;Koru et al., 2007), antifungal (Kujumgiev et al., 1999;Quintero-Mora et al., 2008), anti-inflammatory (Dobrowolski et al., 1991;Hu et al., 2005;Sosa, 2007), cicatrizant (Perri de Carvalho, Tagliavini, Tagliavini, 1991) and immunomodulator (Dimov et al., 1992;Simões et al., 2004) action. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of propolis-based toothpastes used as intracanal medication in endodontic treatment. The propolis-based toothpastes were prepared using an extract established in previous studies (identified as A70D and D70D). Calcium hydroxide paste was used as a control. The bacteria employed were Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Kocuria rhizophila (ATCC 9341), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Enterococcus hirae (ATCC 10541), Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). Five field strains isolated from saliva were used: Staphylococcus spp. (23.1 - coagulase positive), Staphylococcus spp. (23.5 - coagulase negative), Staphylococcus spp. (26.1 - coagulase positive), Staphylococcus spp. (26.5 - coagulase negative) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (6epi). The diffusion-well method on double-layer agar was used in a culture medium of Tryptic Soy Agar. The plates were kept at room temperature for two hours to allow the diffusion of pastes in the culture medium, and then incubated at 35º C for twenty-four hours in aerobiosis and in microaerophilia (S. mutans). After this period, the total diameter of the inhibition halo was measured. The results were analyzed by ANOVA analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey test at p<0.05. The propolis-based toothpastes presented antibacterial activity against 83.3% of the analyzed bacteria. For 66.7% of these bacteria, the propolis-based toothpastes exhibited greater antibacterial activity than calcium hydroxide. The present results allow us to conclude that the experimental pastes A70D and D70D showed good activity against aerobic bacteria, proving more effective than calcium hydroxide.
... The studies that investigated the effect of propolis on periodontal pathogens showed similar results to our study [8,38,39]. However, previous studies differ from ours because they aimed to investigate the effect of propolis on planktonic bacteria. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on planktonic Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus sobrinus , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Prevotella intermedia , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis , Actinomyces israelii , Candida albicans , and their single-species biofilms by agar dilution and broth microdilution test methods. Both agents inhibited the growth of all planktonic species. On the other hand, CHX exhibited lower minimum bactericidal concentrations than EEP against biofilms of A. actinomycetemcomitans , S. aureus , and E. faecalis whereas EEP yielded a better result against Lactobacilli and P. intermedia . The bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of both agents were found to be equal against biofilms of Streptecocci, P. gingivalis , A. israelii , and C. albicans . The results of this study revealed that propolis was more effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria than the Gram-negative bacteria in their planktonic state and it was suggested that EEP could be as effective as CHX on oral microorganisms in their biofilm state.
... That could be explained by the fact that the susceptibility of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia to amoxicillin is higher compared to F. nucleatum. Likewise, the absence of an inhibitory effect after systemic administration of metronidazole could be the result of a low susceptibility of P. intermedia to metronidazole 40 . Susceptibility of anaerobic pathogens to antimicrobials depends on the relevant species, but also on the strain and region 41 . ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of local and systemic administration of antimicrobials to leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF). For part A, 16 tubes of venous blood were collected from each of eight systemically healthy subjects. Prior to blood centrifugation, 12 of the 16 tubes were injected with 0.125 ml, 0.25 ml or 0.50 ml metronidazole solution. One set of L-PRF membranes was used to assess the release of vascular endothelial growth factor AB, platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor beta 1, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 at indicated time points. The metronidazole release over time by L-PRF membranes was also evaluated. The remaining L-PRF membranes were placed on the surface of agar plates inoculated with three different periodontal pathogens to determine their antibacterial activity. For part B, another six subjects were enrolled with three subjects taking 2 g amoxicillin and three subjects 500 mg metronidazole as prophylaxis prior to a periodontal treatment. Before and 2 h after consuming one of the prescribed antimicrobials, three tubes of blood were collected for preparing L-PRF membranes. These membranes were used to measure the antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogens. No statistically significant difference could be found in the release of growth factors between L-PRF membranes with and without incorporation of metronidazole solution. The release of metronidazole could be detected up to day 3, however with the highest concentration during the first 4 h. This concentration was dose dependent. The antibacterial capacity of L-PRF membranes increased significantly for both the systemic intake, and after the addition of metronidazole solution to the blood tubes before centrifugation, the latter again dose dependent. The antibacterial capacity of L-PRF against the periodontal pathogens tested can significantly be enhanced by the addition of antimicrobials, without disadvantage for the release of growth factors.
... Although administering propolis had no effect on alveolar bone resorption induced by P. gingivalis indicating no local effects on periodontal tissue, low levels of endotoxin activity in the propolis-administered mice could be mediated by anti-microbial effect on P. gingivalis. In this regard, several studies have demonstrated a significant antimicrobial effect of propolis on periodontopathic bacteria such as P. gingivalis [38][39][40][41] and an inhibitory effect on alveolar bone resorption in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats [42,43]. However, our study demonstrated no suppressive effect of propolis on alveolar bone resorption. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Periodontitis has been implicated as a risk factor for metabolic disorders associated with insulin resistance. Recently, we have demonstrated that orally administered Porphyromonas gingivalis, a representative periodontopathic bacterium, induces endotoxemia via reduced gut barrier function coupled with changes in gut microbiota composition, resulting in systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Propolis, a resinous substance collected by honeybees from leaf buds and cracks in the bark of various plants, can positively affect metabolic disorders in various experimental models. In this study, we thus aimed to clarify the effect of propolis on impaired glucose and lipid metabolism induced by P. gingivalis administration. Methods Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were orally administered P. gingivalis strain W83, propolis ethanol extract powder with P. gingivalis, or vehicle. We then analyzed the expression profile of glucose and lipid metabolism-related genes in the liver and adipose tissues. Serum endotoxin levels were also evaluated by a limulus amebocyte lysate test. In addition, we performed histological analysis of the liver and quantified alveolar bone loss by measuring the root surface area on the lower first molar. ResultsOral administration of P. gingivalis induced downregulation of genes that improve insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (C1qtnf9, Irs1, and Sirt1), but upregulation of genes associated with lipid droplet formation and gluconeogenesis (Plin2, Acox, and G6pc). However, concomitant administration of propolis abrogated these adverse effects of P. gingivalis. Consistent with gene expression, histological analysis showed that administered propolis suppressed hepatic steatosis induced by P. gingivalis. Furthermore, propolis inhibited the elevation of serum endotoxin levels induced by P. gingivalis administration. Contrary to the systemic effects, propolis had no beneficial effect on alveolar bone loss. Conclusion These results suggest that administration of propolis may be effective in suppressing periodontopathic bacteria-induced metabolic changes that increase the risk of various systemic diseases.
... Among the various known synthesis methods, plant-mediated nanoparticle synthesis is preferred as it is rapid, cost-effective, eco-friendly, and safe for human therapeutic uses. Innumerous studies from across the world have demonstrated that propolis possess a number of biological activities beneficial for human health, including antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antitumor activities [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20]. Here in, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time synthesis of AgNPs, reducing the Ag ions by the aqueous extract of propolis. ...
