Article

Repellency of Cinnamomum cassia bark compounds and cream containing cassia oil to Aedes aegypti (Diptera : Culicidae) under laboratory and indoor conditions

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Abstract

Patch and skin bioassays were used in laboratory and indoor tests to evaluate the repellency of (E)-cinnamaldehyde, identified in Cinnamomum cassia Blume bark and essential oil, and a cream containing 5% (w/w) cassia oil against Aedes aegypti (L.) females. Results were compared with those of a known C. cassia compound cinnamyl alcohol, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) and two commercial repellents: MeiMei cream containing citronella and geranium oils and Repellan S aerosol containing 19% DEET. In patch bioassay tests with A. aegypti females, (E)-cinnamaldehyde at 0.153 mg cm(-2) and DEET at 0.051 mg cm(-2) provided 93 and 89% protection at 40 min after exposure. In skin bioassay tests, (E)-cinnamaldehyde at 0.051 mg cm(-2) and DEET at 0.025 mg cm(-2) provided 87 and 95% protection at 30 min after application. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde was significantly more effective than cinnamyl alcohol in both bioassays. In indoor tests with four human volunteers, 5% cassia oil cream provided 94, 83 and 61% protection against A. aegypti females exposed for 30, 50 and 70 min after application respectively. Cassia oil cream was a slightly less effective repellent than MeiMei cream. Repellan S aerosol provided 91% repellency at 120 min after application. Products containing cassia oil merit further study as potential repellents for the protection of humans and domestic animals from blood-feeding vectors and the diseases they transmit.

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... Eleven of one hundred and sixty-one identified studies met the inclusion criteria: eight studies (Amer & Mehlhorn 2006; Barnard & Xue 2004; Fradin & Day 2002; Masetti & Maini 2006; Osmani et al. 1972; Suwonkerd & Tantrarongroj 1994; Trigg & Hill 1996; Yang & Ma 2005) using the cage method; two studies (Chang et al. 2006; Trongtokit et al. 2005) used the room method; and Tropical Medicine and International Health volume 16 no 7 pp 802–810 july 2011 C. Kongkaew et al. Effectiveness of citronella in preventing mosquito bites ª 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd the remaining one used both (Tawatsin et al. 2001).Figure 1 gives a schematic overview of the search strategy results. ...
... mean protection time and SD of both citronella oil and DEET) for calculating the pooled mean difference in protection time (Fradin & Day 2002; Masetti & Maini 2006). All studies (n = 3) using the room method reported percentage repellency as an outcome measure (Chang et al. 2006; Tawatsin et al. 2001; Trongtokit et al. 2005). Tropical Medicine and International Health volume 16 no 7 pp 802–810 july 2011 C. Kongkaew et al. ...
... combination continued up to 6 h. The same result was found using 40% citronella oil alone. The corresponding percentage repellency of 5% citronella oil at the fourth and fifth hours, and the sixth hour were 97.5%, 90%, and 77.5%. Two studies used the room method for examining the effectiveness of citronella in preventing bites of Aedes mosquitoes. Chang et al. (2006) used a combination of citronella oil (unknown percentage concentration) and geranium oil (unknown percentage concentration), while Tawatsin et al. (2001) used a combination of citronella and 5% vanillin. Percentages of repellency of a combination of citronella and geranium at 30 min, 90 min, and 120 min were 97%, 44%, and 27%, respectiv ...
Article
This review aims to examine the effectiveness of citronella preparation used as a mosquito repellent. Multiple computerized databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, and AMED, were searched for controlled laboratory experiments that compared the effectiveness of citronella products to control in repelling Aedes, Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes using the cage or room methods. Outcomes measures were protection time and percentage repellency. The weighted mean difference and 95% confidence interval were calculated comparing the outcomes in the citronella and control groups. Meta-analysis was performed using the DerSimonian and Laird method under a random-effects model. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria. Based on a meta-analysis of studies using the cage method, protection time of the citronella oil for preventing Aedes mosquitoes was less than that in the DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) group, with a difference in protection time of 253 min (95% confidence interval: 169-336). The combination of citronella oil and vanillin is likely to have a longer protection time compared with citronella oil alone. In studies using the room method, citronella oil and/or the combination of citronella oil and vanillin provided complete repellency at least 3 h. In Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, a combination of citronella oil and vanillin product demonstrated a comparable protection time against DEET; however, it remained inconclusive due to a limited number of studies. Citronella products are less effective than DEET products in terms of duration of protection. Adding vanillin to citronella oil products could prolong the protection time.
... Theoretically, cinnamon may alter the effects of immunosuppressants. • Insect repellants: In a clinical trial, (E)-cinnamaldehyde and cinnamyl alcohol appeared to be effective against Aedes aegypti (L.) female mosquitoes [65]. • Neurologic herbs and supplements: In animal study, cinnamon may exert an anxiolytic effect via regulation of the serotonergic and GABAergic systems [542]. ...
... • Insecticidal effects: Cinnamon essential oils have been shown to serve as effective larvicides against mosquitoes [80] and various harmful flies [449]. Larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, and cinnamyl alcohol had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) [65,82]. The alcohol extract of C. camphora demonstrated effects on Aphidius gifuensis and Diaeretiella rapae [554]. ...
... cassia) sprays reduced dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus) [234]. Preliminary human [65] and laboratory [90] studies suggest that cinnamon may be useful as an insect repellant. However, well-designed trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be made. ...
Article
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An evidence-based systematic review of cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.), including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing, by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration is discussed in this monograph.
... As many other essential oils, cinnamon essential oils offer great potential in medical entomology, especially against mosquitoes, which represent one of the most relevant vectors of human diseases. They have been shown to be effective larvicides against mosquitoes (Cheng et al. 2004Chang et al. 2006). Larvicidal tests demonstrated that the components of leaf essential oils, such as cinnamaldehyde-cinnamyl acetate and cinnamyl alcohol, had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Cheng et al. 2004;Chang et al. 2006). ...
... They have been shown to be effective larvicides against mosquitoes (Cheng et al. 2004Chang et al. 2006). Larvicidal tests demonstrated that the components of leaf essential oils, such as cinnamaldehyde-cinnamyl acetate and cinnamyl alcohol, had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Cheng et al. 2004;Chang et al. 2006). Results of mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the most effective constituents in leaf essential oils were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, anethole, and cinnamyl acetate. ...
Chapter
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Cinnamon is a common spice that has been used for several centuries by different cultures around the world. It is obtained from different parts of a tropical evergreen tree belonging to the genus Cinnamomum. Various reports have dealt with the numerous properties of cinnamon and its major components not only for human health but also for agriculture applications. In this chapter, important aspects of trees from the Cinnamomum genus, and their products, such as botany, pharmacology, toxicology, and some end uses, with a special focus on the pesticidal potential for agriculture and indoor uses, are covered.
... Cassia volatile oil (Cinnamomum spp., Lauraceae) is toxic to several insects of agricultural interest (Park et al. 2000) and showed repellent activity against mosquitoes and fleas (Chang et al. 2006;Su et al. 2013), larvicide against various mosquitoes (Chang et al. 2006), and activity against eggs, larvae, and adults of Ctenocephalides felis felis (Dos Santos et al. 2020). Thyme volatile oil (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae) has an insecticidal action against several insects and mites of agricultural importance (Isman 2000;Kanat and Alma 2004) and of health importance (Park et al. 2000;Pavela 2007;Pavela et al. 2009). ...
... Cassia volatile oil (Cinnamomum spp., Lauraceae) is toxic to several insects of agricultural interest (Park et al. 2000) and showed repellent activity against mosquitoes and fleas (Chang et al. 2006;Su et al. 2013), larvicide against various mosquitoes (Chang et al. 2006), and activity against eggs, larvae, and adults of Ctenocephalides felis felis (Dos Santos et al. 2020). Thyme volatile oil (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae) has an insecticidal action against several insects and mites of agricultural importance (Isman 2000;Kanat and Alma 2004) and of health importance (Park et al. 2000;Pavela 2007;Pavela et al. 2009). ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the insecticidal effect of the cassia, thyme and oregano volatile oils against the immature and adult flea’s stages. For this purpose, the tested samples were chemically characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. The mortality of larvae and adult fleas, eggs, and pupae of Ctenocephalides felis felis was performed through in vitro tests at different concentration levels. Inhibition of development and residual efficacy were also determined. The chemical characterization of the cassia, thyme, and oregano volatile oils presented cinnamaldehyde (91%), thymol (44.7%), and carvacrol (76.2%), respectively, as major constituents. In general, the samples showed insecticidal activity for both immature and adult flea’s stages. The best LC50 values for adults were obtained by oregano volatile oils (33.5 and 21.8 μg·cm−2, respectively, 24 and 48 h). Cassia volatile oils showed the best results against larvae (17.2 and 10.3 μg·cm−2, respectively, 24 and 48 h), eggs (3 μg.cm−2), and pupae (34.6 μg·cm−2), as well as the lowest value for inhibition of development (2.3 μg·cm−2). The oregano and thyme volatile oils showed residual efficacy greater than 80% for 6 days while cassia showed this result for 4 days. The results demonstrated the potential of volatile oils for flea control in all stages of the life cycle, with emphasis on cassia. The residual effects of the volatile oils are promising for the development of new and environmentally friendly phyto-pesticides for veterinary uses.Graphical Abstract
... Among attempts to overcome the shortage of plant essential oils, this strategy to identify and add commercial oils or other additives has been already in use for other industries, such as volatile masking agents, food additives, and ßavors. It has been reported that various formulations, for instance cream and ointment products containing cassia oil from Cinnamomum cassia (Chang et al. 2006) and lemongrass oil (Oyedele et al. 2002), were repellent against female Ae. aegypti. ...
