Article

Interaction of Fine Particles and Nanoparticles with Red Blood Cells Visualized with Advanced Microscopic Techniques †

Institute of Anatomy, Universität Bern, Berna, Bern, Switzerland
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 07/2006; 40(14):4353-9. DOI: 10.1021/es0522635
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

So far, little is known about the interaction of nanoparticles with lung cells, the entering of nanoparticles, and their transport through the blood stream to other organs. The entering and localization of different nanoparticles consisting of differing materials and of different charges were studied in human red blood cells. As these cells do not have any phagocytic receptors on their surface, and no actinmyosin system, we chose them as a model for nonphagocytic cells to study how nanoparticles penetrate cell membranes. We combined different microscopic techniques to visualize fine and nanoparticles in red blood cells: (I) fluorescent particles were analyzed by laser scanning microscopy combined with digital image restoration, (II) gold particles were analyzed by conventional transmission electron microscopy and energy filtering transmission electron microscopy, and (III) titanium dioxide particles were analyzed by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy. By using these differing microscopic techniques we were able to visualize and detect particles < or = 0.2 microm and nanoparticles in red blood cells. We found that the surface charge and the material of the particles did not influence their entering. These results suggest that particles may penetrate the red blood cell membrane by a still unknown mechanism different from phagocytosis and endocytosis.

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    • "To understand the transmigration of NPs into cells could enable the control over cellular uptake, and to predict the possible toxic effects . Some reports have shown that NPs are taken up by cells via non-endocytic pathways [12], and model membranes have indicated possible mechanisms for non-endocytic uptake [13]. "

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    • "The predicted risks of NP in aquatic environments can be better assessed by having an understanding of their mobility, bioavalability and toxicity to organisms (Nowack and Bucheli, 2007). The nano-size particles can cross biological cell membranes through diffusion, endocytosis and phagocytosis depending upon the cell type (Limbach et al., 2005; Lynch et al., 2006; Rothen-Rutishauser et al., 2006; Smart et al., 2006). NP can be stored inside vesicles , mitochondria and various other locations within the cell. "
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    • "In 2005, Geiser et al. [75] analyzed the uptake of PS-NPs by RBCs and found that <200-nm but not 1-μm NPs enter RBCs. Rothen-Rutishauser and coworkers [76] refined the study and exposed RBCs to NPs of different material, size and surface charge (Table 3), and visualized them inside RBCs using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with digital data restoration, conventional TEM, and energy filtering TEM. A quantitative analysis revealed that only the size determined the uptake efficiency. "
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    ABSTRACT: With the rapid advancement of nanoscience and nanotechnology, detailed knowledge of interactions between engineered nanomaterials and cells, tissues and organisms has become increasingly important, especially in regard to possible hazards to human health. This review intends to give an overview of current research on nano-bio interactions, with a focus on the effects of NP size on their interactions with live cells. We summarize common techniques to characterize NP size, highlight recent work on the impact of NP size on active and passive cellular internalization and intracellular localization. Cytotoxic effects are also discussed.
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