Article
Full-text available
Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of NPs is evolving into an important branch of nanotechnology. The present study deals with the synthesis of AgNPs using the propolis aqueous extract. The complete reduction of Ag+ ions was observed after 30 min. of reaction. The colour changes in reaction mixture (light yellow to dark brown colour) was observed during the incubation period, because of the formation of AgNPs in the reaction mixture enables to produce particular colour due to their specific properties (Surface Plasmon Resonance). The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, XRD pattern, TEM, SEM with EDX, AFM, DLS and TG-DTA. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were predominately spherical in shape, polydispersed and ranged below 100 nm i.e. (9 to 30 nm). FT-IR spectroscopy analysis showed that the synthesized AgNPs are capped with biomolecule compounds which are responsible for reduction of Ag+ ions. The approach of propolis-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of AgNPs synthesis.
... attributed to flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenolic acid esters, and terpenoids (Huang, Zhang, Wang, Li, & Hu, 2014). As adjunctive in periodontal therapy, propolis showed in vitro antibacterial activity against periodontopathic bacteria, including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (Koo et al., 2000;Santos et al., 2002;Yoshimasu et al., 2018), and may prevent in vivo alveolar bone loss, as suggested in a rat model of periodontitis (Toker et al., 2008). Further, subgingival irrigation with propolis extract as an adjunct to NSPT has been more effective than SRP alone in improving microbiological and clinical periodontal parameters (de Andrade et al., 2017;Kirti, Khuller, Bansal, & Singh, 2017;Shohdy, Gawish, Attia, & Osman, 2020). ...
Article
This systematic review and meta‐analysis evaluated randomized and nonrandomized studies that assessed the effect of local subgingival propolis as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in the treatment of periodontitis. A detailed search was carried out in Cochrane Library, Embase, LILACS, LIVIVO, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, with no time or language restrictions. A grey literature search was also conducted. The methodology of included studies was evaluated by the Cochrane RoB2 tool. The certainty of each clinical outcome was assessed by the GRADE system. Meta‐analyses of mean difference were conducted using the random‐effects model, through RevMan 5.4 software. Six studies met the eligibility criteria to be synthesized in the qualitative analysis, and three studies were included in the meta‐analysis. The subgingival application of propolis as an adjunct to NSPT improved probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) in most of the assessed studies. The overall mean difference in PPD reduction was 1.49 mm, 30–45 days after treatment, and 0.8 mm, 90 days after treatment, with very low level of certainty. The overall bias was scored as high risk for all included studies. The adjunctive use of locally delivered propolis associated to NSPT to treat periodontitis may improve periodontal clinical parameters, compared with NSPT alone/placebo. However, the evidence was not strong enough to safely base any clinical recommendation.
... Propolis is highly regarded for its pharmacological properties as being strong antimicrobial against several pathogens (10) . Previous studies reported antibacterial properties of propolis against periodontal pathogens (11,12) . ...
... Several studies demonstrated that propolis is effective against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which are considered as keystone periopathogens for the etiology of periodontal diseases. (38,39) In our study, we evaluated the systemic effect of MXF and PRO as adjunctive remedies in the treatment of generalized severe periodontitis and assess their effect clinically and biochemically via one reliable salivary biomarker; IL-1β. We have proved in the present study that PRO and MXF are superior to SRP alone in reducing pocket depth and increasing clinical attachment gain. ...
... Prevotella intermedia-a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium with black pigments-is often connected with oral and subgingival diseases. P. intermedia shows susceptibility to penicillin and metronidazole [57]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite being a highly prevalent disease and a possible contributor to adult tooth loss, periodontitis possesses no well-established therapy. The aim of the recent study was the development and evaluation of a mucoadhesive monophase lipid formulation for the sustained local delivery of amoxicillin, metronidazole, and/or zinc hyaluronate or gluconate. Methods: To investigate our formulations, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, swelling, erosion, mucoadhesivity, drug release, and antimicrobial measurements were performed. Results: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the loaded drugs are in a suspended form, the softening of the formulations starts at body temperature, but a part remains solid, providing sustained release. Swelling of the lipid compositions is affected by the hydrophilic components, their concentration, and the strength of the coherent lipid structure, while their erosion is impacted by the emulsification of melted lipid components. Conclusions: Results of drug release and antimicrobial effectiveness measurements show that a sustained release may be obtained. Amoxicillin had higher effectiveness against oral pathogens than metronidazole or zinc hyaluronate alone, but the combination of the two latter could provide similar effectiveness to amoxicillin. The applied mucoadhesive polymer may affect adhesivity, drug release through the swelling mechanism, and antimicrobial effect as well.
... Antimicrobials are usually regarded as bactericidal, if the MBC is not more than four times the MIC [19]. Based on microbiological data derived from such assays, it has been suggested that propolis may even be of clinical value [20]. However, a systematic evaluation on the antimicrobial effects of propolis on bacterial species relevant to oral diseases and dentistry in general is still lacking. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, drug resistance due to the extensive abuse and over-use of antibiotics has become an increasingly serious problem, making the development of alternative antibiotics a very urgent issue. In this study, crude propolis collected from honey comb was extracted with ethanol, chloroform and acetone based on solvent polarity. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical profiling was done, which revealed that ethanol extract showed the presence of acids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, coumarins, flavonoids, furanoids, phenols, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and triterpenoids, chloroform extract showed the presence of acids, coumarins, flavonoids, furanoids, phenols and saponins and acetone extract showed the presence of acids, coumarins, flavonoids, furanoids and phenols. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were determined by disc diffusion method. The results showed that the ethanol extracts possesses a broader antibacterial spectrum and greater antimicrobial activity against all of the tested clinical isolated bacteria, with varying concentrations tan that of the other extracts. The ethanol extract showed complete inhibition of pathogen growth due to the presence of phytoconstituents in the ethanol extract of propolis. KEYWORDS Propolis, phytochemical profiling, antibacterial activity. INTRODUCTION Propolis (bee glue) is the generic name for the resinous substance collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) from various plant sources (substances exuded from wounds in plants: lipophilic materials on leaves and leaf buds, gums, resins, latices, etc.); it is used to seal holes in the honeycombs and smooth out the internal walls. Propolis is also used to protect the entrance against intruders; moreover, it contains antimicrobial agents active against a variety of pathogens [1]. In the temperate zone all over the world, the main source of bee glue is the resinous exudates of the buds of poplar trees, mainly the black poplar Populus nigra. European propolis contains phenolics: flavonoid aglycones (flavones and flavanones), phenolic acids, and their esters [2, 3]. Propolis from tropical regions has a different chemical composition; for example, Brazilian bee glue is harvested from the leaf resin of Baccharis dracunculifolia and it is composed of prenylated derivatives of p-coumaric acid and of acetophenone. Diterpenes, lignans, and flavonoids (different from those in "poplar type" propolis) have also been found [4]. The Cuban propolis from the floral resin of Clusia rosea is composed mainly of polyisoprenylated benzophenones [5].
