‘Global Nutrition Dynamics: The World is Shifting Rapidly Toward a Diet Linked with Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs)’

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 09/2006; 84(2):289-98.
Source: PubMed


Global energy imbalances and related obesity levels are rapidly increasing. The world is rapidly shifting from a dietary period in which the higher-income countries are dominated by patterns of degenerative diseases (whereas the lower- and middle-income countries are dominated by receding famine) to one in which the world is increasingly being dominated by degenerative diseases. This article documents the high levels of overweight and obesity found across higher- and lower-income countries and the global shift of this burden toward the poor and toward urban and rural populations. Dietary changes appear to be shifting universally toward a diet dominated by higher intakes of animal and partially hydrogenated fats and lower intakes of fiber. Activity patterns at work, at leisure, during travel, and in the home are equally shifting rapidly toward reduced energy expenditure. Large-scale decreases in food prices (eg, beef prices) have increased access to supermarkets, and the urbanization of both urban and rural areas is a key underlying factor. Limited documentation of the extent of the increased effects of the fast food and bottled soft drink industries on this nutrition shift is available, but some examples of the heterogeneity of the underlying changes are presented. The challenge to global health is clear.

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Available from: Barry M Popkin, Jan 27, 2015
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    • "This is a consequence not only of population aging, but also of the nutrition transition towards westernized diets and sedentary lifestyles. The nutrition transition is fueled by socioeconomic and technological development as well as globalization and accelerated urbanization [1]. Among the nutrition-related NCDs, diabetes is a major concern because its prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide and particularly so in developing countries. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective . To summarize key findings of economic evaluations of lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in high-risk subjects. Methods . We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed original studies published since January 2009 in English, French, and Spanish. Eligible studies were identified through relevant databases including PubMed, Medline, National Health Services Economic Evaluation, CINHAL, EconLit, Web of sciences, EMBASE, and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature. Studies targeting obesity were also included. Data were extracted using a standardized method. The BMJ checklist was used to assess study quality. The heterogeneity of lifestyle interventions precluded a meta-analysis. Results . Overall, 20 studies were retained, including six focusing on obesity control. Seven were conducted within trials and 13 using modeling techniques. T2D prevention by physical activity or diet or both proved cost-effective according to accepted thresholds, except for five inconclusive studies, three on diabetes prevention and two on obesity control. Most studies exhibited limitations in reporting results, primarily with regard to generalizability and justification of selected sensitivity parameters. Conclusion . This confirms that lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of diabetes are cost-effective. Such interventions should be further promoted as sound investment in the fight against diabetes.
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    • "People eat meat for reasons other than for nutritional needs, such as pleasure, personal identity and to express social and economic status (Fiddes, 1992; Sobal, 2005). The high status of meat, for example, is often seen in countries going through economic transition where eating meat is aspirational and considered a symbol of wealth (Popkin, 2006; Smil, 2002). It is often reported as a gender issue, with eating meat framed in masculinity (Sch€ osler, de Boer, Boersema, & Aiking, 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: Reducing meat consumption is central to many of the scientific debate on healthy, sustainable diets because of the high environmental impact of meat production. Missing from this debate, however, is the public perspectives about eating less meat and consideration of cultural and social values associated with meat. The aim of this study was to explore public awareness of the environmental impact of food and their willingness to reduce meat consumption. Twelve focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with adults from a range of socio-economic groups living in both rural and urban settings in Scotland. Public understanding of the link between food, environment and climate change was explored, with a focus on meat and attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. Data were transcribed and analysed thematically. Three dominant themes emerged: a lack of awareness of the association between meat consumption and climate change, perceptions of personal meat consumption playing a minimal role in the global context of climate change, and resistance to the idea of reducing personal meat consumption. People associated eating meat with pleasure, and described social, personal and cultural values around eating meat. Some people felt they did not need to eat less meat because they had already reduced their consumption or that they only ate small quantities. Scepticism of scientific evidence linking meat and climate change was common. Changing non-food related behaviours was viewed as more acceptable and a greater priority for climate change mitigation. The study highlights the role meat plays in the diet for many people, beyond nutritional needs. If sustainable dietary habits are to be achieved, cultural, social and personal values around eating meat must be integrated into the development of future dietary recommendations.
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    • "Healthy lifestyle and eating habits include: no smoking, consuming less than 50 g of alcohol per week, moderate to intense physical activity at least 3 times a week, eating vegetables every day, maintain a normal weight (BMI <25kg / m 2 )[25], all will affect how long we can avoid experiencing chronic disease. These behavioral factors (diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol abuse) are largely involved in the nutritional transition process[35]and are close to DASH. A subject who adopted healthy lifestyle and eating habits would have less difficulty to adhere to DASH involved in the study. "

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