... There are successful previous studies which used several essential oils, such as cassia oil and C. zeylanicum oil as well as cassia oil cream and aerosol that have produced similarly improved repellency against Ae. aegypti females (Chang et al. 2006). A Cinnamomum mat showed equal effect to commercially available Values (mean Ϯ SE) in parenthesis under each percent repellency value represent percent for the no. of migrating mosquitoes to the controls where Viscopearl formulation was not treated with oil mixtures. ...
Article
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In all triplicate tests of six plant essential oils and of vanillin mixtures, we corroborated strong insecticidal and repellent activities against adult Aedes aegypti (L.). Essential oils with potent toxic fumigant activities also exhibited repellency. Compared with N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, 5% of the essential oil concentrations of cassia, lemongrass, lemon eucalyptus, and xanthoxylum oils did not show repellent effects. However, a composition oflemongrass oil, xanthoxylum oil, and vanillin (1:3:1, vol:vol:wt) provided 270 min of complete protection time (CPT) compared with 247.5 min CPT with 15% N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide. The CPT depended on concentration, presence ofvanillin, or on both factors. When we applied a mixture of lemongrass oil: xanthoxylum oil: vanillin (1:1:1, vol:vol:wt) to the Viscopearl formulation, or porous cellulose beads, it provided gradual release of volatile compounds, thus showing >90% of repellency for 2 h. The behavioral and electrophysiological approaches we drew upon in our current study demonstrated that plant essential oil mixtures combined with vanillin showed strong and durable repellency to the mosquito. We claim that such combinations of plant essential oils and vanillin found in current study propose a viable commercial product suitable for future application in protecting a person from mosquito bites.
... The mosquitoes used in the test need to be free from pathogen as the human subject involved in the test must have the assurance that the test will not harm them. The cage measurement is according to WHO guideline for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin (WHO 1996) (Chang et al. 2006). Two other studies reported the used of bigger cage dimension, measuring 40 × 30 × 30 cm by Fei and Xin (2007) and 45 × 45 × 45 cm by (Vigneshkumar and Vijaykumar Vediappan 2012). ...
... The results will be collected and performed in ANOVA software for further analysis. Six studies (Chang et al. 2006;Fei and Xin 2007;Fradin and Day 2002;Masetti and Maini 2006;Vigneshkumar and Vijaykumar Vediappan 2012;Yang and Ma 2005) demonstrated the use of cage tests in their study for mosquito repellent. ...
Article
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This review intends to analyze the distinctive fabric utilized for mosquito repellent studies and forms of treatment mosquito agents on the fabrics. Textile treated with mosquito repellent is a revolutionary innovation to protect human from the bites of mosquito borne disease such as Dengue. This peculiarity was produced as needed in feeling of assurance from mosquitoes in the regions which are territories of the mosquitoes and inclined to disease. To impart this feature, the fabrics are given a treatment of mosquito repellent agent which capable of being utilized and without ruining their characteristics. The utilization of anti-agents to dress and different fabrics is best contrasted with skin application in light of the fact that it lessens the probability of unfavorably susceptible responses. This paper described the textile materials selection, methods of imparting the repellent into the fabrics, types of repellent as well as the repellency test of treated fabrics. The assessments used in the treated textile are summarized and conditions of the assessment of repellency relative to this discussion are presented.
... Cinnamomum cassia essential oil was shown to elicit antennal responses from Culex pipiens pallens (Zhu et al. 2006), and to repel Ae. aegypti, as did E-cinnamaldehyde (Chang et al. 2006). ...
... The essential oil obtained from the bark is rich in trans-Cinnamaldehyde with antimicrobial effects against animal and plant pathogens. Cinnamomum Cassia oil may also be used as potential repellents, antifungal, antioxidant and antitumor agents (Chang, Tak, Kim, Lee, & Ahn, 2006; Giordani, Regli, Kaloustian, & Portugal, 2006; Lin, Wu, Chang, & Ng, 2003; Shin et al. 2006). Reports of the statistics from the United Nations comtrade showed that in 2011, there was an estimated 24 billion USD global market for fragrances and flavors from essential oils with a yearly growth rate of about 10% (Ramu Govindasamy, 2013). ...
Article
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In this research, Microwave Assisted Hydrodistillation (MAHD) was used to extract essential oil from Cinnamomum Cassia (cinnamon). The effect of different parameters, such as water to raw material ratio (6:1, 8:1 & 10:1), microwave power (200 W, 225 W & 250 W) and extraction time (30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min & 150 min) on the extraction yield and its major constituents were investigated. The essential oil was analysed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometric (GC-MS) to evaluate the effect of extraction method on the content of its main constituent which was trans- Cinnamaldehyde. The optimum condition was found at water to raw material ratio of 8:1, microwave power of 250 W and extraction time of 90 min and the yield obtained under this condition was about 2.55%. The result obtained from GC-MS analysis revealed that the use of microwave irradiation did not adversely influence the composition of the essential oil. The main constituents found through MAHD was more desirable in terms of quality and quantity when compared to the conventional methods. The results obtained herein suggest that MAHD method could serve as a suitable and effective method for the extraction of essential oil from Cinnamomum Cassia (cinnamon).
... This essential oil possesses contact and fumigant toxicity against several stored product insects and house dust mites [9][10][11][12][13]. Moreover, the essential oil of C. cassia also exhibits strong repellency and larvicidal activity against several mosqutoes [14]. However, no information on insecticidal activity of the essential oil of C. cassia twigs and its main constituent compounds against booklice is available in the literature, to the best of our knowledge. ...
Article
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Purpose: To investigate the insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Cinnamomum cassis and its main constituent compound, trans-cinnamaldehyde, against the booklice, Liposcelis bostrychophila. Methods: Steam distillation of C. cassis twigs was carried out using a Clavenger apparatus in order to obtain the volatile oils. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analyses (HP-5MS column) of the essential oil were performed and its contact (using impregnated filter paper method) and fumigant toxicity (sealed space) determined. The bioactive constituent compound, trans-cinnamaldehyde was isolated and identified from the oil based on bioactivity-directed fractionation. Results: A total of 35 components, accounting for 97.44 % of the essential oil of C. cassis, were identified. The principal compounds in the essential oil were trans-cinnamaldehyde (49.33 %), acetophenone (6.94 %), trans-cinnamic acid (5.45 %) and cis-cinnamaldehyde (4.44 %) followed by omethoxycinnamaldehyde (3.48 %), coumarin (3.42 %) and (E)-cinnamyl alcohol (3.21 %). The essential oil displayed contact toxicity against adult L. bostrychophila with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 55.68 mu g/cm(2) as well as fumigant toxicity (LC50, 1.33 mg/l air). Trans-cinnamaldehyde exhibited strong contact and fumigant toxicity with LC50 of 43.40 mu g/cm(2) and 1.29 mg/l air, respectively. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the essential oil of C. cassis and its constituent compound, trans-cinnamaldehyde, possess potentials for development into natural fumigants/insecticides for the control of booklice.
... Apart from P. nigrum, plant extracts from the two Cinnamomum species also showed a strong repellent effect against M. sjostedti. Plant species of the genus Cinnamomum are fairly well known to have a repellent and toxic effect on several insect species such as the house fly Musca domestica [37], rice weevil Sitophilus zeamais [38], pulse beetle Callasobruchus maculatus [39] and mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus [36,40,41]. Results of a chemical analysis were comparable to those found by Delétré et al. [28] who reported cinnamaldehyde at a similar quantity to be the major compound of C. zeylanicum. ...