... Propolis is a gum produced by honey bees by assembling a gummy material from some trees, and processed in special ways by adding some bee's secretions. This material is used by bees in the construction of their hives, mainly to close the holes in the beehive, and is used as a protective barrier against bacteria and fungi, and has an antimicrobial effect against several human pathogens [1], against cariogenic organisms [2], against periodontal organisms [3], against respiratory infections [4], against gingival inflammation, against endodontic pathogens [5] and against oral ulcers [6]. Propolis presents numerous biological and pharmacological properties, such as immunomodulatory [7], antitumor [8], anti- inflammatory [9], antioxidant activity [10], neuroprotective activity [11], and hepatoprotective activity [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Increasing use of medicinal plants in the treatment of infectious diseases are due to the development of multi-antibiotics resistant microorganisms, and had alerted our interest in the examination of some natural products. This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Jordanian propolis, black seed oil (Nigella sativa) extract, alone or in combination against clinically isolated microorganisms (bacteria and fungi). Methods: Jordanian propolis samples were collected. Aqueous and alcoholic extractions were done; black seed oil was extracted from Nigella sativa seeds. Seven clinical isolated microorganisms namely: Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus pumilus, Bordetella bronchisptica, Enterococcus fecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus, and one yeast strain namely Candida albicans were used. The antimicrobial activity was investigated by agar diffusion technique and microplate dilution to determine the MIC. Results: The results indicated that the alcoholic propolis extract showed higher antimicrobial activity than the aqueous propolis extract. The antimicrobial activity of black seed oil was significantly higher than that of the propolis. Mixing propolis with black seed oil showed synergism effects against some microorganisms as Enterococcus fecalis (24±1.1), Bordetella bronchisptica (20±0.9) and Candida albicans (40±2.3), and additive with others as Bacillus subtilis (28±1.8). Conclusion: Black seed oil and propolis might be used as a potential source of safe and effective natural antimicrobial in pharmaceutical and food industries.
... nigrescens isolates recovered from patients with periodontitis were susceptible to propolis, in a similar way to penicillin, erythromycin, meropenem, and metronidazol. 24 Ethanol extract of propolis showed inhibitory action on important virulence factors, such as lipase activity, and on coagulase of Staphylococcus aureus tested strains. Moreover, the same EEP concentrations showed a negative interaction with adhesion and consequent biofilm formation of these microorganisms. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) and intracanal medicaments calcium hydroxide, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, and formocresol by means of the macrodilution method using the reinforced clostridial medium (RCM) and brucella and brain heart infusion media. The antimicrobial agents were sequentially diluted and tested against anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinomyces israelii, and Clostridium perfringens and against Enterococcus faecalis, with the 5 x 10(5) CFU/mL standardized inocula. The tubes were anaerobically incubated and the minimum inhibitory concentration was detected. Blood agar RCM subcultures were performed to provide minimum bactericidal concentration. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance test. All drugs were effective against all tested strains, without statistical differences. E. faecalis was the less susceptible strain, and RCM broth promoted faster bacterial growth, but there were no significant differences in these results. Ethanol did not influence the antimicrobial effect of EEP.
... The safety of propolis is secured not only by its long history of usage as a folk medicine but by in vitro and in vivo safety assessment studies (Burdock 1998;Sforcin 2016). Propolis has antibacterial activity against a range of pathogens (Wojtyczka et al. 2013;Kalia et al. 2016), including in vitro antibacterial activity against periodontopathic bacteria (Santos et al. 2002), and it improves microbiological and clinical parameters in periodontal tissues (Coutinho 2012;Sanghani et al. 2014). flavonoids, terpenoids, and phenolics (Huang et al. 2014). ...
Article
Propolis, a resinous substance produced by bees, is used as a folk medicine for treatment of periodontal diseases. However, its mode of the action and the compounds responsible for its activities remain obscure. In the present study, we comprehensively investigated the antibacterial activities of ethanol-extracted propolis (EEP) and EEP-derived compounds toward Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontal diseases. Broth microdilution and agar dilution assays were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of EEP against a range of oral bacterial species, of which P. gingivalis showed a higher level of sensitivity than oral commensals such as streptococci. Its antibacterial activity toward P. gingivalis was maintained even after extensive heat treatment, demonstrating a high level of thermostability. EEP also induced death of P. gingivalis cells by increasing membrane permeability within 30 min. Spatiotemporal analysis based on high-speed atomic force microscopy revealed that EEP immediately triggered development of aberrant membrane blebs, followed by bleb fusion events on the bacterial surface. Furthermore, we isolated artepillin C, baccharin, and ursolic acid from EEP as antibacterial compounds against P. gingivalis. Of those, artepillin C and baccharin showed bacteriostatic activities with membrane blebbing, while ursolic acid showed bactericidal activity with membrane rupture. In particular, ursolic acid demonstrated a greater ability to affect bacterial membrane potential with increased membrane permeability, probably because of its highly lipophilic nature as compared with other compounds. Taken together, these findings provide mechanistic insight into the antibacterial activities of EEP and its exquisite membrane-targeting antibacterial compounds and imply the applicability of narrow-spectrum therapeutics with EEP for treatment of periodontitis. In addition, the advanced technology utilized in the present study to visualize the nanometer-scale dynamics of microorganisms will contribute to expanding our understanding of the activities of antimicrobials and the mechanism of drug resistance in bacteria.
... We have confirmed the complete inhibition of Pd spore germination even at a low concentration of propolis (1%). Propolis, also called "bee glue" [21,47], is soluble in anhydrous ethanol, which eliminates the resinous and sticky properties of this substance making it suitable for application on roost substrates. Our study contributes to a growing portfolio of biological and chemical measures for controlling the growth of Pd [10,12,13,42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
White-nose syndrome (WNS) in bats, caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), is a cutaneous infection that has devastated North American bat populations since 2007. At present, there is no effective method for controlling this disease. Here, we evaluated the effect of propolis against Pd in vitro. Using Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) medium, approximately 1.7 × 107 conidia spores of the Pd strain M3906-2/mL were spread on each plate and grown to form a consistent lawn. A Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion assay was employed using different concentrations of propolis (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), in plates incubated at 8 °C and 15 °C. At 8 °C and 15 °C, as the concentration of propolis increased, there was an increasing zone of inhibition (ZOI), reaching the highest degree at 10% and 25% concentrations, respectively. A germule suppression assay showed a similar effect on Pd conidia germination. A MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of propolis revealed multiple constituents with a potential anti-Pd activity, including cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, and dihydrochalcones, which could be further tested for their individual effects. Our study suggests that propolis or its individual constituents might be suitable products against Pd.
... P. intermedia strain was evaluated for drug resistance against cephalosporins (ceftriaxone), polypeptide antibiotic (bacitracin), glycopeptide antibiotic (vancomycin), and penicillins (amoxicillin and penicillin). The results suggested sensitivity to the following groups of antibiotics: aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and tobramycin), tetracycline (doxycycline), sulfonamide (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim), and crinoline (ciprofloxacine and norfloxacine). A. actinomycetemcomitans studied for tetracycline (4 μg/mL), penicillin (0.06 μg/mL), metronidazole (8 μg/mL), erythromycin (0.06 μg/mL), meropenem (2 μg/mL), and clindamycin (8 μg/mL) showed the minimum inhibitory concentration, which was described previously [22]. ...
Article
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been featured as an effective strategy in treatment of acute drug-resistant infections. The efficiency of PDI was evaluated against three periodontal pathogenic bacteria which were evaluated as drug-resistant strains. In vitro studies were performed with four water-soluble cationic Zn(II) phthalocyanines (ZnPc1-4) and irradiation of a specific light source (LED 665 nm) with different doses (15, 36 and 60 J/cm2). The well detectable fluorescence of ZnPcs allowed the cellular imaging which suggested relatively high uptakes of ZnPcs into bacterial species. The complete photoinactivation was achieved with all studied ZnPc1-4 for Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) at light dose of 15 J/cm2. The photodynamic response was high for Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia) after application of 6 μM ZnPc1 and light dose of 36 J/cm2 and for 6 μM ZnPc2 at 60 J/cm2. P. intermedia was inactivated with ZnPc3 (4 log) and ZnPc4 (2 log) with irradiation with optimal dose of 60 J/cm2. The similar photoinactivation result (2 log) were achieved for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) treated with 6 μM ZnPc1 and ZnPc2 at 60 J/cm2. The study suggested that PDI with quaternized Zn(II) - phthalocyanines appears very useful antimicrobial strategy for effective inactivation of resistant periodontal pathogens.
