Article

‘Global Nutrition Dynamics: The World is Shifting Rapidly Toward a Diet Linked with Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs)’

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 09/2006; 84(2):289-98.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Global energy imbalances and related obesity levels are rapidly increasing. The world is rapidly shifting from a dietary period in which the higher-income countries are dominated by patterns of degenerative diseases (whereas the lower- and middle-income countries are dominated by receding famine) to one in which the world is increasingly being dominated by degenerative diseases. This article documents the high levels of overweight and obesity found across higher- and lower-income countries and the global shift of this burden toward the poor and toward urban and rural populations. Dietary changes appear to be shifting universally toward a diet dominated by higher intakes of animal and partially hydrogenated fats and lower intakes of fiber. Activity patterns at work, at leisure, during travel, and in the home are equally shifting rapidly toward reduced energy expenditure. Large-scale decreases in food prices (eg, beef prices) have increased access to supermarkets, and the urbanization of both urban and rural areas is a key underlying factor. Limited documentation of the extent of the increased effects of the fast food and bottled soft drink industries on this nutrition shift is available, but some examples of the heterogeneity of the underlying changes are presented. The challenge to global health is clear.

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Available from: Barry M Popkin, Jan 27, 2015
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    • "This is a consequence not only of population aging, but also of the nutrition transition towards westernized diets and sedentary lifestyles. The nutrition transition is fueled by socioeconomic and technological development as well as globalization and accelerated urbanization [1]. Among the nutrition-related NCDs, diabetes is a major concern because its prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide and particularly so in developing countries. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective . To summarize key findings of economic evaluations of lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in high-risk subjects. Methods . We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed original studies published since January 2009 in English, French, and Spanish. Eligible studies were identified through relevant databases including PubMed, Medline, National Health Services Economic Evaluation, CINHAL, EconLit, Web of sciences, EMBASE, and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature. Studies targeting obesity were also included. Data were extracted using a standardized method. The BMJ checklist was used to assess study quality. The heterogeneity of lifestyle interventions precluded a meta-analysis. Results . Overall, 20 studies were retained, including six focusing on obesity control. Seven were conducted within trials and 13 using modeling techniques. T2D prevention by physical activity or diet or both proved cost-effective according to accepted thresholds, except for five inconclusive studies, three on diabetes prevention and two on obesity control. Most studies exhibited limitations in reporting results, primarily with regard to generalizability and justification of selected sensitivity parameters. Conclusion . This confirms that lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of diabetes are cost-effective. Such interventions should be further promoted as sound investment in the fight against diabetes.
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    • "People eat meat for reasons other than for nutritional needs, such as pleasure, personal identity and to express social and economic status (Fiddes, 1992; Sobal, 2005). The high status of meat, for example, is often seen in countries going through economic transition where eating meat is aspirational and considered a symbol of wealth (Popkin, 2006; Smil, 2002). It is often reported as a gender issue, with eating meat framed in masculinity (Sch€ osler, de Boer, Boersema, & Aiking, 2015). "
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    • "Healthy lifestyle and eating habits include: no smoking, consuming less than 50 g of alcohol per week, moderate to intense physical activity at least 3 times a week, eating vegetables every day, maintain a normal weight (BMI <25kg / m 2 )[25], all will affect how long we can avoid experiencing chronic disease. These behavioral factors (diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol abuse) are largely involved in the nutritional transition process[35]and are close to DASH. A subject who adopted healthy lifestyle and eating habits would have less difficulty to adhere to DASH involved in the study. "

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