Article
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Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedtiin the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum,Cinnamomum zeylanicum,Cinnamomum cassiaas strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedtiwas dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies.
... Entreestes estão, tanto os extratos brutos como os químicos naturais derivados de plantas (ISMAN;GRIENEISEN, 2014).O trans-cinamaldeído é relacionado com a elevada atividade antimicrobiana do OE de canela alémde possuir propriedades antifúngicas e estimulantes(ANDRADE-OCHOA et al., 2015; SUN et al., 2016e XIE et al., 2017.Visto que, o óleo essencial de Cinnamomum cassia possui propriedades antifúngicas(CHANG et al., 2006;KAČÁNIOVÁ et al., 2021), porém são escassos os estudos na literatura sobre a atividade antifúngica na fase vapor, o objetivo deste trabalho é a avaliação do potencial antifúngico do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum cassia e do composto trans-cinamaldeído na fase vapor, frente aos fungos Penicillium crustosum, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus.2. METODOLOGIAA atividade antifúngica foi avaliada pelo método de exposição à voláteis, segundo Yun; Fan; Li, (2013), com algumas modificações. ...
Conference Paper
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O armazenamento de grãos de milho apresenta suscetibilidade à contaminação por fungos, que além de ocasionarem redução no rendimento, qualidade e perdas econômicas, podem produzir micotoxinas, que apresentam risco a saúde. O uso dos óleos essenciais (OE) apresenta-se como uma alternativa em potencial para a inibição do crescimento de fungos. Diante disso, objetivou-se neste estudo investigar a atividade antifúngica, na fase vapor em placas, do óleo essencial de canela (Cinnamomum cassia) e do composto trans-cinamaldeído, sobre os fungos Penicillium crustosum, Alternaria alternata e Aspergillus flavus. A avaliação da porcentagem de crescimento de fungos expostos à vapores de diferentes concentrações do OE de C. cassia e do trans-cinamaldeído, permitiu observar a atividade antifúngica sobre os fungos testados, com CIM (concentração inibitória mínima) de 6% para o OE de C. cassia e 8% para o trans-cinamaldeído frente ao P. crustosum. Para A. alternata e A. flavus, a CIM foi de 4% e de 1% para o OE de C. cassia e trans-cinamaldeído, respectivamente. Esses resultados indicam o potencial biológico tanto do OE como do composto majoritário trans-cinamaldeído, como alternativa no controle desses fungos.
... Bioassays and component analyses of cinnamon bark oil in naturally occurring samples have been reported. The bark oil exhibits antioxidant (Lin et al., 2003), antifungal (Giordani et al., 2006;Ooi et al., 2006;Lee et al., 2007) and antibacterial activities (Chang et al., 2001;Ooi et al., 2006) and has a potential as a repellent and antitumor agent (Chang et al., 2006;Shin et al., 2006). This plant is commonly cultivated in the southern provinces of China such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Yunnan. ...
Article
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Chinese cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) has economic value as an aromatic and medicinal plant, and its bark oil has a very high trans-cinnamaldehyde content. To gain insight into the accumulation of bark oil and the biological mechanisms which permit the accumulation of a high level of aldehydes in C. cassia bark, the morphology and histochemistry of oil cells and the specialization in its walls were assessed by light and fluorescence microscopy. The histochemical tests localized in situ the main chemical classes of metabolites in oil cells, which included aldehydes, lipids and terpenoids. In oil cells the aldehydes distributed in the area surrounding the oil sac were compartmentalized from lipid compounds in the center; the oil sac in an oil cell was attached by multiple cupules rather than one cupule. The autofluorescence of oil-cell walls was attributed to the presence of suberin and lignin, and was confirmed by different methods. The lignified and suberized walls probably serve as protective barriers against the cytotoxicity of high contents of trans-cinnamaldehyde to the surrounding active cells. These results contribute to our knowledge of the structure of oil cells and accumulation of essential oil in Chinese cinnamon bark.
... The test insects used in assays must also be exclusive to the study. Essential oils are volatile, yet it is this property that gives them repellent and fumigant properties; however, volatilization at a rapid rate will cause the essential oils to lose their repellent or fumigant properties over a short period of time, yielding a reduced amount of efficacy for the oils (Chang et al. 2006). Regardless of the oil tested in our study, all exhibited volatility when formulated at 0.10%, while concentrations ≥ 1% demonstrated the ability to repel ants when freshly deposited or after being aged for 7 d. ...
Thesis
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Human structures may be occupied, at least temporarily, by insects and other arthropods. Some are perennial pests, while others occasionally invade structures. A field study in 2008 – 2009 determined that occasional invader species in natural and artificially-created harborages adjacent to buildings were primarily isopods (Malacostraca: Isopoda) (37%), spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) (28%), earwigs (Insecta: Dermaptera) (13%), and adult crickets (Insecta: Orthoptera) (8%). Pitfall trapping demonstrated seasonal differences in activity of occasional invaders with the number of harborages observed. In laboratory assays, five plant-extracted essential oils (spearmint, peppermint, wintergreen, cinnamon and clove) were repellent to Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), workers at concentrations from 0.10 to 10% (v/v) at 0 and 7 days after application. Essential oils are viable alternatives to conventional chemical repellents of the Argentine ant and occasional invader species. INDEX WORDS: integrated pest management, IPM, occasional invader pests, essential oils, urban pest management, Argentine ants, Linepithema humile
... Single compounds of plant origin have been successfully tested as mosquito repellents (Carroll and Loye, 2006). EO constituents inducing avoidance in mosquitoes include mono-and sesquiterpenes, such as citronellol, citronellal, geraniol and isolongifolenone (Nerio et al., 2010;Zhang et al., 2009a) and the aromatic compounds cinnamaldehyde, thymol, carvacrol and eugenol (Baser et al., 1993;Chang et al., 2006;Omolo et al., 2004;Yang and Ma, 2005;Zhang et al., 2009b). Compounds with unrelated structures have also been reported as strong repellents against mosquitoes and other arthropods (Boeckh et al., 1996;Paluch et al., 2010). ...
Article
There is increasing interest in the development of effective mosquito repellents of natural origin to reduce transmission of diseases such as malaria and yellow fever. To achieve this we have employed an in vitro competition assay involving odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, with a predominantly female expression bias to identify plant essential oils (EOs) containing bioactive compounds that target mosquito olfactory function. EOs and their fractions capable of binding to such OBPs displayed repellence against female mosquitoes in a laboratory repellence assay. Repelling EOs were subjected to gas chromatographic analysis linked to antennogram (EAG) recordings from female A. gambiae to identify the biologically active constituents. Among these compounds cumin alcohol, carvacrol, ethyl and butyl cinnamate proved as effective as DEET at an equivalent dose in the repellence assay, and combinations of carvacrol with either butyl cinnamate or cumin alcohol proved to be significantly more effective than DEET in the assay. When tested as spatial repellents in experimental shelters housing sleeping humans in northern Nigeria a binary mixture of carvacrol plus cumin alcohol caused mosquitoes to leave shelters in significantly higher numbers to those induced by DEET in female Anopheles spp. and in numbers equivalent to that of DEET in Culex spp. mosquitoes. These findings indicate an approach for the identification of biologically active molecules of natural origin serving as repellents for mosquitoes.
... All stimuli were tested at 10 2 -fold dilution, with the exception of Dichloromethane (DCM), which was used as the solvent and 100% of DCM was used as the control. Numbers refer to published behavioral studies in which that compound was shown to exhibit repellency to those insects: [1] Rollo et al. (1995); [2] Ansari et al. (2000); [3] Chang et al. (2006); [4] Ufkes et al. (2007); [5] Tunón et al. (2006); [6] Roadhouse (1953); [7] Omolo et al. [8] Thorsell et al. (1998); [9] Oyedele et al. (2002); [10] Hwang et al. (1985); [11] Jaenson et al. (2006); [12] Choi et al. (2002); [13] Abdallah et al. (2002); [14] García et al. (2005); [15] Nerio et al. (2010); [16] Gillij et al. (2008); [17] Shaalan et al. (2006); [18] Watanabe et al. (1993); [19] Ansaria et al. (2005); [20] Chogo and Crank (1981); [21] Isman (2006); [22] Abdallah et al. (2002); [23] García et al. (2005); [24] Tripathi et al. (2000); [25] Klocke et al. (1987); [26] Wirtz et al. (1980); [27] Syed and Leal (2008); [28] Ditzen et al. (2008); [29]Fig. 3). ...
... Cinnamaldehyde was the dominating component in the two oils similar to C. cassia (6,7). This compound has been reported to posess antimicrobial activity and can be also used as a potential repellent for the protection of humans and domestic animals from blood-feeding vectors and the diseases they transmit (8)(9)(10). Comparing the chemical compositions of C. loureirii oil with those of other cassia oils, the authors found that there were certainly differences mainly in the yield of oil and further in small differences in the components of the oils from different varieties. ...