... Propolis is a gum produced by honey bees by assembling a gummy material from some trees, and processed in special ways by adding some bee's secretions. This material is used by bees in the construction of their hives, mainly to close the holes in the beehive, and is used as a protective barrier against bacteria and fungi, and has an antimicrobial effect against several human pathogens[1], against cariogenic organisms[2], against periodontal organisms[3], against respiratory infections[4], against gingival inflammation, against endodontic pathogens[5]and against oral ulcers[6]. Propolis presents numerous biological and pharmacological properties, such as immunomodulatory[7], antitumor[8], antiinflammatory[9], antioxidant activity[10], neuroprotective activity[11], and hepatoprotective activity[12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Increasing use of medicinal plants in the treatment of infectious diseases are due to the development of multi-antibiotics resistant microorganisms, and had alerted our interest in the examination of some natural products. This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Jordanian propolis, black seed oil (Nigella sativa) extract, alone or in combination against clinically isolated microorganisms (bacteria and fungi). Methods: Jordanian propolis samples were collected. Aqueous and alcoholic extractions were done; black seed oil was extracted from Nigella sativa seeds. Seven clinical isolated microorganisms namely: Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus pumilus, Bordetella bronchisptica, Enterococcus fecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus, and one yeast strain namely Candida albicans were used. The antimicrobial activity was investigated by agar diffusion technique and microplate dilution to determine the MIC. Results: The results indicated that the alcoholic propolis extract showed higher antimicrobial activity than the aqueous propolis extract. The antimicrobial activity of black seed oil was significantly higher than that of the propolis. Mixing propolis with black seed oil showed synergism effects against some microorganisms as Enterococcus fecalis (24±1.1), Bordetella bronchisptica (20±0.9) and Candida albicans (40±2.3), and additive with others as Bacillus subtilis (28±1.8). Conclusion: Black seed oil and propolis might be used as a potential source of safe and effective natural antimicrobial in pharmaceutical and food industries
Article
We determined the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 255 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria collected in 2007 and 2008 at a tertiary-care hospital in South Korea. Piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, and meropenem were highly active β-lactam agents against most of the isolates tested. The rates of resistance of Bacteroides fragilis group organisms and anaerobic Gram-positive cocci to moxifloxacin were 11 to 18% and 0 to 27%, respectively.
Article
Binary polymeric systems containing poloxamer 407 (P407) and Carbopol 934P (C934P) were designed to deliver propolis extract (PE) or sildenafil citrate for the endodontic treatment (pulp protection). Gelation temperature, rheology (flow), bioadhesion, and in vitro drug release of formulations were determined. Formulations showed thermoresponsive behavior, existing as a liquid at room temperature and gel at 34-37°C. In addition, they exhibited pseudoplastic flow and low degrees of thixotropy or rheopexy. The greatest bioadhesion was noted in the formulation containing 20% P407 (w/w) and 0.10% C934P (w/w). PE release from formulation containing 15% P407 (w/w) and 0.25% C934P (w/w) was controlled by the phenomenon of relaxation of polymer chains. Moreover, sildenafil release from formulation containing 20% P407 (w/w) and 0.10% C934P (w/w) was controlled by Fickian diffusion. The data obtained on these formulations indicate a potentially useful role in the endodontic treatment (pulp protection) and suggest they are worthy of clinical evaluation.
Article
High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support (HDT) has been proven effective in relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, conflicting results of HDT as part of first-line treatment have been reported in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of such treatment. To determine whether high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation as part of first-line treatment improves survival in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cancer Lit, the Cochrane Library and smaller databases, Internet-databases of ongoing trials, conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Hematology were searched. We included full-text, abstract publications and unpublished data. Randomised controlled trials comparing conventional chemotherapy versus high-dose chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of adults with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma were included in this review. Eligibility and quality assessment, data extraction and analysis were done in duplicate. All authors were contacted to obtain missing data and asked to provide individual patient data. Fifteen RCTs including 3079 patients were eligible for this meta-analysis. Overall treatment-related mortality was 6.0% in the HDT group and not significantly different compared to conventional chemotherapy (OR 1.33 [95% CI 0.91 to 1.93], P=0.14). 13 studies including 2018 patients showed significantly higher CR rates in the group receiving HDT (OR 1.32, [95% CI 1.09 to 1.59], P=0.004). However, HDT did not have an effect on OS, when compared to conventional chemotherapy. The pooled HR was 1.04 ([95% CI 0.91 to 1.18], P=0.58). There was no statistical heterogeneity among the trials. Sensitivity analyses underlined the robustness of these results. Subgroup analysis of prognostic groups according to IPI did not show any survival difference between HDT and controls in 12 trials (low and low-intermediate risk IPI: HR 1.41[95% CI 0.95 to 2.10], P=0.09; high-intermediate and high risk IPI: HR 0.97 [95% CI 0.83 to 1.13], P=0.71. Event-free survival (EFS) also showed no significant difference between HDT and CT (HR 0.93, [95% CI 0.81 to 1.07], P=0.31). Other possible risk factors such as the proportion of patient with diffuse large cell lymphoma, protocol adherence, HDT strategy, response status before HDT, conditioning regimens and methodological issues were analysed in sensitivity analyses. However, there was no evidence for an association between these factors and the results of our analyses. . Despite higher CR rates, there is no benefit for high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation as a first line treatment in patients with aggressive NHL.
Article
Precursor systems of liquid crystalline phase were prepared using the surfactant PPG-5-Ceteth-20, isopropyl myristate, and water; gelatin microparticles containing propolis were then added into these systems. Homogeneity of dispersion, the in-system microparticle morphology, and sedimentation behavior of each formulation were evaluated. The rheological and mechanical properties (hardness, compressibility, and adhesiveness), the work of syringing, and the propolis release profile were also evaluated. All the formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow and thixotropy, and they displayed storage modulus, loss modulus, dynamic viscosity, and loss tangent that depended on temperature, frequency, and composition. Mechanical properties varied significantly among the formulations being affected by changes in the composition and temperature. Raising the concentration of surfactant and adding propolis microparticles significantly decreased the work of syringing. The drug release was non-Fickian (anomalous) and there was no significant difference between the tested systems in the times required for 10%, 30%, and 50% release of the initial drug loading.
Article
Full-text available
Gelatin microparticles containing propolis ethanolic extractive solution were prepared by spray-drying technique. Particles with regular morphology, mean diameter ranging of 2.27 microm to 2.48 microm, and good entrapment efficiency for propolis were obtained. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of microparticles was evaluated against microorganisms of oral importance (Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Candida albicans, and Lactobacillus casei). The utilized techniques were diffusion in agar and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. The choice of the method to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of microparticles showed be very important. The microparticles displayed activity against all tested strains of similar way to the propolis, showing greater activity against the strains of E. salivarius, S. sanguinis, S. mitis, and C. albicans.
Article
Formulations containing poloxamer 407 (P407), carbopol 934P (C934P), and propolis extract (PE) were designed for the treatment of periodontal disease. Gelation temperature, in vitro drug release, rheology, hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, mucoadhesion, and syringeability of formulations were determined. Propolis release from formulations was controlled by the phenomenon of relaxation of polymer chains. Formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow and low degrees of thixotropy or rheopexy. In most samples, increasing the concentration of C934P content significantly increased storage modulus (G′), loss modulus (G″), and dynamic viscosity (η′), at 5°C, G″ exceeded G′. At 25 and 37°C, η′ of each formulation depended on the oscillatory frequency. Formulations showed thermoresponsive behavior, existing as a liquid at room temperature and gel at 34–37°C. Increasing the C934P content or temperature significantly increased formulation hardness, compressibility, and adhesiveness. The greatest mucoadhesion was noted in the formulation containing 15% P407 (w/w) and 0.25% C934P (w/w). The work of syringeability values of all formulations were similar and very desirable with regard to ease of administration. The data obtained in these formulations indicate a potentially useful role in the treatment of periodontitis and suggest they are worthy of clinical evaluation. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 96:2074–2089, 2007
Article
Full-text available
Propolis, a natural bee product widely used for its antimicrobial activity, was tested against isolates of Enterococcus from humans, pig-tailed macaques, isolates of refractory endodontic treatment cases, and isolates from Lactobacillus-containing food supplements. Typification of the propolis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) by which prenylated compounds, cinnamic acid derivatives, and flavonoids were detected as the main constituents. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using the agar dilution method. All human and animal Enterococcus isolates demonstrated MIC values of 1600 microg/mL. Enterococcal species of human and animal origin were inhibited by propolis. Particularly, human isolates of E. faecium and E. faecalis of refractory endodontic treatment cases were susceptible to propolis of Brazilian origin.
Article
Full-text available
Diabetic wounds are unlike typical wounds in that they are slower to heal, making treatment with conventional topical medications an uphill process. Among several different alternative therapies, honey is an effective choice because it provides comparatively rapid wound healing. Although honey has been used as an alternative medicine for wound healing since ancient times, the application of honey to diabetic wounds has only recently been revived. Because honey has some unique natural features as a wound healer, it works even more effectively on diabetic wounds than on normal wounds. In addition, honey is known as an "all in one" remedy for diabetic wound healing because it can combat many microorganisms that are involved in the wound process and because it possesses antioxidant activity and controls inflammation. In this review, the potential role of honey's antibacterial activity on diabetic wound-related microorganisms and honey's clinical effectiveness in treating diabetic wounds based on the most recent studies is described. Additionally, ways in which honey can be used as a safer, faster, and effective healing agent for diabetic wounds in comparison with other synthetic medications in terms of microbial resistance and treatment costs are also described to support its traditional claims.
Article
Ethylcellulose microparticles containing propolis ethanolic extract (PE) were prepared by the emulsification and solvent evaporation method. Three ratios of ethylcellulose to PE dry residue value (DR) were tested (1:0.25,1:4 and 1:10). Moreover, polysorbate 80 was used as emulsifier in the external phase (1.0 or 1.5% w/w). Regular particle morphology without amorphous and/or sticking characteristics was achieved only when an ethy!cellulose:DR ratio of 1:0.25 and 1.0% polysorbate 80 were used. Microparticles had a mean diameter of 85.83 urn. The entrapment efficiency for propolis of the microparticles was 62.99 ± 0.52%. These ethylcellulose microparticles containing propolis would be useful for developing propolis aqueous dosage forms without the strong and unpleasant taste, aromatic odour and high ethanol concentration of PE.
Article
Full-text available
Background: A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a propolis rinse on induced gingivitis by using the co-twin study design. Methods: Twenty-one twin pairs (n=42) were enrolled in a gingivitis study with oral hygiene promotion (14 days) and gingivitis induction (21 days). During the gingivitis induction phase, one member of the twin pair was randomly assigned to a 2% typified propolis rinse, and the other was assigned a color-matched 0.05% sodium fluoride plus 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride rinse (positive control). Patients rinsed twice daily with 20 mL for 30 seconds for 21 days. Gingivitis was measured on days -14 (baseline), 0 (after hygiene phase), and 21 (after no-hygiene phase) by using the Papillary Bleeding Score (PBS) and by standard digital imaging of the gum tissues (G-parameter). Results: The 38 persons who completed the study (age 13-22 years) were well balanced according to PBS at baseline and G-parameter after the initial hygiene phase. After 21 days without oral hygiene, the propolis rinse and positive control rinse groups did not differ significantly for average PBS measurements or G-parameter. Conclusions: Use of a 2% typified propolis rinse was equivalent to a positive control rinse during a 21-day no-hygiene period.
Chapter
Intracanal medicaments are recommended to supplement chemomechanical preparation to enhance disinfection. Calcium hydroxide is the most widely used intracanal medicament for this purpose. However, innovation in material sciences has led to exponential growth in the field of endodontics. Many of these newly developed formulations, including specific new synthetic and herbal medicaments, have shown promising results. Few of them have already been commercialized. However, for the majority of them to be commercialized and used on a regular basis, large sample clinical trials with extended follow-up are required. Furthermore, the exact dose, treatment time, form of dispensation, and ideal vehicle for delivery are yet to be experimented and patented. On the other hand, currently, there are highly developed medicaments available that are being widely used and serve the purpose well. This chapter highlights the conventional, new, and developing intracanal medicaments and their methods of placement and removal.