Article
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The essential oils of the bark of young branches of Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. from China were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MHD) in yields of 5.8% and 6.1%, respectively. The chemical composition of the oils was examined by GC and GC/MS. Twenty components in the HD oil and 21 components in the MHD oil were identifed, representing 95.2% and 94.5% of the related oils, respectively. Major components in the HD and MHD oils were cinnamaldehyde (62.6%, 69.6%), α-copaene (16.0%, 5.4%) and β-cadinene (7.7%, 4.7%).
... A number of other volatile compounds have been reported as mosquito repellents, such as nepetalactone, cinnanic aldehyde, citronellal and isolongifolenone [5][6][7][8], but all of these are effective only at very high concentrations. The structural diversity of the compounds and the lack of data on their mode of action mean that there is no rationale to allow the design of chemicals with improved repellency effect. ...
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To understand olfactory discrimination in Anopheles gambiae, we made six purified recombinant OBPs and investigated their ligand-binding properties. All OBPs were expressed in bacteria with additional production of OBP47 in the yeast Kluveromyces lactis. Ligand-binding experiments, performed with a diverse set of organic compounds, revealed marked differences between the OBPs. Using the fluorescent probe N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, we also measured the binding curves for binary mixtures of OBPs and obtained, in some cases, unexpected behaviour, which could only be explained by the OBPs forming heterodimers with binding characteristics different from those of the component proteins. This shows that OBPs in mosquitoes can form complexes with novel ligand specificities, thus amplifying the repertoire of OBPs and the number of semiochemicals that can be discriminated. Confirmation of the likely role of heterodimers was demonstrated by in situ hybridisation, suggesting that OBP1 and OBP4 are co-expressed in some antennal sensilla of A. gambiae.
... EOs are environmentally friendly, however we have to improve the efficiency developing different formulations with fixative materials competent in order to increase the protection times (Nerio et al. 2010). Studies on different types of formulations have already been made thus obtaining creams, polymer mixtures and microcapsules to improve repellency duration (Sharma and Ansari 1994;Dua et al. 1996;Nentwig 2003;Chang et al. 2006). It has also been studied the use of additives such as paraffin (Oyedele et al. 2002) or combinations of EOs and other repellent extracts like coconut oils (Das et al. 1999). ...
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Chagas disease is an important vector-borne disease problem in South America, especially in rural areas where inhabitants are in contact with the reduviid insects that transmit the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Today, the main means of interrupting transmission of T. cruzi is to control the vector. Therefore, studies of new agents with activity against these vectors have a priority interest. This review covers recent studies on essential oils from plants that have demonstrated moderate to high activity against the main vectors of Chagas disease. Further, we investigate the constituents of essential oils of plants of the genera Mentha, Thymus, Satureja and Artemisia and their activity on Rhodnius prolixus using an excito-repellency test.
... The essential oil obtained from the bark is rich in trans-Cinnamaldehyde with antimicrobial effects against animal and plant pathogens. Cinnamomum Cassia oil may also be used as potential repellents, antifungal, antioxidant and antitumor agents (Chang, Tak, Kim, Lee, & Ahn, 2006; Giordani, Regli, Kaloustian, & Portugal, 2006; Lin, Wu, Chang, & Ng, 2003; Shin et al. 2006). Reports of the statistics from the United Nations comtrade showed that in 2011, there was an estimated 24 billion USD global market for fragrances and flavors from essential oils with a yearly growth rate of about 10% (Ramu Govindasamy, 2013). ...
Article
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In this research, Microwave Assisted Hydrodistillation (MAHD) was used to extract essential oil from Cinnamomum Cassia (cinnamon). The effect of different parameters, such as water to raw material ratio (6:1, 8:1 & 10:1), microwave power (200 W, 225 W & 250 W) and extraction time (30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min & 150 min) on the extraction yield and its major constituents were investigated. The essential oil was analysed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometric (GC-MS) to evaluate the effect of extraction method on the content of its main constituent which was trans-Cinnamaldehyde. The optimum condition was found at water to raw material ratio of 8:1, microwave power of 250 W and extraction time of 90 min and the yield obtained under this condition was about 2.55%. The result obtained from GC-MS analysis revealed that the use of microwave irradiation did not adversely influence the composition of the essential oil. The main constituents found through MAHD was more desirable in terms of quality and quantity when compared to the conventional methods. The results obtained herein suggest that MAHD method could serve as a suitable and effective method for the extraction of essential oil from Cinnamomum Cassia (cinnamon).
... cassia bark) serve as common spices and traditional Chinese medicinal materials for a long history. Meanwhile, the barks were previously verified to have insecticidal properties (Park et al. 2000;Chang et al. 2006). It has a great human consumption around the world because of its health benefits and the practicability of flavoring and preserving food (Masood et al. 2006). ...
Article
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The extract from Cinnamomum cassia Presl bark was obtained with supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE). Chemical components of the SFE extract were characterized by GC-MS spectrometry. The repellency and contact toxicity of the SFE extract were evaluated against the adults of Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne along with those of its two main compounds. The results of GC-MS analysis indicated that 33 volatile constituents were identified from the extract. The main components included trans-cinnamaldehyde (32.1%), 3,3-dimethylhexane (10.6%) and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (7.9%). Testing results showed that the SFE extract had potent contact toxicity against T. castaneum and L. serricorne with LD50 values of 3.96 and 23.89 μg/adult, respectively. LD50 values of trans-cinnamaldehyde against T. castaneum and L. serricorne were 5.78 and 3.24 μg/adult, respectively. Additionally, percentage repellency values of the SFE extract and trans-cinnamaldehyde against T. castaneum and L. serricorne were rather high (PR = 100% and PR > 90%, respectively) at 78.63 and 15.73 nL/cm² at 2 h post-exposure. 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol showed some repellency against both beetle species. Considering its insecticidal and repellent effects, the SFE extract from C. cassia bark might be used in integrated pest management programs for T. castaneum and L. serricorne.
... Previous studies by Jeon, Lee, and Lee [31] have indicated the possible insecticidal potential of the bark essential oil of c. zeylanicum against Dermatophagoides, Tyrophagus, and Ricania. Similar insecticidal property has been also shown by C. cassia against the insect vectors, such as mosquitoes [32]. Likewise our results also observed significant larvicidal potential of the C. verum essential oils; unlike their insecticidal property, the higher activities were observed for the LEO compared to the FEO. ...
Article
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Cinnamomum verum is widely used in traditional medicines, and the different parts of the plant, such as bark, leaves, and flowers, are used for essential oil production. The present study compared the chemical composition of the essential oil of C. verum extracted from the leaves and flowers. In addition, efficacy of these essential oils against the two common pests Sitophilus oryzae and Callosobruchus maculatus was also evaluated. The results indicated the presence of cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, caryophyllene, and linalool in these essential oils, however, at different concentrations. The leaf essential oil was found to be 10–20% more effective as a fumigant against both the pests. Likewise, the leaf essential oil found to repel these pests even at lower concentrations than that of flower essential oil of C. verum. Besides, these essential oils were also effective in controlling the growth of various gram positive and gram negative microbial pathogens and possibly a safeguard for human health. On contrary, both the essential oils were found to be safe for the application on grains, as indicated by their germination potentials. It was also observed that these essential oils do not cause any significant toxicity to guppy fishes, thus confirming their ecological safety for use as a biopesticide.
... The exclusion of the studies was due to the fact that they did not use the focused intervention, 9 because they were not with the A. aegypti mosquito and/or some of the 3 active ones; 6 because they were not clinical trials, 1 without time description, and another study that was not performed in humans. There were 18 studies that met all eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31] (Fig. 1). ...
Article
Objective This systematic review aims to determine the efficacy of the insect repellent for topical use against the Aedes aegypti. Methods A systematic search was conducted until June 2018 using the following terms: “Aedes aegypti,” “topical repellents,” “picaridin,” “DEET,” and “IR3535.” The quality of the study was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Results The most effective asset was 80% DEET with 420-minute protection time but used at a very high concentration, with risks of adverse effects, followed by 20% picaridin with protection time of 410.4 minutes, 20% DEET with protection time greater than 380 minutes, 15% IR3535 with protection time of 362 minutes, 10% IR3535 with 356-minute protection time, and 10% picaridin with protection time of 351.5 minutes. Conclusions Because of the results found here, it is recommended to carry out new studies to compare the performance of repellent with reliability. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
... EO from Hyptis martiusii showed 100 % mortality after 24 h of treatment at 500 mg/L concentration. Cinnamaldehyde is a major compound of C. loureirii, which showed novel repellent activity against various disease transmitting blood sucking mosquitoes (Chaudhry and Tariq, 2006;Chang et al., 2006;Atanda et al., 2007). EO of C. loureirii contains various larvicidal compounds such as, anethole, eugenol, cinnamyl acetate and cinnamaldehyde. ...