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN El Propóleo se destaca por sus variadas y disímiles propiedades biológicas, numerosas investigaciones avalan su gran versatilidad farmacológica. Lo que ha permitido que en los últimos años se haya incrementado su utilización como medicina alternativa con excelente resultados en el ámbito estomatológico. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la eficacia del Propóleo en Tintura al 5 % como irrigante intraconducto en el tratamiento endodóntico. El universo estuvo conformado por 2644 pacientes que recibieron tratamientos endodónticos radicales concluidos entre enero y diciembre del año 2014, se formaron dos grupos de 350 pacientes cada uno escogidos aleatoriamente, el grupo de control, el cual recibió aplicaciones de Clorhexidina al 0,2 % y el grupo estudio recibió tintura hidroalcohólico de propóleo al 5 %. En el grupo tratado con propóleo los resultados de curación fueron ligeramente superiores con escaza diferencia porcentual que los tratados con Clorhexidina, después de la segunda aplicación. Todos los pacientes tratados con Propóleo así como con Clorhexidina mostraron curación antes de la tercera aplicación. El tratamiento con propóleo fue igualmente eficaz que la Clorhexidina. En ninguno de los pacientes tratados se reportó intolerancia al propóleo. ABSTRACT The Propolis stands out for its varied ones and dissimilar properties biological, numerous investigations endorse its great versatility pharmacological. that has allowed that in the last years it has been increased its use like alternative medicine
Preprint
Full-text available
RESUMEN El Propóleo se destaca por sus variadas y disímiles propiedades biológicas, numerosas investigaciones avalan su gran versatilidad farmacológica. Lo que ha permitido que en los últimos años se haya incrementado su utilización como medicina alternativa con excelente resultados en el ámbito estomatológico. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la eficacia del Propóleo en Tintura al 5 % como irrigante intraconducto en el tratamiento endodóntico. El universo estuvo conformado por 2644 pacientes que recibieron tratamientos endodónticos radicales concluidos entre enero y diciembre del año 2014, se formaron dos grupos de 350 pacientes cada uno escogidos aleatoriamente, el grupo de control, el cual recibió aplicaciones de Clorhexidina al 0,2 % y el grupo estudio recibió tintura hidroalcohólico de propóleo al 5 %. En el grupo tratado con propóleo los resultados de curación fueron ligeramente superiores con escaza diferencia porcentual que los tratados con Clorhexidina, después de la segunda aplicación. Todos los pacientes tratados con Propóleo así como con Clorhexidina mostraron curación antes de la tercera aplicación. El tratamiento con propóleo fue igualmente eficaz que la Clorhexidina. En ninguno de los pacientes tratados se reportó intolerancia al propóleo. ABSTRACT The Propolis stands out for its varied ones and dissimilar properties biological, numerous investigations endorse its great versatility pharmacological. that has allowed that in the last years it has been increased its use like alternative medicine
Article
Honeybees rely on plants for everything they need to keep the colony running; plant nectar and pollen are their only carbohydrate and protein food sources. By foraging to satisfy their basic nutritional demand, honeybees inevitably gather specialized plant metabolites as part of the nectar and pollen. In general, these compounds possess biological activity which may become relevant in fighting pests and pathogens in the hive. The third plant derived bee product, besides honey and bee pollen, is propolis (bee glue), which comes from plant resins. It is not a food; it is used as a building material and a defensive substance. Thus, the beehive is rich in specialized plant metabolites, produced by many different plant species and the expression "Phytochemistry of honeybees" is not inappropriate. However, it is virtually impossible to perform a detailed overview of the phytochemical features of honey and pollen in a review article of this nature, for reasons of space. The present review deals with propolis, because it is the bee product with highest concentration of specialized plant metabolites and has valuable pharmacological activities. The most recent developments concerning plant sources of propolis, bees' preferences to particular plants, the application of metabolomic approaches and chemometrics to propolis research and the problems concerning standardization of propolis are summarized. The overview covers the literature published in the last decade, after 2007.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Electrospun PLA fiber devices were investigated in the form of fiber mats and disks. Metronidazole was used as an active agent; its concentration was 12.2 and 25.7 wt% in the devices. Methods: The structure was studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, drug release by dissolution measurements, while the antimicrobial efficiency was tested on five bacterial strains. Results: The XRD study showed that the polymer was partially crystalline in both devices, but a part of metronidazole precipitated and was in the form of crystals among and within the fibers. Liquid penetration and dissolution were different in the two devices, they were faster in disks and slower in fiber mats, due to the morphology of the device and the action of capillary forces. Disks released the drug much faster than fiber mats. Although the release study indicated fast drug dissolution, the concentration achieved a plateau value in 24 hrs for the disks; the inhibition effect lasted much longer, 13 days for bacteria sensitive to metronidazole. The longer inhibition period could be explained by the slower diffusion of metronidazole located inside the fibers of the device. Conclusion: The results suggest that the devices may be effective in the treatment of periodontitis.
Article
A procedure for the determination of very low polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in sediment samples has been developed by gas chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-QIT MS) after extraction with dichloromethane and purification by using silica gel cleanup. Identification and quantification of analytes were based on the selected ion storage (SIS) strategy using deuterated PAHs as internal standards. In order to search out the main factors affecting the SIS mass spectrometry efficiency, four MS parameters, including target total ion count (TTIC), waveform amplitude (WA), transfer line (XLT) and ion trap temperatures (ITT) were subjected to a complete multifactorial design. The most relevant parameters obtained (TTIC and WA) were optimized by a rotatable and orthogonal composite design. Optimum values for these parameters were selected for the development of the method involving PAH determination in sediment samples. The optimized method exhibited a range of 111-760% higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios for PAHs in comparison with the method operated by the default conditions, demonstrating that the multifactorial optimization contributed to substantially improve the sensitivity of the GC-QIT MS determination. The accuracy of the method was verified by analyzing NWRI EC-3 certified reference material (Lake Ontario sediment). The selectivity, sensitivity (limits of quantification were in the range of 0.02-11.0 ng g(-1)), accuracy (recoveries >or=77%) and precision (RSD<or=30%) obtained were quite adequate for the determination of very low target PAHs in sediment samples. The established method was then applied to determine 16 PAHs in river sediments from the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil. Two selected sediment samples were analyzed, one from the Canguiri River (a slightly urbanized area), and the other from the Iguaçu River (a heavily urbanized area), illustrating the capabilities of the method to detect PAHs at the threshold concentrations necessary to classify the sediments as well as the status of contamination.
Article
Full-text available
The susceptibilities of 143 Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Prevotella nigrescens isolates to 18 antimicrobial agents were tested. All P. gingivalis isolates were susceptible. In contrast, some Prevotella spp. (17%) were resistant to beta-lactams, erythromycin, clindamycin, or tetracycline and carried resistance genes, ermF or tetQ, or beta-lactamases.
Article
Full-text available
The leaf anatomy of B. dracunculifolia, in different developmental stages, was studied, with the purpose of characterizing the secretory structures that can be used as indicators for determining of the botanical origin of propolis produced by Apis mellifera. The material was collected in the Municipal district of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, where experimental hives were installed. The studied species are characterized by having the surface of the youngest leaves densely covered by glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are abundant in the early stages of leaf growth and uncommon in mature leaves. The mature leaf is amphistomatic. The mesophyll consists of palisade cells, scarce spongy parenchyma and secretory ducts associated to the phloem. The leaf fragments, stomata, glandular trichomes and non-glandular trichomes present in propolis samples are similar to those found in B. dracunculifolia leaves.
Article
Full-text available
Crude propolis and commercial products containing propolis, such as ethanolic extracts, tablets, capsules and powders acquired in São Paulo City (Brazil) were analyzed. The resins of the solid products were extracted with ethanol and found to be present at various concentrations, independently of the propolis concentration specified on the label of the commercial products. The in vitro activity of these resins against S aureus, B cereus and B subtilis was also determined. The results showed that the antibacterial activity rather than the propolis concentration itself should be considered for quality control and that some resins are likely to display a species-specific action.
Article
Full-text available
Phenolic composition of Bulgarian and Mongolian propolis and their possible plant sources (the resinous secretions of different tree buds) were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results obtained demonstrate that in both countries propolis is collected mainly from poplars: from Populus nigra and to some extent from P italica in Bulgaria, and from P suaveolens in Mongolia.
Article
Full-text available
New information published since 1995 about propolis constituents is reviewed. The available information on the biological action of new found components is presented. Recent publications are reviewed on propolis of native South American stingless bees. The plant sources of bee glue are discussed, taking into consideration data based on reliable chemical evidence including comparisons between propolis samples and plant material. Some aspects of the chemical standardization of propolis are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Four samples of Brazilian propolis were investigated by GC/MS of different fractions. 32 volatile compounds, (10 of them new for propolis), as well as 12 more polar compounds (one of them new for propolis) were identified. Antibacterial activity was found in some propolis fractions.