Article
The present study aimed to evaluate the crop protection properties of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Cinnamomum loureirii and Evolvulus alsinoides against food spoilage fungi and insects. Hydrodistillation method and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry analysis authenticated the presence of twenty three compounds from C. loureirii including, cinnamaldehyde (74.31 %), linalool (1.72 %), camphor (1.3 %), borneol (1.25 %) and bisabolol (1.31 %) and twenty compounds from E. alsinoides with cis‐α‐necrodol (13.06 %) as the major component. Results confirmed that two EOs revealed potent activity against various bacterial pathogens and fruit spoilage fungal strains. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values ranged between 2.1 ± 0.3 and 4.3 ± 0.2 μg/mL and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration values varied between 6.5 ± 0.25 and 13.4 ± 9.2 μg/mL. The EO was highly active against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interestingly, the EO from C. loureirii induced larval mortality (100 ± 0% at 80 μg/mL) than EO from E. alsinoides (90 ± 2.5 % at 80 μg/mL), whereas the mixture of both EO revealed 100 % mortality at 80 μg/mL concentrations. Interestingly, both EOs showed excellent activities against A. aegypti. In addition, the EO vapour significantly suppressed the pest, mealy bug (Pseudococcus longispinus) affected fruit and leaves of Guava, Psidium guajava. In vivo analysis revealed the protection property against rot forming fungal pathogens. The increasing concentration of EOs significantly protected from rot formation in Guava fruit. The antioxidant potentials of EO was an additional value added advantage. Overall, it is concluded that EOs could be effectively used in the control of postharvest bacterial, fungal pathogens and storage pests.
... ont démontré que l'ajout de vanilline à volume égal, ou à la moitié du volume de l'HE de Cymbopogon winterianus (citronnelle de Java), permettait de drastiquement réduire l'évaporation de cette dernière. Les formulations à base d'emulsions (Nuchuchua et al., 2009, Chang et al., 2006, Nentwig, 2003, Navayan et al., 2017 ou d'encapsulation des HE (Misni et al., 2017) ont également permis d'améliorer significativement leurs propriétés répulsives. ...
Thesis
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Abstract This university diploma thesis aims to approach through aromatherapy the possible means of prevention and treatments to protect and support therapies against arboviruses. Our contribution to the study of aromatherapy lies in the originality of our subject, which has only been partially explored to date. Arboviruses, public health problem, is a growing concern of governments around the world. Arboviroses are in the expansion phase and dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, are three cases that are emblematic of the rise in the incidence of these diseases and their health, economic and social consequences (chapter 1). The subject is not simple because of the complexity of pathogenesis mechanisms and the plasticity of arboviruses (chapter 2). In addition, symptomatic allopathic prevention and treatment are limited. In this context, aromatherapy could, under certain conditions, appear to be a credible alternative, especially in its vector control and prophylactic component; this is what we have endeavoured to study in this paper (chapter 3). We have mobilized more than 170 scientific references published in international academic journals. Nevertheless, it is necessary to be extremely careful when using essential oils for pathologies related to arboviruses. Indeed, the precautionary principle is necessary when gaps in the pathogenesis of arboviruses are evident. In the same way, since the action of essential oils on arboviruses is not always supported by clinical studies, their use should be limited pending further methodological and clinical investigation. Key words: Arboviruses, Dengue, Chikungunya, Zika virus, Aromatherapy Résumé Ce mémoire se propose d’aborder par l’aromathérapie les possibles moyens de prévention et les traitements pour se prémunir et accompagner les thérapies face aux arboviroses. Notre contribution à l’étude de l’aromathérapie se situe notamment dans l’originalité de notre sujet qui n’a été que partiellement exploré à ce jour. Les arboviroses, problème de santé publique, se présentent comme une préoccupation croissante des États dans le monde. Les arboviroses sont en effet en phase d’expansion et la dengue le chikungunya et le virus Zika, sont trois cas emblématiques de la montée en puissance de l’incidence de ces maladies et de leurs conséquences sanitaires, économiques et sociales (chapitre 1). Le sujet n’est pas simple de par la complexité des mécanismes de pathogénèse et de par la plasticité génétique des arbovirus (chapitre 2). De plus, la prévention et les traitements allopathiques symptomatiques sont limités. Dans ce contexte, l’aromathérapie pourrait, sous certaines conditions, apparaître comme une alternative crédible notamment dans sa composante de lutte anti-vectorielle et prophylactique ; c’est ce que nous nous sommes attachés à étudier dans ce mémoire (chapitre 3). Nous avons mobilisé plus de 170 articles scientifiques publiés dans des revues académiques internationales. Néanmoins, il faut être extrêmement prudent quant à l’emploi des huiles essentielles lors des pathologies liées aux arboviroses. En effet, le principe de précaution s’impose dès lors que des lacunes sur la pathogénèse des arbovirus est patente. De la même manière, l’action des huiles essentielles sur les arboviroses n’étant pas toujours étayée par des études cliniques, il convient de limiter leur emploi dans l’attente d’approfondissements méthodologiques et cliniques. Mots-clés : Arboviroses, Dengue, Chikungunya, virus Zika, Aromathérapie
... Repellent activity duration is mainly dependent upon the composition of the product. Different formulations give different durations however; creams, polymer mixtures and microcapsules provide repellency for extended duration (Chang et al., 2006;Misni et al., 2017). There are some fixative materials which are used to enhance the repellency duration of essential oils like mustard and coconut oils (Das et al., 1999), liquid paraffin (Oyedele et al., 2002), salicyluric acid (Blackwell et al., 2003), genapol, ethanol and polyethylene glycol (Amer and Mehlhorn, 2006), vanillin (Auysawasdi et al., 2016), petroleum jelly (Wanzala et al., 2018). ...
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Ticks, particularly the Rhipicephalus which are the most prevalent and invasive affect 80% of the cattle population worldwide. Through transmission of pathogens, tick worry and physical damage to the hides, ticks cause economic loss of billions of dollars each year with 1 billion US dollars loss per annum reported only in Latin-America. These losses can be minimized only by successful management of Rhipicephalus ticks. Various strategies like chemical control, vaccination and biological control are aimed at control of Rhipicephalus ticks. There are some serious limitations associated with them like tick resistance, drug toxicity, antigenic variations etc. In contrast to these issues related with chemical tick control, the botanicals particularly the essential oils obtained from aromatic plants of medicinal importance are eco-friendly and non-toxic to most host. In recent years, essential oils-based control of cattle ticks has gained considerable attraction of scientists all over the world as depicted from this review. A comprehensive effort has been made to critically analyze the role of essential oils in controlling Rhipicephalus ticks with particular emphasis on the mode of action of bioactive compounds both as repellents and acaricides. Furthermore, we have pointed out the most important challenges which need to be addressed for development and commercialization of an essential oil based anti-tick product.
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Culex pipiens molestus Forskal has been reported as a dominant species in underground structures of urban areas in the Republic of Korea (ROK) during all seasons and becomes bothersome to humans in late autumn and winter. Most Cx. pipiens molestus in septic tanks are controlled in the ROK using larvicides such as Bt and IGR. However, there are a number of problems associated with larvicides, such as high cost and requirement for frequent use. In the present work, a new control method for Cx. pipiens molestus in septic tanks by using mixtures of sucrose solution with insecticides was investigated. The insecticidal and repellent activities of ten insecticides were evaluated for best control of Cx. pipiens molestus in septic tanks. Firstly, differences in susceptibilities to insecticides were evaluated in topical assays by forced direct contact bioassay and in a screened wire cage by free direct contact bioassay. The difference in insecticide susceptibility in the mosquitoes was the result of repellency by the insecticides. In three septic tanks, the density of Culex mosquitoes was sharply reduced by a deltamethrin-sucrose solution kit. The results demonstrated the potential for mosquito control by deltamethrin-sucrose solution, and the study offers basic information related to mosquito control in septic tanks.
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Bed bug repellents should not only prevent humans from being bitten but impede an infestation of personal belongings. Only a few test proposals for evaluating the efficacy of repellents against bed bugs have been published so far. In the present study, two test systems were assessed for efficacy testing with five potential bed bug repellents (cinnamon oil, icaridin, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), permethrin, and margosa extract). The first test setup was a harborage choice test system that consisted of a crystallizing dish with a treated and an untreated harborage. Sixty minutes and 24 h after treatment, DEET, icaridin, and cinnamon oil showed the highest repellency with a median proportion of at least 99% repelled bed bugs. The second test system was a barrier test. Bed bugs were attracted by CO 2 and heat to cross filter papers treated with the potential repellents. The repellency of substances was significantly lower in comparison to the harborage choice test, except for DEET. The latter showed the highest repellency (97%) against bed bugs 24 h after application compared to controls. Results show that bed bugs are less sensitive to repellents when searching for a bloodmeal than when searching for a shelter.
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Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) was extracted by three different methods: steam distillation (SD), ultrasound-assisted steam distillation (UASD) and microwave-assisted steam distillation (MASD). The volatiles in CEO were separated and identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the differences in volatiles among the three different methods were further analyzed through principal component analysis. The results showed that 36 individual volatile components were present in the CEO from the three different methods. In general, the numbers of aldehydes, esters, alcohols, terpenes, aromatics and ketones were 6, 3, 7, 17, 2, and 1, respectively. The most abundant volatile component was determined to be cinnamic aldehyde. The content of total cinnamic aldehydes, which determines the price of CEO, was the highest among the three methods in the UASD sample (85.633%). Moreover, the highest yield (8.33‰) of essential oil was extracted by the UASD method. Therefore, UASD was the best way for CEO extraction in this research and was recommended for future industrial applications.
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Chapter
Insect pest management in agriculture is facing challenge in several problems of using synthetic pesticides and toxic fumigants including environmental contamination, pesticide resistance, and destruction of nontarget organisms. So, public and environmental pressure can support environmentally safe pesticide alternatives to the use of synthetic pesticides. In recent years, a new field is developing on the use of botanical pesticide origin in the pest management practices. Botanicals have been considered as potential pest management agents, because they demonstrate to have a wide range of bioactivity and possess contact and fumigant toxicity and repellent, oviposition, and feeding deterrence. In addition, the main advantages of many plant-based pesticides lie in their low mammalian toxicity and rapid degradation with broad-spectrum activity. Botanical insecticides composed of essential oils may prove to be a reasonable alternative to the more persistent synthetic pesticides. The essential oils obtained by the distillation of aromatic plants can be utilized to protect agricultural product pests. Recently, the essential oils and their constituents have received a great deal of attention as pest control agents.
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The majority of components of the essential oil from Cinnamomum cassia bark were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in this study. The trans-cinnamaldehyde (68.52%) was found to be the major compound. The antibacterial activity of essential oil against four food-related bacteria was evaluated. The results showed it was stronger effect against Staphylococcus aureus with both the largest ZOI of 27.4 mm and the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.5 mg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 5.0 mg/mL respectively. Postcontact effect (PCE) assay also confirmed the essential oil had a significant effect on the growth rate of surviving S. aureus and Escherichia coli. The mechanism against S. aureus and E. coli may be due to the increase in permeability of cell membranes, and the leakage of intracellular constituents based on cell permeability assay and electron microscopy observations.
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The incidence of dengue, Zika, chikungunya, yellow fever and malaria cases has increased significantly in the world. To avoid mosquito bites, one of the best strategies is the use of repellents. The interest in using plants as mosquito repellents has increased significantly. In this review, has been performed a bibliographic survey of the plants with repellent activity, evaluate the trends of natural repellent formulations in the scientific literature, those described in patents and commercially available products. Limonene, 1,8-cineole, geraniol, eugenol and citronellal are the active compounds that mostly appear in the essential oils of plants with repellent activity. The type of natural repellent formulation mostly widely marketed is the spray and lotion, respectively. In patents, classic formulation as emulsion was most frequently used, followed by lotions and sprays. Data collected from scientific articles and patents show that microparticles are the most widely used extended release systems nowadays for natural repellents. The citronella essential oil was the one mostly used among the classic commercially available formulations, as well as in the extended release systems described in the literature and patents. Future research must be conducted to the use of nanotechnology in the development of extended release systems containing essential oils with repellent activity produced from natural and biodegradable materials.
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Lygus hesperus is a key pest of many economically important crops across western North America. Central to many aspects of the lives of these insects is chemical signalling, with identified roles in host plant selection, aggregation and passive mate guarding. The development of novel monitoring and control approaches for this insect will rely on a sound understanding of how these cues are perceived and processed, and their impact on behavior. Towards this end, we investigated allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde and citronellal, compounds that are noxious repellents to other insects. We found that L. hesperus avoided areas containing the three compounds and that exposure induced increases in movement velocity and duration in both nymphs and adults. This suggests these compounds may work as repellents. To better understand the underlying physiology of this response, RNA interference by dsRNA injection was used to inhibit the expression of two chemosensory-associated proteins, the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and the transient receptor potential A (TRPA1) channel. While knockdown of Orco did not change the reaction of adult females to citronellal, TRPA1 silencing effectively eliminated the induced increase to movement, suggesting a chemoperceptory role in citronellal detection.
Article
Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the most medically important mosquito species, due to its ability to spread viruses of yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika in humans. In this study, the insecticidal activity of 17 plant essential oils was evaluated via topical application against two strains of Ae. aegypti mosquito, Orlando (insecticide-susceptible) and Puerto Rico (pyrethroid-resistant). Initial screens with the Orlando strain showed that cucumber seed oil (2017 sample) was the most toxic, followed by sandalwood and thyme oil. When the essential oils were mixed with permethrin, they failed to show any significant synergism of insecticidal activity. Sandalwood and thyme oils displayed consistently high mortality against the resistant Puerto Rico strain, with low resistance ratios of 2.1 and 1.4, respectively. In contrast, cucumber seed oil showed significantly less activity against Puerto Rico mosquitoes, with a resistance ratio of 45. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the 2017 sample of cucumber seed oil sample via flash column chromatography produced 11 fractions, and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the three active fractions were contaminated with 0.33, 0.36, and 0.33% of chlorpyrifos-methyl, an organophosphorus insecticide, whereas inactive fractions did not show any trace of it. These results suggested that the insecticidal activity of cucumber seed oil was probably due to the presence of the insecticide, later confirmed with a clean batch of cucumber seed oil obtained in 2018, which showed negligible insecticidal activity. These findings demonstrate clearly the need for essential oil analysis to confirm purity before any claims are made about pesticidal potency.
Article
Laboratory bioassays were performed to test the repellent properties of 5 plantextracted essential oils against the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr). Three concentrations (0.10%, 1%, and 10% in n-hexane) of peppermint, spearmint, wintergreen, cinnamon and clove oils, as well as a negative control [n-hexane] and positive control [Cinnamite™] were evaluated in choice tests to evaluate repellency against Argentine ant workers by counting the number of ants entering a preferred harborage that was treated and then aged for 2 h (fresh) or 7 d (one-wk-old). When deposits were fresh, all oils at all concentrations were repellent, with repellency defined as statistically fewer ants in harborages compared with harborages treated with only solvent (hexane). After the deposits were aged for 7 d, 4 of the 5 oils formulated at the 0.10% concentration were no longer repellent, whereas only spearmint had retained its repellent property. At 1% and 10% oil concentrations all 5 oils were repellent, whereas only 1% wintergreen was slightly less repellent.
Article
Some insects and arthropods frequently pose a serious risk to human health. They can cause painful bites and transmit some pathogens causing serious diseases such as malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, lymphatic filariasis, Lyme disease, river blindness, etc. Since the protective vaccines have not yet been available for most of these vector-borne diseases, vector controls are therefore the main strategies to prevent the diseases. Such plant-based products have been used in the control of insects of public health importance for centuries. However, the development and use of phytochemicals attracted considerable attention from researchers and industrial concerns in the last quarter of the century. Examples of major plant-based products used in pest control are pyrethrins, neem constituents, as well as many plant volatile essential oils for repelling hematophagous insects affording personal protection of humans from biting arthropods and noxious insects. The public has the perception that plant-based and other natural products are environmentally friendly and safer to use for vector control or apply to human skin as personal protectants than synthetic chemicals. Considerable advances have then been made in formulating phytochemicals to increase their efficacy, providing protection and acceptability in public health. In this chapter, we will dwell upon the research and development efforts leading to the development and use of plant essential oils for personal protection from anthropophilic insects and arthropods as well as the development and application of phytochemicals for the control of adult and preimaginal stages of disease vectors.