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the beta-lactamase production of 73 Prevotella intermedia, 84 Prevotella nigrescens, and 14 Prevotella pallens isolates and their in vitro susceptibilities to six antimicrobial agents. The P. intermedia and P. nigrescens isolates were recovered from oral and extraoral samples obtained from subjects in two geographic locations from 1985 to 1995. The clonality of the beta-lactamase-positive and beta-lactamase-negative isolates and the clustering of the genotypes were studied by arbitrarily primed-PCR fingerprinting. beta-Lactamase production was detected in 29% of P. intermedia isolates, 29% of P. nigrescens isolates, and 57% of P. pallens isolates. No difference in the frequencies of beta-lactamase production by P. intermedia and P. nigrescens between isolates from oral and extraoral sites, between isolates obtained at different time periods, or between P. intermedia isolates from different geographic locations was observed. However, the P. nigrescens isolates from the United States were significantly more frequently (P = 0.015) beta-lactamase positive than those from Finland. No association between the genotypes and beta-lactamase production or between the genotypes and the sources of the isolates was found. The penicillin G MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited were 8 microg/ml for P. intermedia, 8 microg/ml for P. nigrescens, and 16 microg/ml for P. pallens. For the beta-lactamase-negative isolates, the corresponding values were 0.031, 0.031, and 0.125 microg/ml, and for the beta-lactamase-positive isolates, the corresponding values were 16, 8, and 32 microg/ml. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefoxitin, metronidazole, azithromycin, and trovafloxacin. The MICs of amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefoxitin were relatively higher for the beta-lactamase-positive population than for the beta-lactamase-negative population.
Article
Full-text available
The comparative activity of telithromycin (HMR 3647) against 419 human anaerobic isolates was determined by the agar dilution method. At concentrations of </=0.5 microgram/ml, telithromycin was active against Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides tectum, Bacteroides ureolyticus, Bacteroides gracilis (now Campylobacter gracilis), Porphyromonas spp. (including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas macacae), Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella heparinolytica, and almost all Peptostreptococcus species. Clostridia showed species and strain variability, often with a biphasic pattern. Fusobacterium species, except Fusobacterium russii, were relatively resistant.
Article
Modern physicians trained in allopathic medicine are usually wary of naturopathic remedies because the mechanisms of efficacy are usually unclear. Indeed, if one examines recipes from Chinese herbal medicine or some ‘home remedies,’ the active ingredients are unknown. Also, demonstration of the effectiveness of the remedies often is not scientific (no use of placebos), and could be a result of psychological effects of the patient. However, modern allopathic doctors and researchers should not ignore potential benefits which natural products may provide in curing some of the most serious medical problems today.
Article
Three distinct antimicrobial compounds were isolated from Brazilian propolis. These compounds were identified as 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (1), 3-prenyl-4-dihydrocinnamoloxycinnamic acid (2), and 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-2H-1-benzopyran (3). The respective antimicrobial activity, expressed as MIC in μg/ml, 1-3 against Bacillus cereus was 15.6, 31.3, and 125; that against Enterobacter aerogenes was 31.3, 62.5, and 125; and that against Arthroderma benhamiae was 15.6, > 250, and 62.5. Compound 1 is likely to be one of the major antimicrobial compounds in Brazilian propolis.
Article
Thesis (doctoral)--Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2000. Includes bibliographical references.
Article
A total of 96 strains were collected that included laboratory strains and clinical isolates classified Prevotella intermedia sensu lato and the type strains of the species P. intermedia sensu stricto and Prevotella nigrescens. Susceptibility to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was determined by the Etest. PCR-DNA probe assays were used to speciate each strain as P. intermedia sensu stricto or P. nigrescens. By Etest, 71 strains (74%) were susceptible to both amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with minimum inhibitory concentrations in the 0.016-0.064 microgram/ml range. In contrast, amoxicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations of 25 strains (26%) were in the range of 1.5-96 micrograms/ml with concomitant amoxicillin-clavulanic acid minimum inhibitory concentrations in the low range 0.016-0.38 microgram/ml, indicating a production of beta-lactamase as confirmed by nitrocefin tests. Of these beta-lactamase-producing strains, 20% (5/25) were identified as P. intermedia sensu stricto by the PCR-DNA probe assay and 72% (18/25) as P. nigrescens. Our results provide support for the major role of P. nigrescens in the failure of therapy using beta-lactam antibiotics.
Article
The in vitro effect of propolis on several DNA and RNA viruses including herpes simplex type 1, an acyclovir resistant mutant, herpes simplex type 2, adenovirus type 2, vesicular stomatitis virus and poliovirus type 2, was investigated. The inhibition of poliovirus propagation was clearly observed through a plaque reduction test and a multistep virus replication assay with a selectivity index equal to 5. At the concentration of 30 μg/ml, propolis reduced the titer of herpes simplex viruses by 1 000, whereas vesicular stomatitis virus and adenovirus were less susceptible. In addition to its effect on virus multiplication, propolis was also found to exert a virucidal action on the enveloped viruses HSV and VSV.
Article
The plant sources and chemical composition of propolis are reviewed. The chemical constituents that may be relevant to its biological and therapeutic activity are discussed. The cytotoxic activity and antimicrobial and pharmacological properties of propolis are presented. Propolis components, which cause allergy and are responsible for anticancer activity, eg, caffeic acid derivatives, are reported. The therapeutic efficacy of propolis in treating diseases caused by microorganisms is described. Some recent concepts about propolis and its use in medicine are presented.
Article
The presence of 19 elements has been shown in the ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP). Three fractions have been obtained by filtration through a structural gel that did not show an initial antibacterial activity when investigated separately. Fractions 2 and 3 joined together have regained this activity. EEP solutions maintain their anitbacterial activity in acidic or neutral pH. Insensitivity of EEP solutions on temperautre of 75 degrees C for 30 min has been found.
Article
The purpose of the study was to validate the Epsilometer test (E-test) method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of selected periodontopathic microorganisms using the agar dilution method as a standard. The E-test has been developed to provide a direct quantification of antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms. The device consists of a predefined, continuous, and exponential gradient of antibiotic concentrations immobilized along a rectangular plastic test strip. After 48 hours incubation a drop-shaped inhibition zone intersects the graded test strip at the inhibitory concentration (IC) of the antibiotic. Twenty-two subgingival plaque samples from periodontitis sites were plated on trypticase soy agar supplemented with 5% rabbit blood or 5% sheep blood and trypticase soy agar supplemented with vancomycin and bacitracin. A total of 60 strains of key periodontal pathogens (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, Campylobacter rectus, and Capnocytophaga) isolated from 22 sites of 12 patients were studied. The antibiotics tested were clindamycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin, and ampicillin at concentrations above and below the achieved blood or gingival crevicular fluid levels. As a standard reference the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the agar dilution method. MICs were compared with ICs determined using the E-test method. The results showed an agreement ranging from 67% to 100%; sensitivity ranging from 75% to 100%; predictability ranging from 56% to 100% and specificity ranging from 33% to 96%. The E-test ICs for ampicillin, cefoxitin, and metronidazole against the Gram-negative capnophilic and microaerophilic rods and the black-pigmented anaerobic rods ICs for ampicillin, clindamycin, metronidazole, and tetracycline showed a high percentage of agreement with the agar dilution MICS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The efficacy of the water-soluble derivative (WSD) of natural propolis (bee glue) was examined for augmentation of host resistance against experimental infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The substance was found to induce significant non-specific protection, but did not inhibit the in vitro growth of the same strains. Pretreatment with WSD prior to the standard scheme for tumour necrosis factor (TNF) induction (BCG and two weeks later lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) provoked an interval-dependent reduction in the lytic capacity of serum against L 929 target cells. The replacement of the triggering or priming signal with WSD markedly increased TNF production. In vivo administration of WSD led to a rapid and route-dependent change in the alternative complement pathway haemolysis. The alteration in C1q complement component and total protein synthesis, and also in nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, suggests that macrophage activation makes a major contribution to the capacity of WSD to prevent infections.