Article
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has caused millions of dengue virus infections per year in the world. Mosquito repellent is an effective way to prevent mosquito bites and the spread of mosquito-borne disease. In this study, we extracted essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia collected in Viet Nam and analyzed its chemical composition. We then evaluated the spatial repellent of the essential oil basing on WHO guidelines. The essential oil was hydro-distilled and extracted with chloroform to obtained an average yield of 2.55% (w/w). The main component of oil is trans-cinnamaldehyde with a content of 99.24%. The repellent index of essential oil at concentrations of 25%, 15%, 5%, 1% and DEET 10% after 90 minutes was 73.33%, 57.14%, 33.33%, 17.65% and 12.50%, respectively. In conclusion, the Cinnamomum cassia essential oil is an effective and promising repellent in preventing dengue mosquitoes.
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Mosquitoes are serious vectors of diseases threading millions of humans and animals worldwide, as malaria, filariasis, and important arboviruses like dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, West Nile virus, and Zika viruses. The swift spread of arboviruses, parasites, and bacteria in conjunction with the development of resistance in the pathogens, parasites, and vectors represents a great challenge in modern parasitology and tropical medicine. Unfortunately, synthetic insecticides had led to some serious health and risk concerns. There are no vaccines or other specific treatments for arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes. Accordingly, avoidance of mosquito bites remains the first line of defense. Insect repellents usually work by providing a vapor barrier deterring mosquitoes from coming into contact with the skin surface, and this chapter focused on assets and liabilities, mechanism of action, improving efficacy, safety, and future perspective of synthetic and natural repellents that could potentially prevent mosquito-host interactions, thereby playing an important role in reducing mosquito-borne diseases when used correctly and consistently.
Article
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Based on an ethnobotanical study on use for plant species against mosquito bites in the Kota Tinggi District, Johor State, Malaysia, 3 plants selected for study, Citrus aurantifolia (leaves), Citrus grandis (fruit peel), and Alpinia galanga (rhizome), were extracted using hydrodistillation to produce essential oils. These essential oils were then formulated as a lotion using a microencapsulation process and then tested for their repellent effect against Aedes aegypti. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) was also prepared in the same formulation and tested for repellency as controls. Four commercial plant-based repellent (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), BioZ Natural(®), and Mosiquard(®)) also were incorporated in the bioassay for comparison purposes. Bioassays revealed that at 20% concentration all repellent formulations demonstrated complete protection for 2 h and >90% for 4 h post-application. The A. galanga-based formulation provided the greatest level of protection (98.91%), which extended for 4 h post-application and was not significantly different from deet at similar concentration. When compared with commercial plant-based repellents (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), and BioZ Natural(®)), the 3 lotion formulations showed significantly better protection against Ae. aegypti bites, providing >90% protection for 4 h. In conclusion, our 3 plant-based lotion formulations provided acceptable levels of protection against host-seeking Ae. aegypti and should be developed.
Chapter
Full-text available
Mosquitoes are serious vectors of diseases threading millions of humans and animals worldwide, like malaria, filariasis, and important arboviruses like dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika viruses. The swift spread of arboviruses, parasites, and bacteria in conjunction with the development of resistance in the pathogens, parasites, and vectors represents a great challenge in modern parasitology and tropical medicine. Unfortunately, synthetic insecticides had lead to some serious health and risk concerns. There are no vaccines or other specific treatments for arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes. Accordingly, avoidance of mosquito bites remains the first line of defense. Insect repellents usually work by providing a vapor barrier deterring mosquitoes from coming into contact with the skin surface and this chapter focused on assets and liabilities, mechanism of action, improving efficacy, safety, and future perspective of synthetic and natural repellents that could potentially prevent mosquito-host interactions, thereby playing an important role in reducing mosquito-borne diseases when used correctly and consistently.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the repellent activities of essential oils from Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) against adults of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus . Comparison of essential oils from four different plant parts of C. japonica revealed that essential oil from its leaf exhibited the best repellent activity against mosquitoes. To understand the relationship between volatile organic compounds and repellent activity, the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was employed to analyze volatile organic compounds of leaf essential oil. The SPME fiber was coated with divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS). The major volatile organic compounds in the cage were 3-carene, alpha-terpinene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, and terpinolene at 0 min. Results demonstrated that (-)-terpinen-4-ol was the major volatile organic compound adsorbed by SPME fiber during repellent assays. Furthermore, the repellent activities of six compounds against adults of the mosquitoes were evaluated, and the results revealed that (-)-terpinen-4-ol exhibited the best repellent activity against A. aegypti and A. albopictus.
Article
Evidence has shown that mosquitoes may also develop resistance to biological agents as well as to insecticides. Nevertheless, the former remains an acute problem. The resistance can be divided into various types, according to their cross-resistance characteristics: DDT-resistance but susceptible to Dieldrin and HCH; Dieldrin-HCH resistance but susceptible to organophosphorus (OP); OP resistance; and carbamate resistance. Resistance tests of Anopheles reveal various results according to mosquito strains. Each insecticide is also only effective for different types of spraying operations. There is a need for an insecticide management in which it is important to avoid premature switches to alternative chemicals. A new insecticide should only be applied when and where evidence of resistance makes it necessary.-K.Indaratna (CDS)
Chapter
Gouteng, Ramulus Uncariae cum Uncis, is the dry branches bearing hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks., U. macrophylla Wall., U. hirsuta Havil., U. sinensis (Oliv.) Havil., or U. sessilifructus Roxb. (Rubiaceae), which are collected in the fall and winter. It is officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and is used as an antipyretic and anticonvulsant for the treatment of headache, vertigo, and epilepsy.
Article
The antignawing activity of cinnamomi cortex (the dried bark of Cinnamomum cassia) derived materials against laboratory-reared mice was evaluated using a wire-dipping method. The biologically active component of C. cassia bark was characterized by spectral analysis as cinnamaldehyde. The antignawing activity of the compound was compared with that of four commercially available compounds: cinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamic acid, eugenol, and salicylaldehyde. Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamyl alcohol exhibited potent repellent activity, whereas little or no activity was produced from salicylaldehyde. Moderate activity was observed in trans-cinnamic acid and eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamyl alcohol exhibited potent and moderate repellent activity at 5 and 2.5% solutions, respectively, of these compounds in ethanol. Little or no activity was observed in 1% solution. As a naturally occurring repellent, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamyl alcohol could be useful as a new preventive agent against various kinds of damage caused by rodents.
Article
Mosquito biting rates and the mean duration of protection (in hours) from bites (MDPB) of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles quadrimaculatus, using the repellent 'deet' (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) on a 50 cm2 area of healthy human skin, were observed in small (27 l), medium (approximately 65 l) and large (125 l) cages containing low, medium or high densities of mosquitoes: respectively, 640, 128 or 49 cm3 of cage volume per female. At the initial treatment rate of approximately 0.4 microliter/cm2 (1 ml of 25% deet in ethanol on 650 cm2 of skin), the MDPB for deet against Ae. aegypti ranged from 4.5 to 6.5 h and was significantly less (5.0 +/- 0.8 h) in large cages compared with medium (6.2 +/- 0.9 h) and small (6.2 +/- 0.8 h) cages, regardless of the density. Against An. quadrimaculatus the MDPB for deet 0.4 microliter/cm2 was 1.5-8.0 h, less in small (3.7 +/- 2.3 h) and large (2.2 +/- 1.1 h) cages at medium (3.7 +/- 2.3 h) and high (2.5 +/- 1.7 h) mosquito densities, and was longest in medium cages (6.2 +/- 2.6 h) at low mosquito densities (5.8 +/- 2.8 h). With equinoxial photoperiodicity (light on 06.00-18.00 hours) the biting rate was influenced by the time of observation (08.00, 12.00, 16.00 hours) for Ae. aegypti but not for An. quadrimaculatus. For both species, the biting rate was inversely proportional to mosquito density and the MDPB. The shortest MDPBs were obtained in large cages with high densities of mosquitoes and longest protection times occurred in medium sized cages with low mosquito densities.
Article
In wind tunnel experiments with Delia radicum the dosage increase efficiency of the repellent salicylaldehyde was studied under preference and non-preference conditions. In micro field experiments in the tunnel the influence of the repellent on oviposition was measured using different application methods. A concentration of about 43 ng salicylaldehyde/l of air reduced oviposition c. 80%.
Article
The repellent action of neem oil (extracted from the seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss) was evaluated on mosquitoes at two villages near Delhi, India. Kerosene lamps containing neem oil were burned in the living rooms, and mosquitoes resting walls or attracted to human bait were collected inside rooms from 1800 to 0600 h. Neem oil (0.01-1%) mixed in kerosene reduced biting of human volunteers and catches of mosquitoes resting on walls in the rooms. Protection was more pronounced against Anopheles than against Culex. A 1% neem oil-kerosene mixture may provide economical personal protection from mosquito bites.