Article
Propolis bee preparations revealed good antibacterial (particularly against Gram-positive bacteria), antifungal (against those responsible for superficial and dermatomycoses) and antiinflammatory (against acute and chronic models of inflammation) effects but no antiamoebic or antipyretic capacity.
Article
Propolis, the resinous hive product collected by bees, is important in the defense of the hive. The effects of propolis on growth and glucosyltransferase activity of Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, Streptococcus mutans PS14 and Streptococcus cricetus OMZ61 in vitro, and on dental caries in rats infected with S. sobrinus 6715 were investigated. Propolis had antimicrobial activity against S. sobrinus, S. mutans and S. cricetus, and inhibited both water-insoluble glucan synthesis and glucosyltransferase activity. In rats inoculated with S. sobrinus, about half of their fissures were carious, while dental caries was significantly less (p = 0.01) in rats given propolis. Dental caries was markedly decreased by the multiple actions of propolis which had antimicrobial activity, inhibited water-insoluble glucan synthesis, and inhibited glucosyltransferase activity. No toxic effects of propolis on the growth of rats were observed under experimental conditions in this study. These results suggest that propolis can control dental caries in the rat model system.
Article
Sixty-one cultures of Gram-negative anaerobic rods were isolated from deep periodontal pockets of patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis. Isolates were speciated as Bacteroides gingivalis (18 isolates), Bacteroides intermedius (8), Bacteroides oris (1), Bacteroides gracilis (17) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (17). Their susceptibilities, to seven antimicrobial agents, were determined in vitro using a plate dilution technique. Amoxycillin and amoxycillin with clavulanic acid were active against all isolates (MIC less than 1 mg/l) and proved the most effective agents tested. F. nucleatum and B. gracilis showed resistance to erythromycin; F. nucleatum had MIC values ranging from 0.03 mg/l up to 128 mg/l when tested with this, least effective agent. Metronidazole was effective against all isolates except for a few strains of B. gracilis (MIC less than 4 mg/l). Tetracycline hydrochloride and minocycline were active against all isolates except for a few strains of B. gracilis (MIC less than 2 mg/l with both minocycline and tetracycline hydrochloride). Penicillin proved less effective than amoxycillin with regard to inhibition of B. gracilis.
Article
The purpose of the study was to validate a rapid resistance screening (RRS) method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of a selected periodontopathic microorganism using the standard broth dilution method as a control. Twenty-five subgingival plaque samples from gingivitis or periodontitis sites were plated on Trypticase soy agar supplemented with 5% rabbit blood with antibiotic discs (RRS method) and without (control). The antibiotics tested were: Augmentin, clindamycin, erythromycin, metronidazole, penicillin G and tetracycline hydrochloride. Bacteroides intermedius isolated from both groups of plates were placed onto antibiotic supplemented Trypticase soy broth. The antibiotic susceptibilities of B. intermedius isolated from the plates with antibiotic discs and the standard broth method were compared. The results showed high sensitivity and predictability for the RRS method compared with the control. The percentage of agreement was: 100% for Augmentin 30 micrograms, clindamycin 2 micrograms and tetracycline 30 micrograms; 96% for erythromycin 15 micrograms, metronidazole 80 micrograms and penicillin 10 IU; 92% for penicillin 2 IU; 88% for erythromycin 2 micrograms and 84% for tetracycline 5 micrograms. The results of this study document the feasibility of the RRS method for testing antimicrobial resistance of whole samples if its efficacy can be demonstrated for other bacteria. This method may be a quick and useful test for the periodontal practitioner in determining the antibiotic susceptibility of periodontal plaque pathogens.
Article
Propolis (bee glue) was found to have antibacterial activity against a range of commonly encountered cocci and Gram-positive rods, including the human tubercle bacillus, but only limited activity against Gram-negative bacilli. These findings confirm previous reports of antimicrobial properties of this material, possibly attributable to its high flavonoid content.
Article
The honeybee hive product, propolis, is a folk medicine employed for treating various ailments. Many important pharmaceutical properties have been ascribed to propolis, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, immunostimulatory and carcinostatic activities. Propolis extracts have provided an active component identified as caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), which was readily prepared in one step. Differential cytotoxicity has been observed in normal rat/human versus transformed rat/human melanoma and breast carcinoma cell lines in the presence of CAPE.
Article
A microbiological study was performed of the subgingival plaque on 2 sites in each of 20 adults originating from a rural area 40 km outside Nairobi, Kenya. The recovery rate of B. gingivalis was 70%, of B. intermedius 100% and of A. actinomycetemcomitans 40% of the subjects, and 50%, 90% and 28%, respectively, of the sites. The isolated strains exhibited similar biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility pattern as type strains of these species. The high recovery rate of these 3 bacterial species in adult Kenyans was a rather surprising finding, since pathological pocketing was found only sporadically. Furthermore, the results of 2 methodological approaches tested demonstrated that such microbiological studies can be carried out in countries with limited laboratory facilities.
Article
Subgingival plaque samples were taken from active and inactive lesions in 33 subjects exhibiting active destructive periodontal diseases. Active diseased sites were those which showed a significant loss of attachment within a 2-month interval as computed by the "tolerance method". The predominant cultivable species from 100 active sites were compared with those found in 150 inactive sites of comparable pocket depth and attachment level loss. Among the 33 subjects, W. recta, B. intermedius, F. nucleatum, B. gingivalis and B. forsythus were elevated more often in active sites; whereas, S. mitis, C. ochracea, S. sanguis II, V. parvula and an unnamed Actinomyces sp. were elevated in inactive sites. The likelihood of a site being active was increased if B. forsythus, B. gingivalis, P. micros, A. actinomycetemcomitans, W. recta, or B. intermedius were detected in that site, and decreased if S. sanguis II, the Actinomyces sp., or C. ochracea were detected.
Article
We re-evaluated several antibiotics including newer ones, for their in vitro killing activity, as well as their inhibitory activity, against clinical isolates of periodontopathic bacteria. Tetracyclines were active against Porphyromonas gingivalis, and were highly active against Prevotella intermedia, but demonstrated only a low killing activity against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Rokitamycin, a new macrolide, and clindamycin were highly active against P. gingivalis and P. intermedia, but showed very weak killing activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans. Quinolones demonstrated excellent bactericidal activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, and good inhibitory and bactericidal activity against P. gingivalis and P. intermedia. Metronidazole had an activity almost equivalent to quinolones against P. gingivalis and P. intermedia; but it was the least active against A. actinomycetemcomitans.
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the subgingival microflora associated with failing implants, and to determine their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics in periodontal therapy and dental practice. Thirteen partially edentulous patients with 19 failing implants were selected. Clinical examination included probing depth, attachment level, gingival index, plaque index, and radiographic analyses. Two subgingival plaque samples were taken from each failing implant and analyzed for microbial composition. Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia were the prevalent cultivable microflora. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was determined by the agar dilution technique. Antibacterial activity of penicillin G, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and the combination amoxicillin-metronidazole was significantly higher than with other antibiotics tested. These data indicated that the commonly-used antibiotics were highly effective against bacteria isolated around failing implants, which would suggest the use of these antibiotics to control peri-implant infections.