Article
Bioefficacy of commercially used synthetic insecticides/repellents and potential of selected essential oils and terpenoids were assessed against mosquitoes. Essential oils and terpenoids, were vapourised in commercially manufactured mosquito repellent electronic assemblies and effects of such vapours were tested on 6-7 days old adult female Aedes aegypti. Commercially available 'mats' (coir rectangles) impregnated with allethrin were used as standards for comparison of Kt50 and Kt90 values. Fastest knock-down was seen in case of allethrin, followed by terpeneol (anhydrous) and (-) carvone. Maximum knock-down time was observed for beta citronellol. All compounds exhibited a repellent effect also, terpeneol (anhydrous) being the best, followed by (-) carvone and citronellal. In repellent tests, no mortality was caused by terpenoids, but allethrin caused > 80 per cent knock-down.
Article
Laboratory and field tests of the repellents diethyl methylbenzamide (deet), 1-(3-Cyclohexen-1-yl-carbonyl)-2-methylpiperidine (AI3-37220), and (2-hydroxymethylcyclohexyl) acetic acid lactone (CIC-4) were conducted against Anopheles dirus Peyton & Harrison, the principal malaria vector in Thailand. In the laboratory, An. dirus was more sensitive to CIC-4 than either AI3-37220 or deet. The duration of protection provided by each repellent in laboratory tests increased with higher concentrations of repellents and when exposed in cages containing fewer mosquitoes. A field study in Chanthaburi Province, southeastern Thailand, during November 1993 tested 25% (wt:wt) ethanol solutions of each repellent against An. dirus. In contrast to the laboratory experiments, protection provided by AI3-37220 was significantly better than either deet or CIC-4 and there was no significant difference between deet and CIC-4. Protection provided by deet and CIC-4 fell to below 95% 2 h after repellent application, whereas AI3-37220 provided > 95% protection for 4 h. The protection provided by all repellents fell to < or = 65% 7 h after repellent application.
Article
The repellent effect of Lantana camara flowers was evaluated against Aedes mosquitoes. Lantana flower extract in coconut oil provided 94.5% protection from Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti. The mean protection time was 1.9 h. One application of Lantana flower can provide more than 50% protection up to 4 h against the possible bites of Aedes mosquitoes. No adverse effects of the human volunteers were observed through 3 months after the application.
Article
The optimal management of arthropod bites is prevention, and many over-the-counter insect repellents are available. Since first marketed in 1956, deet has remained the most effective repellent against mosquitoes, biting fleas, gnats, and chiggers. Permethrin is applied to clothing rather than to skin, and it is a better repellent against ticks than deet. The risk of serious side effects with the use of deet is slight; nevertheless, the lowest effective concentration should be used. The current, popular repellent agents (for adults and children) and their active ingredients are discussed. In addition, the Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for the safe use of insect repellents are supplied.
Article
This review is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the all-purpose topical insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet), with emphasis on its pharmacokinetics, formulation, and safety aspects. N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide is effective against a variety of mosquitoes, flies, fleas, and ticks, and its protection efficacy depends on factors such as type of formulation, application pattern, physical activity of the user, environment, and species and feeding behavior of the insects. It offers an inexpensive and practical means of preventing the attack of biting insects and, more importantly, the transmission of vector-borne diseases. In both humans and animals, deet skin penetration and biodistribution are rapid and extensive, and metabolism and elimination appear to be complete. As evidenced by over 4 decades of human experience and rigorous animal testing, deet is generally safe for topical use if applied as recommended, although it has occasionally been related to side effects such as toxic encephalopathy, seizure, acute manic psychosis, cardiovascular toxicity, and dermatitis, along with a few cases of death due to extensive skin absorption. N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide may compete in metabolism with and alter the biodistribution properties of other compounds to which a subject is simultaneously exposed, resulting in an added risk of side effects. The appropriate use of formulation techniques and new formulation excipients not only offers a way to extend the duration of protection, but also reduces deet skin penetration. In addition to extended repellency, minimal skin penetration of deet should be an important consideration in the evaluation of a deet formulation during new product development.
Article
This paper is intended to provide the clinician with the detailed and scientific information needed to advise patients who seek safe and effective ways of preventing mosquito bites. For this review, clinical and analytical data were selected from peer-reviewed research studies and review articles, case reports, entomology texts and journals, and government and industry publications. Relevant information was identified through a search of the MEDLINE database, the World Wide Web, the Mosquito-L electronic mailing list, and the Extension Toxicology Network database; selected U.S. Army, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture publications were also reviewed. N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is the most effective, and best studied, insect repellent currently on the market. This substance has a remarkable safety profile after 40 years of worldwide use, but toxic reactions can occur (usually when the product is misused). When DEET-based repellents are applied in combination with permethrin-treated clothing, protection against bites of nearly 100% can be achieved. Plant-based repellents are generally less effective than DEET-based products. Ultrasonic devices, outdoor bug "zappers," and bat houses are not effective against mosquitoes. Highly sensitive persons may want to take oral antihistamines to minimize cutaneous reactions to mosquito bites.
Article
The worldwide threat of arthropod-transmitted diseases, with their associated morbidity and mortality, underscores the need for effective insect repellents. Multiple chemical, botanical, and "alternative" repellent products are marketed to consumers. We sought to determine which products available in the United States provide reliable and prolonged complete protection from mosquito bites. We conducted studies involving 15 volunteers to test the relative efficacy of seven botanical insect repellents; four products containing N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, now called N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET); a repellent containing IR3535 (ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate); three repellent-impregnated wristbands; and a moisturizer that is commonly claimed to have repellent effects. These products were tested in a controlled laboratory environment in which the species of the mosquitoes, their age, their degree of hunger, the humidity, the temperature, and the light-dark cycle were all kept constant. DEET-based products provided complete protection for the longest duration. Higher concentrations of DEET provided longer-lasting protection. A formulation containing 23.8 percent DEET had a mean complete-protection time of 301.5 minutes. A soybean-oil-based repellent protected against mosquito bites for an average of 94.6 minutes. The IR3535-based repellent protected for an average of 22.9 minutes. All other botanical repellents we tested provided protection for a mean duration of less than 20 minutes. Repellent-impregnated wristbands offered no protection. Currently available non-DEET repellents do not provide protection for durations similar to those of DEET-based repellents and cannot be relied on to provide prolonged protection in environments where mosquito-borne diseases are a substantial threat.
Article
The repellent activity of materials derived from the methanol extract of fruits from Foeniculum vulgareagainst hungry Aedes aegypti females was examined using skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid by spectroscopic analyses. Responses varied according to compound, dose, and exposure time. In a skin test with female mosquitoes, at a dose of 0.4 mg/cm(2), (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment, whereas deet provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at 0.2 mg/cm(2). (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid was a more potent repellent agent than (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid merit further study as potential mosquito repellent agents or as lead compounds.
Article
The repellent activity of methanol extracts from 23 aromatic medicinal plant species and a steam distillate against female blood-starved Aedes aegypti was examined in the laboratory by skin test and compared with that of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet). Responses varied according to plant species. At a dose of 0.1 mg/cm2, the repellency of extracts of Cinnamomum cassia bark (91%), Nardostachys chinensis rhizome (81%), Paeonia suffruticosa root bark (80%), and Cinnamomum camphora steam distillate (94%) was comparable to deet (82%). The duration of the effectiveness for extracts from C. cassia bark and N. chinensis rhizome was comparable to deet and lasted for approximately 1 h. Relatively short duration of repellency was observed in P. suffruticosa root bark extract and C. camphora steam distillate. The plants described merit further study as potential mosquito repellent agents.
Article
The repellency of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller)-containing products (5% aerosol and 8% cream) against mosquitoes was compared with those of citronella oil, geranium oil and deet, as well as three commercial repellents, Baby Keeper cream containing IR3535, MeiMei cream containing citronella and geranium oils, and Repellan S aerosol containing 19% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory study with female Aedes aegypti (L), fennel oil exhibited good repellency in a release-in-cage test and repellency in skin and patch tests of the oil was comparable with those of citronella and geranium oils. In paddy field tests with five human volunteers, 5% and 8% fennel oil-containing aerosol and cream produced 84% and 70% repellency, respectively, at 90 min after exposure, whereas Baby Keeper cream and MeiMei cream gave 71% and 57% repellency at 90 min after exposure, respectively, and Repellan S aerosol gave 89% repellency at 210 min. The species and ratio of mosquitoes collected were the genera Culex (44.1%), Anopheles (42.2%), Aedes (7.8%) and Armigeres (5.9%). Fennel oil-containing products could be useful for protection from humans and domestic animals from vector-borne diseases and nuisance caused by mosquitoes.
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